Solna Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in Sweden, located just north of the Stockholm City Centre. Its seat is located in the town of Solna, a part of the Stockholm urban area; the municipality is a part of Metropolitan Stockholm. None of the area is considered rural, unusual for Swedish municipalities, which are of mixed rural/urban character. Solna is the third smallest municipality in Sweden in terms of area. Solna borders Stockholm Municipality to the south and northwest; the boundary with Danderyd Municipality is delineated by the Stocksundet sea strait. There are two parishes in Solna Municipality: Solna. Solna is divided into eight traditional parts with no administrative functions: Bergshamra, Hagalund, Huvudsta, Järva, Råsunda and Ulriksdal; the largest districts are Råsunda and Huvudsta, with the Solna Centrum in between them. With few exceptions, Solna's built-up areas have a suburban character, but there are several large parks and Friends Arena, Sweden's new national football stadium adjacent to the Solna station of Stockholm commuter rail.
The final matches of both the 1958 FIFA World Cup and the 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup were played at Råsunda Stadium, the national football stadium from 1937 to 2012. Solna has low tax rates and has attracted a wide range of companies and authorities, making it a major place of work in Stockholm. Among the most important employers are the medical university Karolinska Institutet and the Karolinska University Hospital; the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute are located in Solna. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 30 601, or 38.39% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 14 986, or 26.02% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 79 707 residents in Solna, of which 23 597 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
As with all 290 municipalities of Sweden, Solna has a municipal assembly, holding 61 members elected by proportional representation for a four-year term. An executive committee is appointed by its members. 1943-1956 CA Andersson 1956-1967 KA Larsson 1968-1976 CG Eklund 1977-1982 Sune Berglund 1983-1988 Gösta Fagerberg 1989-1991 Karl Gustav Svensson 1991-1994 Anders Gustâv 1994-1998 Karl Gustav Svensson 1998-2006 Anders Gustâv 2006 Anders Ekegren 2006-2011 Lars-Erik Salminen 2011 Anders Ekegren - 8 juni-24 juli 2011-2012 Lars-Erik Salminen 2012- Pehr Granfalk =Moderate Party =Social Democratic Party =Liberal Party Solna is centrally located in Stockholm and is well served by the Stockholm public transport system with two commuter train stations and six Metro stations as well as a dense bus network run by SL. It was served by trams until 1959. Trams returned after 54 years of absence. A further extension will be opened in 2014. Skanska, NextJet, Vattenfall have their head offices in Solna. Mall of Scandinavia is located in Solna.
The head office of Scandinavian Airlines and SAS Group is located in Solna. The airline head office was located on the property of Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sigtuna Municipality, but now it is back in Solna. Haga Park, part of the Royal National City Park, was initiated by king Gustav III, planned and carried out in the English landscaping style; the city features three of Sweden's royal palaces. Friends Arena, the Swedish national arena of association football, home of local football club AIK. Mall of Scandinavia, Scandinavia's biggest shopping mall The Solna Church was constructed in the 12th century. For defensive purposes, it was built as a round church, is one of few of that kind in Sweden; the following football clubs are located in Solna: AIK Blue Hill KF Råsunda IS Vasalunds IF Solna Gymnasium is the senior high school/sixth form college of Solna. Solna is twinned with: Gladsaxe, Denmark Ski, Norway Pirkkala, Finland Valmiera, Latvia Burbank, California, USAPartnershipsIn addition to this, Solna has two cooperating cities, Greece Bemowo, Poland Category:People from Solna Municipality Football World Cup 1958 1992 European Football Championship FIFA Women's World Cup 1995 Solna Municipality - Official site Solna Municipality - Tourist Guide in English
The Bergianska trädgården, the Bergian Garden or Hortus Bergianus, is a botanical garden located in the Frescati area on the outskirts of Stockholm, close to the Swedish Museum of Natural History and the main campus of Stockholm University. The director of the garden is known as Professor Bergianus; the Garden was founded through a donation in 1791 by the historian and antiquarian Bengt Bergius and his brother Peter Jonas Bergius, a physician and scientist, for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, was located at their mansion and its adjacent garden on the Karlbergsvägen road, in what is now the Vasastaden district in central Stockholm. Which at the time still had a rural character; the Garden was donated to the Royal Academy after the brothers' death in 1791, in accordance with their will. The first person to serve as director was Olof Swartz; the garden was moved to its current location in 1885, because its original location was slated for construction. Today the garden is owned by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
It is jointly administered by the Academy of Stockholm University. 1791–1818 Olof Swartz 1823–1856 Johan Emanuel Wikström 1857–1879 Nils Johan Andersson 1879–1914 Veit Brecher Wittrock 1915–1944 Robert Fries 1944–1965 Carl Rudolf Florin 1970–1983 Måns Ryberg 1983–2001 Bengt Jonsell 2002–current Birgitta Bremer Official English web site
Djurgården or, more Kungliga Djurgården is an island in central Stockholm, Sweden. Djurgården is home to historical buildings and monuments, galleries, the amusement park Gröna Lund, the open-air museum Skansen, the small residential area Djurgårdsstaden, yacht harbours, extensive stretches of forest and meadows, it is one of the Stockholmers' favorite recreation areas and tourist destinations alike, attracting over 10 million visitors per year, of which some 5 million come to visit the museums and amusement park. The island belongs to the National City park founded in 1995. Since the 15th century the Swedish monarch has owned or held the right of disposition of Royal Djurgården. Today, this right is exercised by the Royal Djurgården Administration, a part of the Royal Court of Sweden. A larger area of the city, separated from Djurgården proper by Djurgårdsbrunnsviken is Norra Djurgården, including Gärdet. Djurgården was until the 16th century known as Valmundsö and this name is still preserved in locations such as Waldemarsudde.
Though several proposals to explain this name have been put forward, no authoritative explanation is accepted. While the name of King Valdemar was associated with the old name during the 17th century, the separate elements of the original variations of the name might be interpreted as etymologically related to either Walm-und-ö - if walm is linked to the Anglo-Saxon words wielm, this would mean the original name should be interpreted as "The island outside of which the waves grow large" - or Wal-mund-ö - which could be interpreted as walder and mun, i.e. "the grounds next to the mouth of Lake Mälaren". The present name, Djurgården, stems from the game park of King John III, which he declared the intention to realize in February 1579 to keep deer and elk. In the 17th century a baiting arena was built at the location. In 1667, a few cottages intended for "paralysed and crippled seafarers" were built forming what was to become Djurgårdsstaden; the Swedish Navy moved to Karlskrona during the 1680s however, the neighbourhood was instead populated by a diverse crowd.
Plans to demolish the "insignificant shacks" in front of the World Fair in 1897, for a planned expansion of the naval shipyard in 1918, never were accomplished and the area is today protected as a historical monument. During the late 18th century, Djurgården transformed into more of a popular recreational area than a Royal game park. King Charles XIV John's creation of the Rosendal Palace in the 1820s marked the beginning of Djurgården's development as a stately residential area, paired with the creation of several entertainment establishments in the late 19th century, including Gröna Lund 1883, Skansen 1891. At a café just south of Skansen, in block Alberget, sports club Djurgårdens IF was founded on 12 March 1891; the western waterfront of the island was a small scale shipyard during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, after which the Navy erected some 30 sheds for the winter quarters of galleys in the area. The operations expanded during the 1870s. Plans to relocate the shipyard in the beginning of the 20th century were interrupted by World War II, which meant the activities grew instead, culminating in 1945 when 1,280 people were employed.
In 1969, the Navy moved to Muskö, in the early 1970s the area was transformed into the recreation area it is today. Many structures on the western part of Djurgården date back to the Stockholm World's Fair of 1897, including Djurgårdsbron, the main bridge to the island. One of the most prominent buildings of the exposition, a 16,820 m² exposition hall in wood, design by the architect Ferdinand Boberg and featuring a 100 metres tall cupola and 4 minarets, was demolished after the exposition however, together with many other pavilions built in non-permanent materials. In what is today the southern part of the amusement park Gröna Lund and east of it, a private shipyard was developed from 1735 by the merchant Efraim Lothsack, who had several new residential buildings built; the activities grew during the 19th century under the managership of John Burgman and Adolf Fredholm, of which the former had the church, Djurgårdskyrkan, the school, Djurgårdsskolan, built. The shipyard was sold to the city in 1863 and moved to Södra Hammarbyhamnen in 1979.
Another shipyard for pinnaces, built in the strait between Djurgården and Beckholmen in 1868, is still in operation. The southern portion of the area hosted the Stockholm International Exhibition. Besides the list below, a big portion of Djurgården consists of green areas offering footpaths and water front promenades among present or historical upper class residences and old institutional buildings, many of which are regarded as historical monuments of national interest. ABBA: The Museum Aquaria Water Museum - A small museum displaying a salmon ladder, an artificial rainforest and Nordic environments. Beckholmen - historical maritime environment including several dry docks and historical buildings. Biological Museum - Built in 1893, displaying stuffed animals in artificial environments representing various typical Swedish landscapes. Cirkus - Originally a circus, it today offers concerts and mus
Ulriksdal Palace is a royal palace situated on the banks of the Edsviken in the Royal National City Park in Solna Municipality, 6 km north of Stockholm. It was called Jakobsdal for its owner Jacob De la Gardie, who had it built by architect Hans Jacob Kristler in 1643–1645 as a country retreat, he passed on to his son, Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, from whom it was purchased in 1669 by Queen Hedvig Eleonora of Sweden. The present design is the work of architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and dates from the late 17th century. Hedvig Eleonora had grand plans for the palace and renamed it in 1684 Ulriksdal in honor of its intended future owner, her grandson Prince Ulric; the prince, died at the age of one and Hedvig Eleonora kept the palace until her death in 1715 when the property was transferred to the crown for King Frederick I's disposal. Several drawings by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder show a stately palace, three storeys high, with a lantern roof, furnished attic, side wings extending the lakeside façade.
Implementation of Tessin's designs began under Hedvig Eleonora in the 1670s, but was halted around 1690 due to financial problems. When building work resumed by King Frederick I in the 1720s, the palace architect Carl Hårleman had different ideas than Tessin the Elder. Among the features incorporated by Hårleman was one of the first mansard roofs in Sweden. In the mid-18th century, the palace was occupied by Queen Louisa Ulrika; the Queen set up a theatre here, today called the Confidencen. During the reign of Adolf Frederick and his son Gustav III of Sweden, it was one of the main residences of the royal court and the place for a grand court life. From 1792 until 1813, it served as residence for the queen dowager of Gustav III, Sophia Magdalena of Denmark. After her death, the palace was uninhabited until 1821. Little survives of the 18th century interiors, since Ulriksdal served as a veterans' hospital from 1822 to 1849; the hospital was established by King Charles XIV John for veterans of the Russo-Swedish War of 1808–1809.
The palace was therefore empty when it was acquired in 1856 by Prince Charles King Charles XV. During the reign of Charles XV, the palace was used as his preferred summer residence. With the aid of architect Fredrik Wilhelm Scholander and through extensive purchases of antiques, Prince Charles was able to design and furnish the palace at his own taste. Many of these furnishings are still on display. During the reign of King Oscar II, it was used by Queen Sophia as her personal summer residence: it served as her residence as a widow until her death in 1913. In 1923, Prince Gustav Adolf, the future King Gustaf VI Adolf married Louise Mountbatten. Ulriksdal became to be associated with the royal couple. During their time, the former knights' hall was turned into a living room with furniture designed by designer Carl Malmsten; the palace has been open to the public since 1986. The original furnishings have been relocated to the preserved rooms and parts of the former living quarters are used to exhibit items from Gustaf VI Adolf's art and crafts collection as well as Gustaf V's silver collection.
The Palace Theatre, Confidencen, is situated in a building from the 1670s, used as a horse riding house and a guesthouse. In 1753, Queen Louisa Ulrika commissioned architect Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz to convert the building into a theatre, it was built in Rococo style, seats 200 spectators and has a table à confidence, a table which can be lowered through the floor to the basement to be set. Today Confidencen is the oldest Rococo theatre in Sweden, reopened in 1981 and run since by Kjerstin Dellert. Ulriksdal Palace had in the palace's northern wing a chapel, built in 1662 by architect Jean de la Vallée; the chapel was torn down during Gustav III's renovation of the palace in 1774. The present chapel was designed by architect Fredrik Wilhelm Scholander and was built in 1864–1865 in the Palace garden, in Dutch new Renaissance style with a certain influences from Venice. Next to the palace is the greenhouse, today the Orangery Museum; the Orangery was built at the end of the 17th century by architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger.
Despite a number of changes, Tessin's architecture still dominates the Orangery, which houses parts of the National Museum's sculpture collection, including works by the sculptors Johan Tobias Sergel, Carl Milles and Johan Niclas Byström. In 2005 the Orangery inspired the design of the music pavilion at Stålboga. Morianbron Solna Church Nordisk familjebok, Stockholm: Gernandts boktryckeri-aktiebolag, Vol. No. 16, 1869. Bedoire, Fredric. Svenska slott och herrgårdar. Stockholm: Bonnier. ISBN 91-0-010577-5. RoyalCourt.se
Lidingö is an island in the inner Stockholm archipelago, northeast of Stockholm, Sweden. In 2010, the population of the Lidingö urban area on the island was 31,561, it is the seat of government of Stockholm County. Lidingö's qualities have attracted affluent residents such as Björn Ulvaeus and Agnetha Fältskog of ABBA. Exclusive regions include the coastal region between Mölna and the east tip of the island, Gåshaga, as well as the east tip of the northern part of the horse shoe, called Elfvik. Notwithstanding the fact that many middle-class Swedes have moved to the island, the municipality remains the third wealthiest in Sweden after Danderyd and Täby; the seascape at Lidingö shares similarities with that of Seattle, USA and Sydney, with clear blue skies and waterways. The landscape is one of open farm land; the Lidingö summer is limited to the period between the end of May and August, when the air temperature exceeds 25 °C. Sea water temperatures peak around 20 °C, in mid July, in the inner parts of the archipelago.
September and October are the months of the short autumn. The first snow fall is expected in the first two weeks of November. During winter, thick ice covers the waters around Stockholm and up to 15 to 20 nautical miles into the Baltic Sea; the coldest period is from January until the end of February. Springtime is from mid April to May. Two runic inscriptions have been found on Lidingö; the latest, listed in Rundata as the Uppland Runic Inscription Fv1986 84, was found in 1984 under a 10 cm thick layer of soil and moss in an uninhabited region. The inscription is from the Viking age, around 800–1050 AD; the inscription has been translated as: "Åsmund carved runes in memory of his grandfather Sten, father of Sibbe and Gerbjörn...a great monument over a good man."The figures show large snakes and on top, a Maltese cross, a typical motif for the late Viking age rune stones. 300 to 400 years after the carving of the runes, the inhabitants of Lidingö had established small farms. Lidingö is first mentioned in writing in 1328, in the will of Jedvard Filipsson, in the sentence curiam in Lydhingø meaning a "Lidingö farm".
Bo Jonsson bought the entire island between 1376 and 1381. In 1480, the island was taken over by the Banér family from Djursholm. On 29 August 1774, Johan Gabriel Banér from Djursholm, sold the entire island and the land was divided into 25 farms. In the east part of Lidingö, the Långängen-Elfvik national park, which includes 125 acres of open farmland and most of the forest land on Elfvik, preserved within its boundaries, one of the largest old farms, the Elfviks farm. Most of the original houses, built from the end of the 18th century to mid‑19th century, have been saved and restored; the farm is still active with beef cattle and horses and is run by Lidingö Municipality. The first church was built in 1623; the IBM educational center for northern Europe, was built close to the Elfvik farm in the early 1960s. The centre was converted to a hotel; the following sports clubs are located in Lidingö: IFK Lidingö - IFK Lidingö FK IFK Lidingö - IFK Lidingö SOK IFK Lidingö - IFK Lidingö FRI Lidingöloppet, cross-country running event Hersbyholm
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the project is considered its primary output; the creation and growth of OSM has been motivated by restrictions on use or availability of map information across much of the world, the advent of inexpensive portable satellite navigation devices. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Created by Steve Coast in the UK in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and the predominance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since it has grown to over 2 million registered users, who can collect data using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, other free sources; this crowdsourced data is made available under the Open Database License. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, a non-profit organisation registered in England and Wales; the data from OSM is available for use in both traditional applications, like its usage by Facebook, OsmAnd, MapQuest Open, JMP statistical software, Foursquare to replace Google Maps, more unusual roles like replacing the default data included with GPS receivers.
OpenStreetMap data has been favourably compared with proprietary datasources, although in 2009 data quality varied across the world. Steve Coast founded the project in 2004 focusing on mapping the United Kingdom. In the UK and elsewhere, government-run and tax-funded projects like the Ordnance Survey created massive datasets but failed to and distribute them; the first contribution, made in the British city of London in 2005, was thought to be a road by the Directions Mag. In April 2006, the OpenStreetMap Foundation was established to encourage the growth and distribution of free geospatial data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use and share. In December 2006, Yahoo! confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production. In April 2007, Automotive Navigation Data donated a complete road data set for the Netherlands and trunk road data for India and China to the project and by July 2007, when the first OSM international The State of the Map conference was held, there were 9,000 registered users.
Sponsors of the event included Yahoo! and Multimap. In October 2007, OpenStreetMap completed the import of a US Census TIGER road dataset. In December 2007, Oxford University became the first major organisation to use OpenStreetMap data on their main website. Ways to import and export data have continued to grow – by 2008, the project developed tools to export OpenStreetMap data to power portable GPS units, replacing their existing proprietary and out-of-date maps. In March, two founders announced that they have received venture capital funding of €2.4 million for CloudMade, a commercial company that uses OpenStreetMap data. In November 2010, Bing changed their licence to allow use of their satellite imagery for making maps. In 2012, the launch of pricing for Google Maps led several prominent websites to switch from their service to OpenStreetMap and other competitors. Chief among these were Foursquare and Craigslist, which adopted OpenStreetMap, Apple, which ended a contract with Google and launched a self-built mapping platform using TomTom and OpenStreetMap data.
Map data is collected from scratch by volunteers performing systematic ground surveys using tools such as a handheld GPS unit, a notebook, digital camera, or a voice recorder. The data is entered into the OpenStreetMap database. Mapathon competition events are held by OpenStreetMap team and by non-profit organisations and local governments to map a particular area; the availability of aerial photography and other data from commercial and government sources has added important sources of data for manual editing and automated imports. Special processes are in place to avoid legal and technical problems. Editing of maps can be done using the default web browser editor called iD, an HTML5 application using D3.js and written by Mapbox, financed by the Knight Foundation. The earlier Flash-based application Potlatch is retained for intermediate-level users. JOSM and Merkaartor are more powerful desktop editing applications that are better suited for advanced users. Vespucci is the first full-featured editor for Android.
StreetComplete is a new, easy Android app launched in 2016, which allows users without any OpenStreetMap knowledge to answer simple quests for existing data in OpenStreetMap, thus contribute data. Maps.me is a mobile application offering offline maps which includes a limited OSM data editor. Go Map!! is an iOS app that lets you edit information in OpenStreetMap. Pushpin is another iOS app; the project has a geographically diverse user-base, due to emphasis of local knowledge and ground truth in the process of data collection. Many early contributors were cyclists who survey with and for bicyclists, charting cycleroutes and navigable trails. Others are GIS professionals. Contributors are predominately men, with only 3–5% being women. By August 2008, shortly after the second The State of the Map conference was held, there were over 50,000 registered contributors. In April 2012, OpenStreetMap cleared 600,000 registered contributors. On 6 January 2013, OpenStreetMap reached 1 million registered users.
Around 30% of users have contributed at least one point to the OpenStreetMap database. Ground surveys are performed on foot, bicycle, or in a car, motorcycle or boat. Map data are