Österreichische Post is the company responsible for postal service in Austria. This company was established in 1999 after its split-off from the mail corporate division of the former telecommunications Austrian concern Post und Telekom Austria, it is listed on the Vienna Stock Exchange. Austrian post offices in Crete Austrian post offices in Liechtenstein Austrian post offices in the Ottoman Empire List of people on stamps of Austria Postage stamps and postal history of Austria Postal codes in Austria Official website Vienna Stock Exchange: Market Data Österreichische Post AG
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states; the Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was created as the British Commonwealth through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931; the current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, established the member states as "free and equal". The human symbol of this free association is the Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II, the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting appointed Charles, Prince of Wales to be her designated successor, although the position is not technically hereditary.
The Queen is the head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by English language, history and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law; these values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth cover more than 29,958,050 km2, equivalent to 20% of the world's land area, span all six inhabited continents. Queen Elizabeth II, in her address to Canada on Dominion Day in 1959, pointed out that the confederation of Canada on 1 July 1867 had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire", she declared: "So, it marks the beginning of that free association of independent states, now known as the Commonwealth of Nations." As long ago as 1884 Lord Rosebery, while visiting Australia, had described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".
Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain; the term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, when the term British Commonwealth of Nations was substituted for British Empire in the wording of the oath taken by members of parliament of the Irish Free State. In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".
The term "Commonwealth" was adopted to describe the community. These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949. Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1947 respectively. Although the Union of South Africa was not among the Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act, 1934, the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of 1934—were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state. After the Second World War ended, the British Empire was dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, members of the Commonwealth.
There remain the 14 self-governing British overseas territories which retain some political association with the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature. Burma and Aden are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt, Transjordan, Sudan, British Somaliland, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates; the postwar Commonwealth was given a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day 1953 broadcast, in which she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an new conception – built on the highest qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship and the desire for freedom and peace". Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four-minute mile in 1954
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Spain; the landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of, a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people Gibraltarians. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne; the territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, only 8 miles wide at this naval choke point, it remains strategically important. Today Gibraltar's economy is based on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling; the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was rejected.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave. Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name. There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had stopped living in caves. During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance; the Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci, as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin.
Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period, they settled at the head of the bay in. The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count of the territory; the area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD. Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar. Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
Mons Calpe was renamed the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar. In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built, it received the name of Medinat al-Fath. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today. From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia. After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby; as the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000; the first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more t
Posti Group Corporation is the main Finnish postal service delivering mail and parcels in Finland. The State of Finland is the sole shareholder of the company. Posti Ltd has a universal service obligation that entails weekday deliveries of letters in all of Finland’s municipalities. Posti’s head office is located in Pohjois-Pasila in Helsinki. Posti’s history spans nearly 400 years; the Finnish company is divided into four business groups: Postal Services and Logistics Services, Itella Russia and OpusCapita. Posti’s net sales in 2016 amounted to EUR 1,647 million. Posti has 20,300 employees. Of the net sales 96% comes from businesses and organizations; the company’s key customer sectors are commerce and media. As of 2015 the group is headed by Heikki Malinen, Arto Markku Pohjola is Chairman of the Board of Directors; the company has operations in eleven countries: Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania, Germany and United States. Åland Post is the independent postal operator for the Åland Islands. Postal Services handles the delivery of letters, direct mail, newspapers and magazines in Finland through its subsidiary Posti Oy.
Delivery personnel offer check-in and assistance services for the elderly, in 2016 ran a pilot program offering lawn mowing. Home services help public and private home care providers be more efficient and flexible in producing their services Parcel and Logistics Services offers comprehensive supply chain solutions, parcel and e-commerce services, transport services, international road, air and rail freight services, warehousing or supplementary services and customs clearance services; the company provides global services through its partners. Itella Russia provides logistics services in Russia. OpusCapita provides financial process automation. OpusCapita has operations in eight European countries and a network of international partners covering the globe. On 6 September 1638, Governor-General Per Brahe the Younger established postal services in Finland, part of the Kingdom of Sweden at the time. In 1811, a central postal administration was established within the postal services of autonomous Finland.
In 1845, postal service for parcels began. In 1856, stamps were introduced. In 1858, home delivery of letters and newspapers began. Posti was one of the first institutions to hire women as employees. In 1927, the Telegraph was merged with the Finnish Post. In 1981, Post and Telegraph was renamed Telecommunications. In 1990, Posti-Tele became a state-owned enterprise no longer dependent on the state budget. In 1994, Post and Telecommunications became Suomen PT Oy, with the subsidiaries Finland Post Corporation, providing postal services, Telecom Finland Oy, engaged in telecommunications. In 1998, Suomen PT Group was demerged. Finland Post Corporation and Sonera Oy became state-owned enterprises. In 2001, Finland Post became a public company. Since 1 June 2007, the company name has been Itella Corporation; the group's more diversified and internationalised business operations were the reason for the change of name. In 2008 Itella acquired in Russia the logistics company NLC and Connexions company, specialising in direct marketing services.
In Poland Itella acquired BusinessPoint S. A. specialising in printing and document management. In 2011, Finnish postal services have been transferred to Itella Posti Oy. In 2011, Itella Information acquired OpusCapita, Itella Information acquired OpusCapita expanding services to cash flow automation. Itella Bank started as a deposit bank in the beginning of 2012. In 2013, Itella divested the entire share capital of Itella Bank Ltd to Savings Banks. In connection with the divestment, the name of the bank will change to Bank of Savings Banks Ltd. In 2013, Itella Information was renamed OpusCapita, it operates as a subgroup of Itella Group. On 1 January 2015, Itella Oyj changed its name to Posti Group Oyj. Subsidiaries Itella Posti Oy and Itella Logistics Oy were renamed to Posti Oy. In 2015, Posti sold its Scandinavian road freight business operations to the Danish Nordic Transport Group. Posti launched the first municipal cooperation within Posti’s new home services with the South Karelia Social and Health Care District Eksote.
Posti acquired Kuljetus Kovalainen and Veine, a company specializing in temperature-regulated logistics. Domestic postal services were centralized in Posti Oy. Posti has more than 1,400 service points: post offices, of which most are in conjunction with companies run by local entrepreneurs, Parcel Points, pick-up outlets. There are SmartPOST automatic parcel terminals in Estonia; as of February 2011, Finland will be the first country in the world to receive all letters, publications and direct advertisements through carbon-neutral delivery by Posti. This does not involve any extra fees to the customers. Posti Group is responsible for providing postal services. In its current form, the Post Act entered into force in 2011. By virtue of this act, postal services must be provided on a permanent basis and for reasonable prices to all users, throughout the country. In each municipality there must be at least one outlet providing postal services; the responsibility for the general steering and development of postal services belongs to the Ministry of Transport and Communications.
The Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority, acting under this ministry, participates in the deve
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit. Lending activities can be performed either indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world. In the history of banking, a number of banking dynasties – notably, the Medicis, the Fuggers, the Welsers, the Berenbergs, the Rothschilds – have played a central role over many centuries.
The oldest existing retail bank is Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, while the oldest existing merchant bank is Berenberg Bank. The concept of banking may have begun in ancient Assyria and Babylonia, with merchants offering loans of grain as collateral within a barter system. Lenders in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire added two important innovations: they accepted deposits and changed money. Archaeology from this period in ancient China and India shows evidence of money lending. More modern banking can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy, to the rich cities in the centre and north like Florence, Siena and Genoa; the Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th-century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. One of the most famous Italian banks was the Medici Bank, set up by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici in 1397; the earliest known state deposit bank, Banco di San Giorgio, was founded in 1407 at Italy. Modern banking practices, including fractional reserve banking and the issue of banknotes, emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Merchants started to store their gold with the goldsmiths of London, who possessed private vaults, charged a fee for that service. In exchange for each deposit of precious metal, the goldsmiths issued receipts certifying the quantity and purity of the metal they held as a bailee; the goldsmiths began to lend the money out on behalf of the depositor, which led to the development of modern banking practices. The goldsmith paid interest on these deposits. Since the promissory notes were payable on demand, the advances to the goldsmith's customers were repayable over a longer time period, this was an early form of fractional reserve banking; the promissory notes developed into an assignable instrument which could circulate as a safe and convenient form of money backed by the goldsmith's promise to pay, allowing goldsmiths to advance loans with little risk of default. Thus, the goldsmiths of London became the forerunners of banking by creating new money based on credit; the Bank of England was the first to begin the permanent issue of banknotes, in 1695.
The Royal Bank of Scotland established the first overdraft facility in 1728. By the beginning of the 19th century a bankers' clearing house was established in London to allow multiple banks to clear transactions; the Rothschilds pioneered international finance on a large scale, financing the purchase of the Suez canal for the British government. The word bank was taken Middle English from Middle French banque, from Old Italian banco, meaning "table", from Old High German banc, bank "bench, counter". Benches were used as makeshift desks or exchange counters during the Renaissance by Jewish Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions atop desks covered by green tablecloths; the definition of a bank varies from country to country. See the relevant country pages under for more information. Under English common law, a banker is defined as a person who carries on the business of banking by conducting current accounts for his customers, paying cheques drawn on him/her and collecting cheques for his/her customers.
In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instruments, including cheques, this Act contains a statutory definition of the term banker: banker includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the business of banking'. Although this definition seems circular, it is functional, because it ensures that the legal basis for bank transactions such as cheques does not depend on how the bank is structured or regulated; the business of banking is in many English common law countries not defined by statute but by common law, the definition above. In other English common law jurisdictions there are statutory definitions of the business of banking or banking business; when looking at these definitions it is important to keep in mind that they are defining the business of banking for the purposes of the legislation, not in general. In particular, most of the definitions are from legislation that has the purpose of regulating and supervising banks rather than regulating the actual business of banking.
However, in many cases the statutory definition mirrors the common law one. Examples of statutory definitions: "banking business" means the business of receiving money on current or deposit account and collecting cheques drawn by or paid in by customers, the making
Irish Town, Gibraltar
Irish Town is a pedestrianised street in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is one of Main Street's sub-districts running parallel to it, from Cooperage Lane in the north to John Mackintosh Square in the south. Tito Benady calls Irish Town the second most important street in Gibraltar's city centre after Main Street, it was named Calle de Santa Ana after a hermitage which carried this name at the corner with Market Lane. The Mercedarian Fathers established themselves in Gibraltar in 1581 and built their monastery around the little chapel, the street retained its name; the monastery become known as the White Cloisters and formed part of an order established in Barcelona in 1380 for ransoming Christian captives in Muslim hands. The site of the old monastery is now occupied by Cloister Building which houses the offices of Blands and MH Bland; the building may have been used as barracks for some time, but was handed over to the Royal Navy by Lord Portmore in 1720 becoming the naval storehouse with apartments for the victualling clerks.
The original building however, was destroyed during the Great Siege of Gibraltar. Four of the old columns of the old monastery's cloister were removed and now flank the entrance to Trafalgar House at Trafalgar Road; the Navy owned stores in Irish Town but these were sold in order to finance the new Royal Navy Victualling Yard at Rosia Bay at the suggestion of John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent in the 1790s against the wishes of Governor O'Hara. The origin of the Irish Town name which dates back to the early 19th century when Gibraltar was split into differing quarters and it is a common fact that 95% of Irish town is in fact Welsh. But, not internationally known, it was once thought that the name was attributed to Irish merchants residing in Gibraltar and having their properties and warehouses on this street, but the property owner lists of 1749 and 1777 don't show any Irish names, all of which seem to have lived in Main Street. It is more however, that it acquired its name from an Irish regiment, barracked at this street in the White Cloisters.
An 18th century visitor to Gibraltar called Irish Town "a street of ill repute" and it is possible that the ladies who plied their trade were from that Irish regiment. The Central Police Station of the Royal Gibraltar Police, a red-brick Gothic building is located at the south end of Irish Town. Designed by civil engineer, Walter Eliot, it was inaugurated on 7 July 1864 by the Governor of Gibraltar, General Sir William John Codrington. Several businesses are located here such as Turner & Co
Croatian Post Inc. founded in 1999, is a business corporation in ownership of the Republic of Croatia. Croatian Post is a national postal operator of the Republic of Croatia. Post offices of the Croatian Post form one of the widest services and retail networks in the country. Apart from postal services Croatian Post offers payment services, retail services and digital TV service in the whole territory of Croatia. Croatian Post is one of the founders and a full member of the Association of European Public Postal Operators, while Croatia is a member of the Universal Postal Union. Croatian Post issues postage stamps of Croatia. Croatian Post was founded as an independent joint stock company on 1 January 1999 after splitting of the public company HPT-Hrvatska pošta i telekomunikacije into two joint stock companies: one for the business area of postal services and the other for the business area of telecommunications. Today's business activities of Croatian Post are the continuation of the tradition and continuity of postal business in Croatia.
Croatian Post is organised in four divisions. Postal Service Division is in charge of transport and delivery of mail. Network Division manages the network of post offices. Express Services Division is in charge of express delivery– hpekspres. Support Services Division is in charge of - among other activities - for financial matters and real property. Croatian Post is a national postal operator and the services it offers include acceptance, directing and delivery of mail in national and international letter mail service. Universal postal services are provided across the whole of Croatia to all users under same conditions. Apart from universal services Croatian Post provides many other postal services: acceptance, directing and delivery of direct mail, printed matter, prepaid reply service, express mail services and value-added services: hpekspres, business parcel and e-parcel. EPost is a service of Croatian Post which enables users to accomplish a series of services through electronic media. Through ePost service it is possible to receive and send letters and documents in electronic form, pay bills with credit and debit cards regardless of the fact whether they were received through the service or sent to home address and store documents to safe archives accessible always and from anywhere.
After registration for ePost service which uses current safety standards based on certificates, users can safely and manage their documents. Hpekspres service is a fast delivery service of Croatian Post covering the whole territory of Croatia with delivery deadlines as a rule on the same or next working day. In post offices Croatian Post offers various payment services e.g. cash money transfer services, account payments, cash withdrawal and money exchange. In post offices savings accounts and insurance policies can be contracted. In post offices there is a large assortment of retail goods available, such as e.g. greetings cards and postcards, technical goods. Toys and there is a possibility of catalogue ordering. Evotv is a digital TV service offered by Croatian Post, it uses DVB-T2 technology, which enables watching TV program by means of a classic antenna, without the necessity of telephone or Internet connection. Evotv programs can be viewed with the support of the evotv digital receiver, are organised in thematic units - the so-called bouquets, which are at customer's choice.
Since 1991 Croatian Post has been issuing postage stamps of Croatia. The first definitive postage stamp Airmail Zagreb-Dubrovnik was issued on 9 September 1991 and the first commemorative postage stamp on 10 December 1991 on the occasion of proclamation of independence of Croatia; until today Croatian Post has issued more than 900 postage stamps with a variety of themes and motifs. Hakom - Croatian Post and Electronic Communications Agency - Annual business report for 2012 User pages of Croatian Post Corporate pages of Croatian post List of postal codes in Croatia General Post Office, Zagreb Official website