England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Manchester Art Gallery
Manchester Art Gallery, formerly Manchester City Art Gallery, is a publicly owned art museum on Mosley Street in Manchester city centre. The main gallery premises were built for a society in 1823. The building that links them was designed by Hopkins Architects following a design competition managed by RIBA Competitions. It opened in 2002 following a renovation and expansion project undertaken by the art gallery. Manchester Art Gallery is free to enter and open seven days a week and it houses many works of local and international significance and has a collection of more than 25,000 objects. More than half a million visited the museum in the period of a year. The Royal Manchester Institution was a society formed in 1823. It was housed what is now the art gallerys main building on Mosley Street. The first object acquired for its collection, James Northcotes A Moor, was bought in 1827, the institution was handed over on condition that £2000 per annum would be spent on art for the next 20 years. The gallery is operated by Manchester City Galleries, a department of Manchester City Council which is responsible for the Gallery of Costume at Platt Hall.
Maria Balshaw is the director of the galleries and director of the University of Manchesters Whitworth Art Gallery and she became joint director in a collaboration between the council and the university in 2011. The gallerys budget is controlled by the council but it funded by the Manchester Art Gallery Trust, the trust raises nearly half the funding required from companies and grant making trusts and foundations. The gallery is open daily and on Thursdays opens until 9pm. Manchester Art Gallery is housed in three connected buildings, the City Art Gallery building, which faces onto Mosley Street, was designed and constructed between 1824–35. It originally housed the Royal Manchester Institution, designed by architect Sir Charles Barry in the Greek Ionic style, the building is now Grade I listed. The two-storey gallery is built in rusticated ashlar to a plan on a raised plinth. The roof is hidden by a dentilled cornice and plain parapet. Its eleven-bay facade has two side ranges and a central five-bay pedimented projecting portico with six Ionic columns
Lyon Playfair, 1st Baron Playfair
Lyon Playfair, 1st Baron Playfair GCB PC FRS was a Scottish scientist and Liberal politician. Playfair was born at Chunar, the son of George Playfair, Inspector General of Hospitals in that region, the family was fairly middle class with strong academic roots in University of St Andrews. All of Playfairs siblings were sent back to Scotland to avoid the hazards of an Indian upbringing, Playfair was named after his uncle, Sir Hugh Lyon Playfair, and was educated at the University of St Andrews, the Andersonian Institute in Glasgow, and the University of Edinburgh. Two years later, he was made chemist to the Geological Survey, in 1848, he was elected to the Royal Society, and three years was made Special Commissioner and a member of the executive committee of the Great Exhibition. In 1859 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and he was subsequently President of the British Association in 1885. In February 1886 he returned to the government as Vice-President of the Committee on Education under Gladstone and he was made a member of the Council of the Duchy of Cornwall in 1889.
Having represented Leeds South since 1885, Playfair left the House of Commons in 1892 and was ennobled as Baron Playfair and he served as a Lord in Waiting under Gladstone and Lord Rosebery between 1892 and 1895. He was further honoured when he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1895, Playfair is remembered for promoting a new cipher system invented by Charles Wheatstone, now known as the Playfair cipher. Lord Playfair died at his home in South Kensington, London, in May 1898, aged 80 and he was succeeded in the barony by his son from his first marriage, George James Playfair who is buried with him. Lord Playfair married Margaret Eliza, daughter of James Oakes, in 1846, after her death in August 1855 he married Jean Ann, daughter of Crawley Millington, in 1857. There were children from both marriages, Jean Ann died in 1877 and is buried in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh facing the section known as Lords Row. After her death, he married Edith Russell of Boston, whose 1884 portrait is in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
He developed the Italian Renaissance garden style for the many gardens he designed around country houses. Born on 23 May 1795 in Bridge Street, Westminster, he was the son of Walter Edward Barry, a stationer. He was baptised at St Margarets, into the Church of England and his father remarried shortly after Frances died and Barrys stepmother Sarah would bring him up. He was educated at schools in Homerton and Aspley Guise, before being apprenticed to Middleton & Bailey, Lambeth architects and surveyors. Barry exhibited drawings at the Royal Academy annually from 1812 to 1815 and he visited France and, while in Paris, spent several days at the Musée du Louvre. In Rome he sketched antiquities and paintings at the Vatican Museums and other galleries, before carrying on to Naples, Bari, while in Italy, Barry met Charles Lock Eastlake, an architect, William Kinnaird and Francis Johnson and Thomas Leverton Donaldson. From Constantinople he visited the Troad, Assos and back to Smyrna, on 18 June 1819, Barry parted from Baillie at Tripoli, Lebanon.
Over this time, Barry created more than 500 sketches, Barry travelled on to Cyprus, Halicarnassus and Smyrna from where he sailed on 16 August 1819 for Malta. Barry sailed from Malta to Syracuse, Sicily and his travels in Italy exposed him to Renaissance architecture and after arriving in Rome in January 1820, he met architect John Lewis Wolfe, who inspired Barry himself to become an architect. Their friendship continued until Barry died, the building that inspired Barrys admiration for Italian architecture was the Palazzo Farnese. Over the following months, he and Wolfe together studied the architecture of Vicenza, Venice and Florence, where the Palazzo Strozzi greatly impressed him. While in Rome he had met Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne, through whom he met Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland and their London home, Holland House, was the centre of the Whig Party. Barry remained a supporter of the Liberal party, the successor to the Whig Party. Barry was invited to the gatherings at the house, and there met many of the prominent members of the group, Barry set up his home and office in Ely Place in 1821.
In 1827 he moved to 27 Foley Place, in 1842 he moved to 32 Great George Street and finally to The Elms, now 29 Clapham Common Northside, the Georgian house of five bays and three stories was designed by Samuel Pepys Cockerell as his own home. Probably thanks to his fiancées friendship with John Soane, Barry was recommended to the Church Building Commissioners and these were in the Gothic Revival architecture style, including two in Lancashire, St. Matthew, Campfield and All Saints Church, Whitefield. Barry designed three churches for the Commissioners in Islington, Holy Trinity, St. Johns and St. Pauls, all in the Gothic in style and built between 1826 and 1828. His final church for the Commissioners was the Gothic St Peters Church, the Gothic Hurstpierpoint church, with its tower and spire, unlike his earlier churches was much closer to the Cambridge Camden Societys approach to church design
Mosley Street is a street in Manchester, England. It runs between its junction with Piccadilly and Market Street to St Peters Square, beyond St Peters Square it becomes Lower Mosley Street. It is the location of several Grade II and Grade II* listed buildings, Mosley Street Metrolink station was located near Piccadilly Gardens. In 2009, the lines were reconstructed, and buses used Mosley Street en route to Piccadilly Gardens until May 2011. The street is now used by Metrolink trams and no cars are permitted on the street. The tram stop closed on 17 May 2013, the street was named after Nicholas Mosley who in 1596 bought the manor of Manchester for £3,500. His father, Edward Mosley, already owned Hough End Hall, the Mosley family sold their manorial rights to Manchester City Council for £200,000 in 1846. In the first quarter of the 19th century the street was home to Hugh Birley, Samuel Brooks and Nathan Mayer Rothschild. The nature of the changed after 1827, when a house on the corner of Market Street was converted into a hotel.
Several more warehouses were built after 1830 and large houses occupied by the gentry were speculatively converted to warehouses, east side The Portico Library on the corner of Charlotte Street was Manchesters first subscription library, built in the Classical style between 1802 and 1806 by Thomas Harrison of Chester. It was altered to become a bank and library in the 1920s and is now a public house, John Dalton described its location as in the most elegant and retired street in town. The Royal Manchester Institution, now Manchester Art Gallery, was designed by Sir Charles Barry and it is built in the Greek Ionic style in rusticated sandstone ashlar. It is a Grade II* Listed building, red brick offices and a trade warehouse built on the south corner of Princess Street around 1860–70 are occupied by a bank and offices and are Grade II listed. It is constructed in ashlar under a slate roof and is Grade II listed. Shops and offices on a site at 12 Mosley Street were built in an eclectic neo-gothic style between 1870 and 1880.
The building has an iron frame clad in ashlar and a slate roof. It was altered to become shops, at 38 and 42 Mosley Street is a bank built in 1862 in the Italian palazzo style which was the last great work of Edward Walters. Now occupied by the Royal Bank of Scotland it was built for the Manchester and Salford Bank and extensions around 1880 were carried out by Walters successors, the bank is built in ashlar under slate roofs
Joseph Jordan (doctor)
Joseph Jordan, FRCS, was an English surgeon known primarily for his involvement in developing medical education outside its traditional base of London. He established a school in Manchester and was an honorary surgeon of the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Joseph Jordan was descended from Dutch people who had emigrated to England in the 14th century, Joseph was born on 3 March 1787 as the youngest of the four sons. Jordan was a diligent but wayward child at school and was expelled when he damaged its clock while investigating the mechanism and he moved to Edinburgh when he was 19 and there he continued his medical education under the guidance of Alexander Munro and Charles Bell. Having qualified in medicine at Edinburgh, Jordan enrolled in the 1st Battalion, the Napoleonic Wars were occurring and in April of the following year Jordan was promoted from the rank of Ensign to Assistant Surgeon. He found his experience to be unsatisfying and supplemented his income with occasional private medical work, as well as continuing to study aspects of medicine and, in particular.
Achieving no further promotion, he resigned his commission and in 1811 went to London to further his studies, Jordan returned to Manchester in 1812 and for the next two years was a junior partner in the medical practice of Stewart and Bancks. He left that and in September 1814 advertised that he would be offering lectures in anatomy from a building in Bridge Street and he had been combining practice work with lectures since 1812 and his new venture moved to larger premises on Bridge Street in 1816. According to medical historian E. M, the new school was a challenge to the medical establishment. In 1817, his became the first provincial institution to be recognised by the Society of Apothecaries as a teaching establishment for those seeking its licentiate. The standards at this time had been regulated by the Apothecaries Act of 1815, recognition returned in 1821, when the Royal College of Surgeons of England accepted his school as a suitable provider of education for its MRCS diploma. There had been an incident concerning the provenance of a corpse that he had used for dissection as far back as his army days.
By now, Jordan had become an important member of Manchesters medical community and he was the force behind the establishment of the Manchester. His School of Anatomy had broadened the scope of its courses since foundation, Turners school offered all of the courses demanded for the LSA and MRCS qualifications, rather than a subset of them. He is credited with creating the first more or less complete provincial medical school in England, in 1826 Jordan responded to Turners challenge, which was creating intense competition both for students and staff, by moving his medical school to purpose-built premises in Mount Street. He now had facilities that were superior in size and equipment to those of Turner, in 1828, his staff deserted him to establish their own school on Marsden Street. Thereafter, the efforts of Jordan and Stephens could not match the range of courses offered by the Pine Street school. Jordan was now torn between his business and his desire to be elected to an honorary surgeons position at the Manchester Infirmary
Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University is a public university located in Manchester, England. It was established in 1970 as Manchester Polytechnic and gained university status in 1992 and its headquarters and central campus are in the city of Manchester, and there are additional facilities in Cheshire. The university has its roots in the Manchester Mechanics Institution and the Manchester School of Design, Manchester Metropolitan University receives approximately 52,000 applications every year, making it the second most applied-to university in the UK after the University of Manchester. It is the fifth largest university in the UK in terms of student numbers, the university is home to the Manchester School of Art and the Manchester School of Theatre. The university developed from mergers of various colleges with various specialisms, including Technology and Design, i. e. Manchester Mechanics Institution and Manchester School of Design. Later, Schools of Commerce and Domestic Science were added along with colleges at Didsbury, Crewe and the former Domestic and Trades College, latterly Hollings College.
The painter L. S. Lowry attended Manchester School of Art in the years after the First World War where he was taught by the noted impressionist Adolphe Valette and it became Manchester Polytechnic in 1970. On 1 January 1977, the merged with the Didsbury College of Education and Hollings College. In 1987 the institution became a member of the Northern Consortium. Having previously been a local authority institution, the became a corporate body on 1 April 1989. It was granted university status as Manchester Metropolitan University by the Privy Council on 15 September 1992 under the provisions of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, the university absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education on 1 October 1992 and the Manchester School of Physiotherapy in 2004. Manchester School of Physiotherapy, The Manchester School of Physiotherapy was an education institution based in Manchester. It provided undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes within Physiotherapy and additionally offered NVQ level qualifications for unqualified Physiotherapy Support Workers, the School of Physiotherapy was affiliated to the Victoria University of Manchester and all degree level courses were validated and conferred by this institution.
The School was officially formed in 1991, through the amalgamation of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, from these two institutions it can date its history back to 1911 and during the 1980s via its M. R. I. Routes, became the first NHS School of Physiotherapy to offer an undergraduate honours degree programme. The academic building consisted of two large raked lecture theatres, a number of rooms, a gymnasium, seminar rooms, a library, office facilities. In 2004 the Manchester School of Physiotherapy officially joined the Manchester Metropolitan University and it was at this point the last NHS School of Physiotherapy to join a UK higher education institution. It subsequently became the Department of Health Professions and is based at the Birley Fields Campus of MMU in Hulme
Act of Parliament
Acts of Parliament, called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament. Act of the Oireachtas is an equivalent term used in the Republic of Ireland where the legislature is known by its Irish name. It is comparable to an Act of Congress in the United States, a draft Act of Parliament is known as a bill. In territories with a Westminster system, most bills that have any possibility of becoming law are introduced into parliament by the government. This will usually happen following the publication of a paper, setting out the issues. A bill may be introduced into parliament without formal government backing, in territories with a multicameral parliament, most bills may be first introduced in any chamber. However, certain types of legislation are required, either by convention or by law. For example, bills imposing a tax, or involving public expenditure, are introduced into the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, Canadas House of Commons, bills proposed by the Law Commission and consolidation bills traditionally start in the House of Lords.
Once introduced, a bill must go through a number of stages before it can become law, in theory, this allows the bills provisions to be debated in detail, and for amendments to the original bill to be introduced and agreed to. In bicameral parliaments, a bill that has been approved by the chamber into which it was introduced sends the bill to the other chamber, broadly speaking, each chamber must separately agree to the same version of the bill. Finally, the bill receives assent, in most territories this is merely a formality. In some countries, such as in Spain and Portugal, the term for a bill differs depending on whether it is initiated by the government, the second reading of a Government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this reading signifies a major loss, if the bill is read a second time, it is considered in detail Consideration in detail, This usually takes place on the floor of the House. Generally, committees sit on the floor of the House and consider the bill in detail, third reading, A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended.
Very rarely do debates occur during this stage, The bill is sent to the other House, which may amend it. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are posted back to the original House for a further stage, the State of Queenslands Parliament is unicameral and skips this and the rest of the stages. Consideration of Senate/Representatives amendments, The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House and it may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu, or reject them. However, the Senate may not amend money bills, though it can request the House to make amendments, a bill may pass backwards and forwards several times at this stage, as each House amends or rejects changes proposed by the other
Frederick Crace Calvert
Frederick Crace Calvert, English chemist, was born in London. From about 1836 until 1846 he lived in France, after a course of study at Paris, he became manager of chemical works. On his return to England he settled in Manchester as a consulting chemist, besides contributing extensively to the English and French scientific journals, he published a work on Dyeing and Calico-Printing. He is commemorated by a Royal Society of Chemistry blue plaque on Princess Street in Manchester and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Calvert, Frederick Crace