A saffron bun, Cornish tea treat bun or revel bun, Swedish lussebulle or lussekatt, Norwegian lussekatt, is a rich, spiced yeast-leavened sweet bun, flavoured with saffron and cinnamon or nutmeg and contains currants similar to a teacake. The main ingredients are plain flour, yeast, caster sugar and sultanas. Larger versions baked in a loaf tin are known as saffron cake. In parts of Britain, the buns were traditionally baked on sycamore leaves and dusted with powdered sugar; the "revel bun" from Cornwall is baked for special occasions, such as anniversary feasts, or the dedication of a church. In the West of Cornwall large saffron buns are known as "tea treat buns" and are associated with Methodist Sunday school outings or activities. In Sweden and Norway no cinnamon or nutmeg is used in the bun, raisins are used instead of currants; the buns are baked into many traditional shapes. They are traditionally eaten during Advent, on Saint Lucy's Day, December 13. In addition to Sweden, they are prepared and eaten in much the same way in Finland, above all in Swedish-speaking areas and by Swedish-speaking Finns, as well as in Norway and more in Denmark.
Most commercially available saffron buns and cakes today contain food dyes that enhance the natural yellow provided by saffron. The high cost of saffron - the world's most expensive spice by weight - makes the inclusion of sufficient saffron to produce a rich colour an uneconomical option; the addition of food colouring in Cornish saffron buns was common by the end of the First World War when the scarcity of saffron tempted bakers to find other ways to colour their products. List of British breads List of Alan. Oxford Companion to Food, "Bun". P. 114, ISBN 0-19-211579-0 Cornish Saffron Bun recipe Gretchencooks.com Globalgourmet.com
Hurling or Hurling the Silver Ball, is an outdoor team game played only in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is played with a small silver ball. Hurling is not to be confused with the Irish game known as hurling. There are profound differences between the two sports. Once played in Cornwall, the game has similarities to other traditional football or inter parish'mob' games, but certain attributes make this version unique to Cornwall, it is considered by many to be Cornwall's national game along with Cornish wrestling. An old saying in the Cornish language goes "hyrlîan yw gen gwaré nyi", which translated into English means "hurling is our sport"In August, 1705, a fatality occurred during a hurling match at Camborne; the parish burials register contains the following entry'William Trevarthen buried in the church. "Being disstroid to a hurling with Redruth men at the high dounes the 10th day of August". This is the only recorded death of a player during a hurling match. Although the custom attracts fewer spectators, the annual hurling matches at St Columb Major have the same status in the Cornish calendar as the'Obby'Oss festival at Padstow and the Furry Dance at Helston in that all three are unique customs that have survived unchanged and have taken place annually since before records began.
The ball for hurling is made of sterling silver, hammered into two hemispheres and bound around a core of applewood, held together with a band of silver. The band hold nails which hold the ball together. In St Columb the ball was crafted for a few years by John Turver, although since the 1990s, the ball has been made by local craftsman Colin Rescorla; the winner of the ball has the right to keep it, but must have a new one made in its place for the next game. The price of a new ball is said to be depending on the price of silver at the time; the current inscription on the St Columb ball is "Town and Country, Do your best", which derives from the motto: "Town and Country - do your best - for in this parish - I must rest". The ball weighs just over a pound but there is no definitive size or weight, as the ball is handmade, but the weight is about 19 to 21 ounces and is equal in size to a cricket ball. There are examples of hurling balls on public display at Truro Museum, Lanhydrock House, St Ives Museum, St Agnes Museum and St. Columb Major Town Hall.
Many are held in private hands. One held at Penzance Museum is thought to be old and bears the following inscription in the Cornish language: Paul Tuz whek Gwaro Tek heb ate buz Henwis. 1704 The first two words signify "Men of Paul", i.e. the owners of the ball. The last seven words may be translated into English as "sweet play fair without hate to be called", which may be translated as: "Fair play is good play." Little is recorded of the sport until about the 16th century when contests were between groups of men from two parishes. At this point there were two forms of the game, according to Carew's Survey of Cornwall. "Hurling to goals" was played on a pitch similar to that of modern-day association football, had many strict rules, similar to those of football and rugby. "Hurling to country", was played over large areas of countryside and despite its name involved goals. This was more similar to the St Columb game of modern times. Inter-parish matches died out towards the end of the 18th century but matches between different sections of the same township continued.
At St Ives those named Tom and John formed a team to play against those with other names on the Monday after Quadragesima. At Truro a team of married men played against a team of bachelors, at Helston the men of two particular streets played against the men of the others; the field of the St Ives game has been changed twice, first to the beach, in 1939 to the public park. Hurling is similar to the game of cnapan. George Owen of Henllys believed. There is circumstantial evidence to support this claim; the Cornish and Bretons of Brittany are descended from Romano-Britons who inhabited the Roman province of Britannia before the Anglo-Saxons incursions from the 5th century. In Brittany and Picardy a comparable game is known as la soule or choule; the earliest recorded game of Soule comes from Cornwall. Court records from 1283 show an entry in the plea rolls providing details of legal action taken when a man called Roger was accused of killing a fellow Soule player with a stone.. Considering the clear similarities between Hyrlîan, Cnapan and La Soule, the common Brittonic languages, shared culture and ancestry it is these three sports evolved from the same game.
The Romans are known to have played a ball game containing physical aspects of these sports called Harpastum. There is no hard evidence Harpastum continued to be played in Europe after the Western Roman Empire fell into decline although an alternative form was revived as Calcio Fiorentino during the renaissance in 16th century Tuscany; the Orkney'Ba' Game', played on Christmas Eve and Hogmanay every year since the mid-19th century, has some similarity to Cornish Hurling. Terminology includes: Deal – to pass the ball. Call up – takes place before the game starts when the previous winn
'Obby 'Oss festival
The'Obby'Oss festival is a folk custom that takes place each May Day in Padstow, a coastal town in the southwest English county of Cornwall. It involves two separate processions making their way around the town, each containing an eponymous hobby horse known as the'Obby'Oss; the festival starts at midnight on May Eve when townspeople gather outside the Golden Lion Inn to sing the "Night Song." By morning, the town has been dressed with greenery and flowers placed around the maypole. The excitement begins with the appearance of one of the'Obby'Osses. Male dancers cavort through the town dressed as one of two'Obby'Osses, the "Old" and the "Blue Ribbon"'Obby'Osses. Prodded on by acolytes known as "Teasers," each wears a mask and black frame-hung cape under which they try to catch young maidens as they pass through the town. Throughout the day, the two parades, led by the "MC" in his top hat and decorated stick, followed by a band of accordions and drums the'Oss and the Teaser, with a host of people, the "Mayers" - all singing the "Morning Song."
– pass along the streets of the town. Late in the evening, the two'osses meet, at the maypole, before returning to their respective stables where the crowd sings of the'Obby'Oss death, until its resurrection the following May Eve. During the twentieth century the existence of the festival was described by a number of folklorists who brought greater attention to it; this helped to turn the event as a popular tourist attraction and establish it as one of the most famous folk customs in Britain. The festival takes place on May Day every year, it entails two separate processions that make their way around Padstow on circuits that take twelve hours to traverse. Each procession represents a different half of the town's community. Only those whose families have lived in Padstow for at least two generations are permitted to take part in the processions; each procession contains by an'Obby'Oss, a hobby horse consisting of an oval frame covered in black oilskin, which has a small horse's head in the front with a snapping jaw.
This is led by an individual known as the Teaser, dressed in white and carries a painted club. The procession contains a retinue of white-clad individuals, some playing accordions and drums; this retinue sings a local version of a Mayers' song. At times this tune becomes a dirge, at which the'Obby ` Oss lies flat; when the chorus becomes triumphant again the'Oss continues along the procession. The origins of the celebrations in Padstow are unknown. There is extensive documentary evidence of British community May Day celebrations in the 16th century and earlier, although the earliest mention of the Obby'Oss at Padstow dates from 1803. An earlier hobby horse is mentioned in the Cornish language drama Beunans Meriasek, a life of the Camborne saint, where it is associated with a troupe, or "companions." There is no evidence to suggest. It has been speculated that such festivals have pre-Christian origins, such as in the Celtic festival of Beltane in the Celtic nations, the Germanic celebrations during the Þrimilci-mōnaþ in England.
The custom attracted little attention outside of the town until 1907, when the folklorist Francis Etherington drew attention to it. In 1913 the folklorist Thurstan Peter wrote about it; the idea that the custom had pre-Christian roots helped to convert it into a tourist attraction. This idea of the custom as an pre-Christian one percolated into the Padstow community, for when the historian Ronald Hutton visited the town in 1985 he found locals describing it to him as an ancient pagan fertility rite. By the 1990s, the'Obby'Oss festival was a major attraction that drew large numbers of visitors to Padstow. By that point, Hutton referred to it as "one of the most famous and most dramatic folk customs of modern Britain", adding that it constituted "a tremendous reaffirmation of communal pride and solidarity in this small and quiet settlement"; the celebration itself starts at midnight on 1 May with unaccompanied singing around the town starting at the Golden Lion Inn. By the morning, the town is dressed with greenery and flags, with the focus being the maypole.
The climax arrives when two groups of dancers progress through the town, one of each team wearing a stylised recreation of a'horse.' The two'osses are known as the "Blue Ribbon" ` osses. During the day a number of "Junior" or "colt" operated by children. Accompanied by drums and accordions and led by acolytes known as "Teasers", each'oss is adorned by a gruesome mask and black frame-hung cape under which they try to catch young maidens as they pass through the town; the Blue ribbon'oss is of more recent origin. In the late 19th century it was supported by members of the Temperance movement who were trying to discourage the consumption of alcohol associated with the "old"'oss followers. After the first world war the imperative of temperance was lost, the'oss became known as the Peace'Oss. Each'oss has a "stable" (in the case of the Old'Oss, the Golden Lion Inn and the Blue Ribbon'Oss, the Institute, from which they emerge at the start of the day's proceedings and retire at the end. Sometimes in the late afternoon, the'osses may dance together.
Unite and unite and let us all unite, For summer is acome unto day, And whither we are going we will all unite, In the merry morning of May. I warn you young men everyone, For summer is aco
Truro is a city and civil parish in Cornwall, England. It is Cornwall's county town and only city and centre for administration and retail. Truro's population was recorded as 18,766 in the 2011 census. People from Truro are known as Truronians; as the southernmost city in mainland Britain, Truro grew as a centre of trade from its port and as a stannary town for the tin mining industry. Its cathedral was completed in 1910. Places of interest include the Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro Cathedral the Hall for Cornwall and Cornwall's Courts of Justice; the origin of Truro's name is debated. It has been said to derive from the Cornish tri-veru meaning "three rivers", but authorities such as the Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names reject this theory. There are doubts about the "tru" part meaning "three". An expert on Cornish place-names, Oliver Padel, in A Popular Dictionary of Cornish Place-names, called the "three rivers" meaning "possible". Alternatively the name may derive from similar, i. e. the settlement on the river Uro.
The earliest records and archaeological findings of a permanent settlement in the Truro area date from Norman times. A castle was built there in the 12th century by Richard de Luci, Chief Justice of England in the reign of Henry II, who for his services to the court was granted land in Cornwall, including the area surrounding the confluence of the two rivers; the town grew in the shadow of the castle and was awarded borough status to further economic activity. The castle has long since disappeared. Richard de Lucy fought in Cornwall under Count Alan of Brittany after leaving Falaise late in 1138; the small adulterine castle at Truro, Cornwall known as "Castellum de Guelon" was built by him in 1139–1140. He styled himself "Richard de Lucy, de Trivereu"; the castle passed to Reginald FitzRoy, an illegitimate son of Henry I, when he was invested by King Stephen as the first Earl of Cornwall. Reginald married Mabel FitzRichard, daughter of William FitzRichard, a substantial landholder in Cornwall.
The 75-foot -diameter castle was in ruins by 1270 and the motte was levelled in 1840. Today Truro Crown Court stands on the site. In a charter of about 1170, Reginald FitzRoy confirmed to the burgesses of Truro the privileges granted by Richard de Lucy. Richard held ten knights' fees in Cornwall prior to 1135 and at his death the county still accounted for a third of his considerable total holding. By the start of the 14th century Truro was an important port, due to its inland location away from invaders, prosperity from the fishing industry, a new role as one of Cornwall's stannary towns for assaying and stamping tin and copper from Cornish mines; the Black Death brought a trade recession and an exodus of the population that left the town in a neglected state. Trade returned and the town regained prosperity in the Tudor period. Local government was awarded in 1589 by a new charter granted by Elizabeth I, giving Truro an elected mayor and control over the port of Falmouth. During the Civil War in the 17th century, Truro raised a sizeable force to fight for the king and a royalist mint was set up.
Defeat by the Parliamentary troops came in 1646 and the mint was moved to Exeter. In the century, Falmouth was awarded its own charter, giving it rights to its harbour and starting a long rivalry between the two towns; the dispute was settled in 1709 with control of the River Fal divided between them. The arms of the city of Truro are "Gules the base wavy of six Argent and Azure, thereon an ancient ship of three masts under sail, on each topmast a banner of St George, on the waves in base two fishes of the second." Truro prospered in the 18th–19th centuries. Industry flourished through improved mining methods and higher prices for tin, the town attracted wealthy mine owners. Elegant Georgian and Victorian townhouses were built, such as those seen today in Lemon Street, named after the mining magnate and local MP Sir William Lemon. Truro became the centre for society in the county dubbed "the London of Cornwall". Throughout those prosperous times Truro remained a social centre, many notable people came from there.
Among the noteworthy were Richard Lander, an explorer, the first European to reach the mouth of the River Niger in Africa and was awarded the first gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society, Henry Martyn, who read mathematics at Cambridge, was ordained and became a missionary, translating the New Testament into Urdu and Persian. Others include Humphry Davy, educated in Truro and the inventor of the miner's safety lamp, Samuel Foote, an actor and playwright from Boscawen Street. Truro's importance increased in the 19th century, when it had an iron-smelting works and tanneries; the Great Western Railway arrived in the 1860s. The Bishopric of Truro Act 1876 gave the town a bishop, subsequently a cathedral; the next year Queen Victoria granted Truro city status. The New Bridge Street drill hall was completed in the late 19th century; the start of the 20th century brought a decline in mining, but the city remained prosperous and continued to develop as the administrative and commercial centre of Cornwall.
Today, Truro remains the county retail centre, but like other places, faces concerns over replacement of speciality shops by national chain stores, erosion of identity, doubts about how to accommodate the growth expected in the 21st century. Truro lies in the centre of western Cornwall, about 9 miles from the south coast at the confluence of the rivers Kenwyn and Allen, which combine to become the Truro River, one of a series of creeks and drowned valleys leading into the River Fal and th
Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage and printing. Microform images are reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used. All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more the latter. Three formats are common: microfilm and aperture cards. Microcards known as "microopaques" a format no longer produced, were similar to microfiche, but printed on cardboard rather than photographic film. Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce microphotographs, in 1839, he achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer's wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on microphotographs as a personal hobby, did not document his procedures; the idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process "somewhat trifling and childish".
Microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography influenced Glaisher, he called it "the most remarkable discovery of modern times", argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents. The pigeon post was in operation while Paris was besieged during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Charles Barreswil, proposed the application of photographic methods with prints of a reduced size; the prints were on photographic paper and did not exceed 40mm to permit insertion in the pigeon's quill. The developments in microphotography continued through the next decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a compact solution to engineers' unwieldy but consulted materials.
He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in a square inch, that a one-foot cube could contain 1.5 million volumes. In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost and space limitations imposed by the codex format. Otlet’s overarching goal was to create a World Center Library of Juridical and Cultural Documentation, he saw microfiche as a way to offer a stable and durable format, inexpensive, easy to use, easy to reproduce, compact. In 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, where items were printed on demand for interested patrons. In the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting. New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his "Checkograph" machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthy's invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its "Recordak" division.
Between 1927 and 1935, the Library of Congress microfilmed more than three million pages of books and manuscripts in the British Library. Binkley, which looked at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials. In 1933, Charles C. Peters developed a method to microformat dissertations, in 1934 the United States National Agriculture Library implemented the first microform print-on-demand service, followed by a similar commercial concern, Science Service. In 1935, Kodak's Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm, ushering in the era of newspaper preservation on film; this method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at its annual meeting in 1936, when it endorsed microforms. Harvard University Library was the first major institution to realize the potential of microfilm to preserve broadsheets printed on high-acid newsprint and it launched its "Foreign Newspaper Project" to preserve such ephemeral publications in 1938.
Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a storage medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope, filmslides. The year 1938 saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International was established by Eugene Power. For the next half century, UMI would dominate the field and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information and Learning in 2001. Systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been used for archival storage of engineering information. For example, when airlines demand archival engineering drawings to support purchased equipment, they specify punch-card-mounted microfilm with an industry-standard indexing system punched into the card; this permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort and select microfilm drawings.
Aperture card mounted microfilm is 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings. Some military contracts aroun
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P