The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, the specific place of the performance is named by the word theatre as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre, there are connections between theatre and the art forms of ballet and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated, participation in the city-states many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture, Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play, the origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.
The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10, the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics, the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides, the origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institution alised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysias competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE, official records begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced.
More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics, Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the surviving plays of Aristophanes. New Comedy is known primarily from the papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyrs themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal companions, often engaging in drunken revelry
A cup-bearer was an officer of high rank in royal courts whose duty it was to serve the drinks at the royal table. On account of the constant fear of plots and intrigues, a person must be regarded as thoroughly trustworthy to hold the position and he must guard against poison in the kings cup and was sometimes required to swallow some of the wine before serving it. His confidential relations with the king gave him a position of great influence. The position of cup-bearer is greatly valued and given only to a few throughout history. Qualifications for the job were not held lightly but of high esteem valued for their beauty and even more for their modesty, industriousness, a much older role was the appointment of Sargon of Akkad as cup-bearer in the 23rd century BC. Cup-bearers are mentioned several times in the Bible and this officer is first mentioned in Genesis 40,1, where the Hebrew word elsewhere translated cup-bearer is rendered butler. The phrase chief of the accords with the fact that there were often a number of such officials under one as chief.
In the Post-exilic period, Nehemiah rose to the high ranking position of cup-bearer to King Artaxerxes. The position placed his life on the every day yet gave Nehemiah authority and high pay. His financial ability would indicate that the office was a lucrative one. Cup-bearers are mentioned further in 1 Kings 10,5,2 Chronicles 9,4, the title Rabshakeh, once thought to mean chief of the cupbearers, is now given a different derivation and explained as chief of the officers, or princes. I.3,8,9, Ant, XVI, viii,1, in Greek mythology, Hêbê the Goddess of youth was the original cup-bearer to the Greek Gods of Mount Olympus serving them nectar and ambrosia. Hêbê is the daughter of Zeus and Hera and is doing her cup-bearer duties in Homers Iliad, The gods were seated near to Zeus in council. Graciously Hebe served them nectar, as with cups of gold they toasted one another, hêbê’s role of cup bearer ended when she married war hero Heracles who joined Hêbê amongst the Gods and Goddesses and started a family.
Hêbê was replaced by Ganymede, the Roman Gods are closely related to Greek Mythology with the Goddess of Youth Juventa being the Roman counterpart to Hêbê. One of the officers who was in the service of the Visigothic kings was called Comes Scanciorum or Count of the Cup-bearers. The count headed the Scancia which in English would be called cellars or buttery and in French échansonnerie, the count would have poured the kings wine or drink personally while the other cup-bearers served other distinguished guests at the royal table. The King of Bohemia ranked as Arch-Cupbearer of the Holy Roman Empire and his duties were normally performed only during coronations
A chamberlain is an officer in charge of managing a household. In many countries there are ceremonial posts associated with the household of the sovereign, many institutions and governments – monasteries and cities – had the post of chamberlain, who usually had charge of finances. The Finance Director of the City of London is still called the Chamberlain, while New York City had such a chamberlain, the chamberlains are not employed by the court, but serve during ceremonial occasions such as state visits and official dinners. In Thailand the head of the Bureau of the Royal Household is titled the Lord Chamberlain and he has several Grand Chamberlains as his deputy, usually in charge of a specific portfolio. Lord Great Chamberlain Lord Chamberlain Chamberlain of the City of London Lord Chamberlain of Scotland Chamberlain of the City of New York Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church Papal Gentlemen
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Bureau of the Royal Household
The Bureau of the Royal Household is an agency of the Monarchy of Thailand and King Bhumibol Adulyadej. In addition to a range of administrative and ceremonial responsibilities, the bureau serves as a conduit for the Kings benevolent philanthropy. The history of the kings household pre-dates modern Thailand, links with the past are preserved. For example, the importance of memory led to the appointment in the 1980s of a nonagenarian Khun Sawet Thunapradit as Special Consultant to the Royal Household. In 2009, the Lord Chamberlain of the Bureau of the Royal Household was Keokhwan Vajarodaya, for example, during a period in which the king was quite ill, the bureaus official announcements provided information about the monarchs condition. The BRH, through its Royal Ceremonies Division, is responsible for organizing events related to the Royal Family of Thailand. In 1932, assets of the family and household were seized. Much of it was restored after 1947 with the assistance of M. R. Thawiwong Thawalayasak, the monarchys household and finances are managed by the Bureau of the Royal Household and the Crown Property Bureau, respectively.
The King Never Smiles, a Biography of Thailands Bhumibol Adulyadej, ISBN9780300106824, OCLC466622191 Scigliano, Eric. Love and Circuses, the Age-old Relationship Between Elephants, ISBN9780618015832, OCLC49225866 Library of Congress Country Studies, Thailand CIA World Factbook, Thailand Bureau of the Royal Household
Heredity is the genetic information passing for traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. This is the process by which a cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve through the selection of specific phenotype traits. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics, in humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic, an individual might inherit the brown-eye trait from one of the parents. Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the set of genes within an organisms genome is called its genotype. The complete set of traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits arise from the interaction of its genotype with the environment, as a result, many aspects of an organisms phenotype are not inherited.
For example, suntanned skin comes from the interaction between a persons phenotype and sunlight, suntans are not passed on to peoples children, heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a polymer that incorporates four types of bases. The sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specifies the genetic information, before a cell divides through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that each of the resulting two cells will inherit the DNA sequence. A portion of a DNA molecule that specifies a single unit is called a gene. Within cells, the strands of DNA form condensed structures called chromosomes. Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, the specific location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is known as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles. DNA sequences can change through mutations, producing new alleles, if a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the organism.
However, while this simple correspondence between an allele and a works in some cases, most traits are more complex and are controlled by multiple interacting genes within. Recent findings have confirmed important examples of changes that cannot be explained by direct agency of the DNA molecule. These phenomena are classed as epigenetic inheritance systems that are causally or independently evolving over genes, Heritability may occur at even larger scales
The word may refer to the lane, alley or back street onto which such stables open. It is sometimes applied to rows or groups of garages or, more broadly, today most mews stables have been converted into dwellings. The word derives from the French muer, to moult, reflecting its function to confine hawks while they moulted. From 1377 onwards the kings falconry birds were kept in the Kings Mews at Charing Cross, the name stuck when it became the royal stables starting in 1537 during the reign of King Henry VIII. Following its demolition in the early 19th century Trafalgar Square was built on the site, the Royal Mews relocated to the grounds of Buckingham Palace, where it remains today. The stables of St Jamess Palace, occupying the site where Lancaster House was built, were occasionally referred to as the Royal Mews. A mews in the sense of a building where birds used for falconry are kept, the words usage as a residential term originated in London, spreading to parts of Canada and the United States.
The term mews is not used for large individual non-royal British stable blocks, for example, the grand stable block at Chatsworth House is referred to as the stables, not the mews. Instead the word was applied to streets and the stables in them in cities. In the 18th and 19th centuries London housing for wealthy people generally consisted of streets of terraced houses with stables at the back. The mews had horse stalls and a house on the ground floor. Generally this was mirrored by another row of stables on the side of the service street. Sometimes there were such as small courtyards. Most mews are named after one of the streets which they back onto. Most but not all have the word mews in their name and this arrangement was different from most of Continental Europe, where the stables in wealthy urban residences were usually off a front or central courtyard. The advantage of the British system was that it hid the sounds, Mews lost their equestrian function in the early 20th century when motor cars were introduced.
At the same time, after World War I and especially after World War II, one place where a mews may still be found put to equestrian use is Bathurst Mews in Westminster, near Hyde Park, where several private horses are kept. Nearby, the stables have been put to commercial use, Hyde Park Stables
Master of ceremonies
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated M. C. called compère and announcer, is the official host of a ceremony, a staged event or similar performance. The master of ceremonies sometimes refers to the officer during an official state function. Today, the term often connotes a master of ceremonies who presents performers, speaks to the audience, entertains people, in addition, the term exists in various chivalric orders and fraternal orders. The term originated in the Catholic Church, the Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy. He may be an involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum, the office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is very old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the Ordines Romani, names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals, rites and it is reasonable to assume that the ceremonials themselves pre-date Gelasius. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period is scarce or lost, the ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are known to have influenced the papal court. At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organizes and rehearses the proceedings and he may have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini, who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini. Masters of Ceremonies at weddings and private events ensure the coordination of their event, became an alternative title for a rapper and for their role within hip hop music and culture. The term is used as a term of distinction, referring to an artist with good performance skills.
An MC focuses on skills, lyrical ability, and subject matter, in any comedy show, the compère is the host of the evenings events, but the precise role and responsibilities will vary depending on the country and style of event. The compère will normally do longer bits at the start of the show and after any interval and they may be required to make announcements, such as birthdays and bar promotions. In some circles the title Master of Ceremonies is known as Minister of Ceremonies, in the 1940 Disney film, Deems Taylor is the films Master of Ceremonies. Media related to Master of ceremonies at Wikimedia Commons
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. Many households have an oven, a dishwasher and other electric appliances. The main function of a kitchen is serving as a location for storing and preparing food, commercial kitchens are found in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and workplace facilities, army barracks, and similar establishments. These kitchens are generally larger and equipped with bigger and more heavy-duty equipment than a residential kitchen, for example, a large restaurant may have a huge walk-in refrigerator and a large commercial dishwasher machine. Commercial kitchens are generally subject to public health laws and they are inspected periodically by public-health officials, and forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the range or stove. Food was cooked over an open fire, technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries changed the architecture of the kitchen.
Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from a source such as wells. The houses in Ancient Greece were commonly of the atrium-type, the rooms were arranged around a courtyard for women. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen, homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room, usually next to a bathroom, both rooms being accessible from the court. In such houses, there was often a small storage room in the back of the kitchen used for storing food. In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities often had no kitchen of their own, some had small mobile bronze stoves, on which a fire could be lit for cooking. Wealthy Romans had relatively well-equipped kitchens, the fireplace was typically on the floor, placed at a wall—sometimes raised a little bit—such that one had to kneel to cook. Early medieval European longhouses had a fire under the highest point of the building. The kitchen area was between the entrance and the fireplace, in wealthy homes there was typically more than one kitchen.
In some homes there were upwards of three kitchens, the kitchens were divided based on the types of food prepared in them. In place of a chimney, these buildings had a hole in the roof through which some of the smoke could escape. Besides cooking, the fire served as a source of heat
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or royals and it is customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is referred to as the House of. As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all, in some cases, royal family membership may extend to great grandchildren and more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, there is often a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. In certain instances, such as in Canada, the family is defined by who holds the styles Majesty. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts and this is not always observed, some monarchies have operated by the principle of jure uxoris.
In addition, certain relatives of the monarch possess special privileges and are subject to certain statutes, the precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do the titles and royal, the composition of the royal family may be regulated by statute enacted by the legislature, the sovereigns prerogative and common law tradition, or a private house law. Public statutes, constitutional provisions, or conventions may regulate the marriages, the members of a royal family may or may not have a surname or dynastic name. Some countries have abolished royalty altogether, as in post-revolutionary France, whilst mediatization occurred in other countries such as France and Russia, only the certain houses within the former Holy Roman Empire are collectively called the Mediatized Houses
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC. This roughly coincides with the date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome. In India, ancient history includes the period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China. Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world and the study of source texts, primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on. Archaeology is the excavation and study of artefacts in an effort to interpret, archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived.
The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, the city of Pompeii, an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans. The Terracotta Army, the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China, the discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans. The discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann, most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquitys own historians. Although it is important to take account the bias of each ancient author. Some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Arrian, Polybius, Sima Qian, Livy, Suetonius, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history, the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, the Roman Empire was one of the ancient worlds most literate cultures, but many works by its most widely read historians are lost. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived, prehistory is the period before written history. The early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago, the controlled use of fire occurred 800,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa, 60–70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and Southeast Asia and reached Australia