Multi-National Force – Iraq
The Multi-National Force – Iraq referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations. The MNF-I replaced the previous force, Combined Joint Task Force 7, on 15 May 2004, was itself reorganized into its successor, United States Forces – Iraq, on 1 January 2010; the Force was reinforced during the Iraq War troop surge of 2007. As of May 2011, all non-U. S. Coalition members had withdrawn from Iraq, with the U. S. military withdrawing from the country on December 18, 2011, bringing about an end to the Iraq War. In Iraq, since August 2003, is the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, which does humanitarian work and has a number of guards and military observers; the U. N. Assistance Mission in Iraq was not a separate entity; the NATO Training Mission – Iraq, was in Iraq from 2004 to December 2011, where it trained the Iraqi Army and the Iraqi police forces.
The news media in the United States used the term "U. S.-led coalition" to describe Multi-National Force – Iraq, as the vast majority of military forces in MNF-I were contributed from the United States. The majority of countries that deployed military forces to Iraq as part of the MNF-I confined them to their respective military installations, due to widespread violence throughout the country; the MNF-I's objectives, as expressed in an annex to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546, a June 2004 letter from U. S. Secretary of State Colin Powell to the U. N. Security Council, were stated to be: The MNF under unified command is prepared to continue to contribute to the maintenance of security in Iraq, including by preventing and deterring terrorism and protecting the territory of Iraq; the goal of the MNF will be to help the Iraqi people to complete the political transition and will permit the United Nations and the international community to work to facilitate Iraq's reconstruction. The government of Iraq enjoyed broad international recognition, including from constituent countries of the Arab League.
Jordan assisted in training of Iraqi security forces, the United Arab Emirates donated military equipment, though purchased from Switzerland. As of September 2008, over 545,000 Iraqi security forces have been trained. In November 2006, the United Nations Security Council voted to extend the mandate of the multinational force in Iraq until the end of 2007; the move was requested by the Iraqi government, which said the troops were needed for another year while it built up its own security forces. In December 2007, the Security Council unanimously approved resolution 1790, which extended the mandate until December 31, 2008. In December 2008, the American and Iraqi governments signed the U. S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement, which covered only American troops. It changed the status on several issues. Iraq regains sovereignty of its airspace, gains sovereignty over American contractors U. S. forces who commit crimes, if they off base. The U. S. were given until July 31, 2009 to withdraw from Iraqi cities and the whole agreement was subject to a referendum of Iraqi voters held prior to June 30, 2009.
If the referendum failed to approve the agreement, the Iraqi government would have given the U. S. until July 31, 2010 to withdraw completely. On December 18, 2008 the Iraqi government published a law that covered the status of non-U. S. Foreign forces in the country from the end of the U. N.'s mandate on December 31, 2008 through to their withdrawal on July 31, 2009. The Iraqi parliament voted on Saturday December 20, 2008, after a second reading of this law, to reject it and send it back to the Iraqi cabinet; the majority of Iraqi parliamentarians wanted it to be made into a binding international agreement rather than presenting it as a local Iraqi law. A compromise was reached and the law passed on December 23, 2008, with the Iraqi government agreeing to sign bilateral agreements with the affected countries. Norway contributed with ARTHUR counter-battery radar systems, which pointed out 1,500 bombing targets during" the first days of the war. United Kingdom – 3,700 troops were in Southern Iraq, leading the Multi-National Division, which includes troops from several other countries.
The deployment includes infantry, mechanized infantry and armored units as well as water-borne patrol personnel and a range of aircraft. After the invasion 8,500 troops were stationed in the south of the country, but 1,300 were withdrawn in early 2006; the British government gradually reduced the number of troops in Iraq until May 22, 2011 when all the remaining British troops left Iraq after the Iraqi government rejected their request to stay and to extend their mission. The UK has lost 179 soldiers in Iraq as of 12 February 2009: 136 in roadside bombings and rocket attacks. Out of the remaining 43, the cause of death included accidents,'friendly fire' incidents and suicide. See Operation Telic for further information. United States – In the cities, U. S. forces operate in support of Iraqi forces, outside the cities U. S. forces operate in partnership with Iraqi forces. Support includes, for example, aerial surveillance, tactical advice and intelligence, while partnership includes actual combat, for example patrolling, mine clearing, serving arrest warrants.
Additionally, a major line of operations is the logistical work of
Guard Hussar Regiment Mounted Squadron
The Guard Hussar Regiment Mounted Squadron, is part of the Guard Hussar Regiment. The purpose of the squadron is to provide mounted escorts for the Royal family and carry ceremonial services for the Royal Danish Army; the squadron commands 75 horses, 18 officers and NCOs, 75-100 conscripts. In addition it has a saddler, music-teacher, remount service and a farrier. In 1762, there was a possibility of war between Russia; the general staff was weary of the coming battle, due to the Cossacks, Denmarks inability to counter the light cavalry. Inspired by the Austrian and Hungarian hussars, Denmark created their own hussar regiment and adopted a similar uniform; the conscripts serve for 1 year, the longest time for a conscript in Denmark, with two troops starting each year, in February and August. It is the only place where conscripts are issued silver monograms, all others regiments being issued brass monograms, of either the Queen or the Prince Consort, they will have 3–4 months of basic military training, before moving on to stable duty, where they learn basic stable duty, basic horseback riding and show training, music lessons.
Each Wednesday the conscripts will practice escorts, by riding through the town of Slagelse, this is to prepare the horses for moving amongst traffic. The current ceremonial uniform of the Guard Hussar Regiment dates from 1870, it contains: A Blue Dolman: The original dolman was replaced in 1870, with a simplified version that has fewer braids across the chest. A Red Pelisse: The pelisse was introduced in 1762. With the introduction of the new dolman in 1870, the pelisse was removed from the uniform, it was, possible to wear the old ones until they were worn out. Edward VII of England suggested to reintroduce the pelisse, but only for officers who had to buy them in either case; the pelisse for NCOs and privates from before 1870, are said to still being "worn out" and are therefore still used today. Both versions of the pelisse are provided with lanyards used for holding the pelisse in place, when worn from the left shoulder; these lanyards are called mantequets. Officers wear Cardinal red, where enlisted wear Crimson red.
It is the only hussar regiment in the world to still use it. Blue Riding Breeches: The current light blue breeches with a white stripe along the outseam were introduced in 1822; the original breeches in 1762 were light blue, but between 1774-1822 different colours were used, yellow were however most common. A sabretache: In the colours of the regiment, with the royal monogram, it is the only uniform in the world to still use it, has been in use since Frederick V. A shako with a cordon and pompom made of tail hairs for NCOs and enlisted, officers have white buffalohair. There are two colours for pompoms, red for the Bugle Corps. A shabraque: In the colours of the regiment, with the royal monogram, it remains unchanged since 1762 for troopers, but officers used a different design during the Napoleonic Wars. A Bridle: The bridle has cowries woven into it, it was meant to make the horse look like a skeleton, but to protect the horse from sabre cuts and to signify wealth. It was first introduced in 1787, but it is not clear if it was limited to the'Bosnic' lancer squadron as images from the period show unadorned tack
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Minister's Office, the Supreme Court of Denmark. Several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables; the palace is thus home to the three supreme powers: the executive power, the legislative power, the judicial power. It is the only building in the world; the name Christiansborg is thus frequently used as a metonym for the Danish political system, colloquially it is referred to as Rigsborgen or Borgen. The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of successive castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. Since the early fifteenth century, the various buildings have served as the base of the central administration; the palace today bears witness to three eras of Danish architecture, as the result of two serious fires.
The first fire occurred in 1794 and the second in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-baroque style; the chapel is in a neoclassical style. The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a baroque style. Christiansborg Palace is owned by the Danish state, is run by the Palaces and Properties Agency. Several parts of the palace are open to the public; the first castle on the site was Absalon's Castle, built in 1167 by the bishop Absalon. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde built a castle in 1167 on a small island outside Copenhagen Harbour; the castle was made up by a curtain wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings, such as the bishop's palace, a chapel and several minor buildings. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle and city of Copenhagen passed to the bishops of Roskilde. A few decades however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, for two centuries the ownership of the castle and city was contested between kings and bishops.
Furthermore, the castle was under attack, for example by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic cities, during the years 1249 to 1259 it was occupied and plundered. In 1370, King Valdemar IV of Denmark was defeated in a conflict with the Hanseatic League, who ordered the castle to be demolished, they sent 40 stonemasons to demolish the castle stone by stone. The castle had long been a terrible nuisance to the Hanseatic cities' trade in the Sound, the time had now come to remove it. During the years after the demolition of Bishop Absalon's castle by the Hansa League in 1369, the ruins on the island were covered with earthworks, on which a new stronghold, Copenhagen Castle, was built; this was completed in the late 14th century. The castle had a curtain wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large, solid tower as an entrance gate; the castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric VII usurped the rights to the castle in 1417. From on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king.
In the middle of the 15th century, the castle became the principal residence of the Danish kings and the centre of government. The castle was rebuilt several times. In the 1720s, Frederick IV rebuilt the castle, but it became so heavy that the walls began to give way and to crack, it became therefore evident to Christian VI, Frederik IV's successor after his accession to the throne in 1730, that an new castle had to be built. The demolition of the overextended and antiquated Copenhagen Castle was commenced in 1731 to make room for the first Christiansborg; the ruins of Absalon's castle and Copenhagen Castle were excavated at the start of the 20th century and can be seen today in the subterranean excavations under the present palace. King Christian VI commissioned architect Elias David Häusser to build the first Christiansborg Palace, in 1733 work started on a magnificent baroque palace. By 1738, work on the main palace had progressed so far that it was possible to start on the other buildings included in the total project.
The palace included chapel. Most of the palace complex was completed in 1745 and was the largest palace in northern Europe at the time; the palace and church were ruined by a fire in 1794. While the royal family lived in temporary accommodations at Amalienborg Palace, the master builder of Altona, architect Christian Frederik Hansen, was called to Copenhagen to resurrect the palace. Hansen started building the second Christiansborg in 1803 in a French Empire style. By the time the palace was finished in 1828, King Frederick VI had decided he did not want to live there after all, he only used the palace for entertainment. King Frederick VII was the only monarch to live in the palace; this was between 1852-1863. After the introduction of the constitutional monarchy with the Constitution of 1849, the south wing of the palace became the meeting place of the two houses of the first Danish Parliament; the second Christiansborg burned down in 1884. Saved were Hansen's chapel; the ruins remained in place for the following 23 years due to political fighting.
Thorvald Jørgensen won an architecture competition to decide who would design the third Christiansborg, built from 1907-1928. The palace was to contain premises for the royal
Duke William Frederick Philip of Württemberg
William Frederick Philip, Duke of Württemberg was a prince of the House of Württemberg and a minister for war. William was the fourth son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt, eldest daughter of Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia, a niece of Frederick II of Prussia. In 1779 he joined the Royal Danish Army and rose to the rank of Oberst. In 1781 he commanded his own regiment, being promoted to major general in 1783, moved to the Danish Foot Guards in 1785 and promoted to lieutenant general in 1795. In 1801 he became governor of Copenhagen and the same year faced the Battle of Copenhagen in that role. In 1806 he paid 10,000 Reichstaler to leave the Danish army, his brother Frederick had just been made king of Württemberg and in Stuttgart made William a field marshal and Württemberg's minister for war. From 1810 to 1821 William temporarily lived in his manor house at Hirrlingen near Rottenburg but more in the Schloss Stetten in Remstal.
On 29 June 1811 he took on Freiherr Friedrich von Phull as vice-president of the War Department. In 1815, on leaving office, William shifted to studying science and practised as a physician. In 1817 the University of Tübingen awarded him an honorary degree in medicine; as a member of the royal house of Württemberg, William held a seat in the Kammer der Standesherren of the Württembergische Landstände parliament from 1819 to his death in 1830. On 23 August 1800, in Coswig, Frederick married one of his mother's ladies in waiting, Wilhelmine Freiin von Tunderfeld-Rhodis, daughter of Baron Karl August Wilhelm von Tunderfeld-Rhodis, she was a scion of a military family from Sweden from the Baltic. The couple had six children, only three of whom reached adulthood: Count Alexander of Württemberg, poet ∞ Helene, Countess Festetics, daughter of Ladislas Graf Festetics of Tolna August Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach, Count of Württemberg ∞ Théodolinde de Beauharnais; this had an effect in 1921 on the death of William II of Württemberg, when his descendants were excluded from inheriting, but by the Kingdom of Württemberg had itself been superseded.
Grand Cross of the Order of the Württemberg Crown Grand Cross of the Württemberg Military Merit Order 1803 Knights' Cross of the Danish Order of the Elephant Grand Cross of the French Legion of Honour History of Württemberg History of Denmark#The 19th century Wolfgang Schmierer: Wilhelm, Herzog von Württemberg, in Sönke Lorenz, Dieter Mertens, Volker Press eds. Das Haus Württemberg: Ein biographisches Lexikon. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-17-013605-4, S. 380 f. Frank Raberg: Biographisches Handbuch der württembergischen Landtagsabgeordneten 1815–1933. W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, S. 1050 f
Gråsten Palace is best known for being the summer residence of the Danish Royal Family. It is located in Gråsten in the Jutland region of southern Denmark; the main house has a modern, all-white facade, with Venetian doors opening onto sweeping, manicured lawns and gravel walkways. The grounds include a huge stables court. Legend says that Gråsten Palace is where Hans Christian Andersen wrote, The Little Match Girl, during his visit in 1845, but that's not true, he wrote it. The south wing of the present-day main house is believed to be built on the site of the second structure, built in 1603 to replace a hunting lodge, destroyed in a fire in the middle of the 16th century. After about three and a half succeeding centuries of ownership by Danish nobles, Gråsten Slot was taken over by the State, extensively restored, by 1935, it was the summer residence for then-Crown Prince Frederik King Frederik IX, Crown Princess Ingrid Queen Ingrid, who adored the palace until her death in November 2000, it is the usual venue for the royal family's official summer photo shoot.
The property includes a stables court, manicured lawns, gravel walkways. The palace grounds themselves are an oft-described-as-Romantic landscape; the landscape, the gardens are said to be Anglo-inspired. The palace chapel, the only part of the estate, open to the public, is a copy of the Jesuit Church of Antwerp. Despite a badly damaged interior from the Schleswig wars, the chapel is decorated with 80 paintings; the chapel has bilingual congregations, with German and Danish services to accommodate the mix of local culture. The estate area has an area of 6.6 km². Gråsten Palace and Palace Gardens Agency for Palaces and Cultural Properties Gråsten Palace Church