Alcázar of Seville
The Alcázar of Seville is a royal palace in Seville, built for the Christian king Peter of Castile. It was built by Castilian Christians on the site of an Abbadid Muslim residential fortress destroyed after the Christian conquest of Seville; the palace, a preeminent example of Mudéjar architecture in the Iberian Peninsula, is renowned as one of the most beautiful. The upper levels of the Alcázar are still used by the royal family as their official residence in Seville, are administered by the Patrimonio Nacional, it is the oldest royal palace still in use in Europe, was registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, along with the adjoining Seville Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies. The term Alcázar comes from the Arabic al-qaṣr, itself derived from the Latin castrum; the Real Alcázar is situated near the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies in one of Andalusia's most emblematic areas. This plot was occupied from the 8th century BC. In the 1st century AD the collegium was built.
The early Visigothic Christian basilica of Saint Vincent was built on its ruins. For the construction of the Palace of Peter of Castile some shafts and capitals of this building were reused, the only Visigothic vestige that has survived to this day; the tombstone of the bishop Honorato, in this church, is in the cathedral. Seville was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate in the year 712. At that time the basilica was demolished to build the first military work, it seems that it was a quadrangular enclosure and annexed to the walls. During the period of the first Taifa kingdoms, various constructions were carried out, such as stables and warehouses, which should not have altered the building as a whole; the citadel began to gain importance in the first half of the 12th century, under the Abbadid dynasty, when the space doubled due to the construction of a large palace called Al-Muwarak, under the current Patio de la Monteria, of which only some archaeological remains are preserved. Under the Almohads, during the caliphate of Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, new buildings for the residence of the Caliph and his court were erected.
With the exception of the walls, the previous buildings were demolished, were carried out up to a total of twelve palaces. In the place where the Patio de la Montería is located, on the foundations of the Abbadid palace, a large building was built, which seems to be organized around a patio that followed the same scheme of the courtyard of the Aljafería of Zaragoza. Today, a sabat, or private passage, remains next to the south façade of the cathedral, which coincides with the Quibla wall of the mosque; that palace had its royal room. A small courtyard, the Patio del Yeso, served as the residence of Pedro I in 1358 before the construction of his new palace; the rest of the architecture of the palace, which includes its most flamboyant parts, covers the whole set built by Alfonso X of Castile and Peter of Castile, with Mudéjar and Mannerist halls and courtyards. Some gardens have Renaissance statues. After damage by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, that façade of the Palacio Gótico overlooking the Patio del Crucero was renovated in Baroque style.
The palace was the birthplace of Infanta Maria Antonietta of Spain, daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, when the king was in the city to oversee the signing of the Treaty of Seville which ended the Anglo-Spanish War. The main entrance to the Alcázar takes its name from the 19th century tile-work inlaid above it, a crowned lion holding a cross in its claws and bearing a Gothic script; the name, meaning "The Courtyard of the Maidens", refers to the legend that the Moors demanded 100 virgins every year as tribute from Christian kingdoms in Iberia. The lower level of the Patio was built for King Peter of Castile and includes inscriptions describing Peter as a "sultan". Various lavish reception rooms are located on the sides of the Patio. In the center is a large, rectangular reflecting pool with sunken gardens on either side. For many years, the courtyard was paved in marble with a fountain in the center. However, historical evidence showed the gardens and the reflecting pool were the original design and this arrangement was restored.
However, soon after this restoration, the courtyard was temporarily paved with marble once again at the request of movie director Ridley Scott. Scott used the paved courtyard as the set for the court of the King of Jerusalem in his movie Kingdom of Heaven; the courtyard arrangement was converted once more after the movie's production. The upper story of the Patio was an addition made by Charles V; the addition was designed by Luis de Vega in the style of the Italian Renaissance although he did include both Renaissance and mudéjar plaster work in the decorations. Construction of the addition began in 1540 and ended in 1572; the "Baths of Lady María de Padilla" are rainwater tanks beneath the Patio del Crucero. The tanks are named after the mistress of Peter the Cruel; the Salon de Embajadores, meaning The Ambassadors Reception Room", was the main room that King Peter of Castile used for his stay at the Alcazar. This room was the most richly decorated within the entire Alcazar Palace, in keeping with its role of power.
In 1526, Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal celebrated their marriage in this room. Patio de las Muñecas Patio de la Montería (Courtyard of the Monte
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt
Royal Palace of Riofrío
The Royal Palace of Riofrío is one of the residences of Spain's royal family and under the management of the Patrimonio Nacional, a government initiative dedicated to the care and maintenance of properties owned by the Spanish state which are used by the royal family. Situated in the municipality of San Ildefonso, in the province of Segovia, central Spain, the building is set in a wooded deer-park. Queen Elisabeth Farnese was widowed in 1746, her husband King Philip V being succeeded by Ferdinand VI, her step-son; as such, to ensure that Elisabeth would remain away from the court, King Ferdinand VI agreed to the construction of a palace at Riofrío for her own disposal. During the reign of her step-son, the queen resided at the Royal Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso. Built in an enclave of the town of San Ildefonso in Segovia, it is some 11 miles from the town that gives its name to the municipality, it is close to the towns of Navas de La Losa. The palace was designed in the Italian style, echoing Elisabeth's birth in the Duchy of Parma, northern Italy.
It was designed with a central square and was given three stories high, designed by architect Virgilio Rabaglio, himself Swiss from Gandria near Lugano. Rabaglio was responsible for the exterior decoration Sexmini Pedro, making it one of the most influential Italian palaces of all time; the palace is likened to its counterpart, the Royal Palace of Madrid, official residence of the Spanish royal family. The dowager queen had wanted her son King Carlo VIII of Naples to succeed the Spanish throne. However, before the works were completed, King Ferdinand VI died childless in August 1759 and was thus succeeded by King Carlo VIII, recognised as King Carlos III of Spain. Elisabeth was created regent till her sons arrival in Spain and subsequently resided at the Royal Palace of Aranjuez, dying there in 1766 having never lived at Riofrío. Elisabeth had succeeded in placing four of her children on thrones and intended to give the property to her youngest son, Infante Luis, Count of Chinchón, however he did not use it.
Having been abandoned, it was completed as a hunting lodge and was only used when royalty hunted in the nearby forests. Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony resided there to avoid the courts disapproval of her childless marriage to King Ferdinand VII; the palace was used by King Francis, consort of Queen Isabel II to avoid his wife and used still by King Alfonso XII, who resided there while mourning his beloved wife Queen Maria de las Mercedes. Points of interest within the palace include the patio addition, grand staircase, chapel along with its collection of paintings and furniture, it is surrounded by a vast forest of 625 hectares, home to deer among other animals. Today Riofrío is the home of a museum dedicated to the history of hunting. List of Baroque residences Media related to Royal Palace of Riofrío at Wikimedia Commons Royal Palace of Riofrío at the Patrimonio Nacional Hunting museum at the Royal Palace of Riofrío The Royal Palace of Riofrío at Google Maps
Palacio de Ripalda
The Palacio de Ripalda was a building of Eclectic style designed in 1889 by Spanish architect Joaquín María Arnau Miramón in the Spanish city of Valencia. The architect Joaquín María Arnau Miramón from 1889 began an intense professional relationship with María Josefa Paulín y de la Peña, widow Countess of Ripalda, who commissioned him for important works, among, the project of a palace for herself on the Paseo de la Alameda of Valencia, it was finished in 1891. In 1936, under the Republic, the palace was used as headquarters of the Ministry of Commerce. In successive years, the building became a romantic landscape of Valencia on the outside, but inside it was suffering the natural vicissitudes of a property, it became difficult to maintain. This palace was one of the icons of the city until it was demolished in 1967. Today, on the site occupied by the palace is a building known as La Pagoda, next to the Jardines de Monforte; the City Council, led by Mayor Adolfo Rincón de Arellano, wanted to raise in Benimamet grounds facilities for a new and modern Trade Fair.
And for resources it had decided to demolish another building of the 1930s. In line with this operation, the owners of the Palacio de Ripalda urged the demolition of the old palace. Everything was accomplished in a few months; the demolition raised scarcely any complaints in the press. The new Fair was a priority. On the site of Llano del Real, the Valencian businessman of hospitality, José Meliá, thought to build a luxury hotel of revolutionary design, but the project was not carried out, due to financial constraints. Two modern buildings - Jardines del Real and la Pagoda - ended up getting up on the site of the Fair and the palace of the Marchioness of Ripalda, it was rumored that the palace was taken, stone to the United States, to be reconstructed. But there is no proof to support this; the Palacio de Ripalda was a peculiar, castle-like building, with a romantic perspective unprecedented in Valencia. Ripalda Genealogy The architecture of the eclecticism in Valencia: sides of the Valencian architecture between 1875 and 1925.
Benito Goerlich, D. City Hall of Valencia, 1992
Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon was a composite monarchy nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Malta, Southern Italy and parts of Greece; the component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.
In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles in the War of the Spanish Succession. Formally, the political center of the Crown of Aragon was Zaragoza, where kings were crowned at La Seo Cathedral. The'de facto' capital and leading cultural and economic centre of the Crown of Aragon was Barcelona, followed by Valencia. Palma was an additional important city and seaport; the Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, the Kingdom of Sicily, the Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of Sardinia. For brief periods the Crown of Aragon controlled Montpellier, Provence and the twin Duchy of Athens and Neopatras in Latin Greece.
The countries that are today known as Spain and Portugal spent the Middle Ages after 722 in an intermittent struggle called the Reconquista. This struggle pitted the northern Christian kingdoms against the Islamic taifa petty kingdoms of the South and against each other. In the Late Middle Ages, the expansion of the Aragonese Crown southwards met with the Castilian advance eastward in the region of Murcia. Afterward, the Aragonese Crown focused on the Mediterranean, acting as far as Greece and Barbary, whereas Portugal, which completed its Reconquista in 1249, would focus on the Atlantic Ocean. Mercenaries from the territories in the Crown, known as almogàvers participated in the creation of this Mediterranean "empire", found employment in countries all across southern Europe; the Crown of Aragon has been considered an empire which ruled in the Mediterranean for hundreds of years, with the power to set rules over the entire sea. It was indeed, at its height, one of the major powers in Europe.
However, its different territories were only connected through the person of the monarch, an aspect of empire seen as early as Achaemenid Persia. A modern historian, Juan de Contreras y Lopez de Ayala, Marqués de Lozoya described the Crown of Aragon as being more like a confederacy than a centralised kingdom, let alone an empire. Nor did official documents refer to it as an empire; the Crown of Aragon originated in 1137, when the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona merged by dynastic union upon the marriage of Petronilla of Aragon and Raymond Berenguer IV of Barcelona. This union respected the existing parliaments of both territories; the combined state was known as Regno, Dominio et Corona Aragonum et Catalonie, as Corona Regum Aragoniae, Corona Aragonum or Aragon. This was due to the reduction of Catalan influence, the renunciation of the family rights of the counts of Barcelona in Occitania, the extinction of the House of Barcelona in 1410; the monarchs denominated themselves de Aragon, Aragon became prominent as an Iberian kingdom linked to the House of Jiménez which ruled over Navarre, Castile and Galicia and Aragon.
Petronilla's father King Ramiro, "The Monk", raised in the Saint Pons de Thomières Monastery, Viscounty of Béziers as a Benedictine monk was the youngest of three brothers. His brothers Peter I and Alfonso I El Batallador had bravely fought against Castile for hegemony in the Iberian peninsula. After the death of Alfonso I, the Aragonese nobility that campaigned close him feared being overwhelmed by the influence of Castile, and so, Ramiro was forced to proclaim himself King of Aragon. He married Agnes, sister of the Duke of Aquitaine and betrothed his only daughter to Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona, member of o
Maria of Castile, Queen of Aragon
Maria of Castile was Queen consort of Aragon and Naples as the spouse of Alfonso V of Aragon. Maria acted as the regent of Aragon during the reign of her spouse, as he was absent during most of his reign, she was briefly Princess of Asturias in her own right as the heir presumptive to the throne of Castile. Maria was the eldest child of King Henry III of Catherine of Lancaster, her godmother was her mother's aunt, Maria de Ayala, a nun and illegitimate daughter of King Peter of Castile. She grew up in an Castilian household in which she lived until her marriage, unusual for a royal daughter destined to marry a foreign prince, her education was supervised by the Great Steward, Pedro González de Mendoza, while her governess was Inés de Ayala y Toledo, 3rd Lady de Casarrubios del Monte. As the King's eldest child, Maria was granted the title of Princess of Asturias, the title reserved for the first-in-line to the throne, her father had her formally recognised as heiress presumptive at the Cortes of Toledo on 6 January 1402.
At the same time, she was bethrothed to her first cousin, the son of her paternal uncle Ferdinand, as a way to strengthen her status. However, the birth of her brother John displaced the Princess in the line of succession, her childhood was quite happy by all accounts. Her father died when she was four, leaving the crown to her only brother, John II, making her heiress presumptive again, her mother, Queen Catherine, governed the Crown of Castile as regent during King John II's minority and the Infanta was able to observe her mother's statesmanship. The queen mother's political actions would make Maria aware of her own responsibilities and prerrogatives as a queen and as a regent. Mother and daughter were close and remained in frequent correspondence after the latter's marriage; the engagement of Maria and Alfonso was not formalised until she was seven, but it had been reconfirmed by King Henry III's last will and testament. By the same arrangement, Maria's brother John was to marry Alfonso's sister Maria and Maria's sister Catherine was to marry Alfonso's brother Henry.
The marriage of Maria and Alfonso was celebrated in the Cathedral of Valencia on 12 June 1415. The couple was wedded by Antipope Benedict XIII who had provided a dispensation for their marriage. Maria was given a splendid dowry in form of land and revenues, while Alfonso was raised to the rank of infante of Castile, her brother would complain that the dowry was too large and that it was in fact the largest dowry given to an infanta of Castile. Family squabbles were frequent due to the politics of her father-in-law and mother-in-law, Eleanor of Alburquerque; the Infantes of Aragon, her brothers-in-law, Henry and the meddlesome John would prove problematic and pertinent to Maria's regency. Maria had a delicate health. A bout of smallpox left her permanently unattractive, she did not have her first menstrual period until she was sixteen and the consummation of the marriage had to be delayed. Her marriage was a political alliance; the few moments of marital happiness occurred during the early years of the marriage.
The lack of children affected their marriage and Alfonso's reign. Their relationship began visibly deteriorating in 1423, after Alfonso's return from Naples. Maria learned about her husband's Italian mistress, Giraldona Carlino, who would give birth to a son, Ferdinand, in 1425. Hurt by his infidelity, she falsely informed him that his mother had died in order to inflict pain on him. Divorce was not an option and the couple remained together out of convenience. Less than one year on 1 April 1416, King Ferdinand I died, leaving the crown to Maria's husband and making her Queen of Aragon. Illness prevented her from attending her mother's funeral. Like all queens of Aragon except for only five, Maria was never crowned queen. There is no evidence that the politically active Queen Eleanor prepared her daughter-in-law for her role, as would have been customary, she was overshadowed by her formidable mother-in-law who continued to exercise strong political influence after her husband's death. The young Queen appeared in public only when it was necessary and refrained from taking part in politics, instead deferring to Eleanor.
Maria moved into the public eye only. In 1420, Alfonso left Aragon to pursue his claim to the throne of Naples, he was unwilling to leave the regency to any of his ambitious and untrustworthy brothers who caused war between Castile and Aragon on several occasions. Instead, he declared Maria his regent. Before departing, he issued a document granting her authority second only to his own and the right to govern as if she were him; as the King was absent from Aragon his entire reign, the Queen was the de facto ruler of the kingdom, holding the formal title of Lieutenant-General. While her personal retinue included many Castilians, Maria strategically appointed only Catalans to the offices during her regency, which contributed to her popularity and the smooth functioning of her court, her first tenure as regent lasted from 1420 until 1423, her second from 1432 until her husband's death in 1458. As such, she was forced to handle the conflicts with the burghers and the peasants which broke out during her husband's reign.
When Alfonso was captured after his defeat at Ponza in Italy in 1435, she organised
The Turia or Túria is a Spanish river which has its source in the Montes Universales in the mountain ranges of the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, Teruel province. From its source to the city of Teruel, it is called Guadalaviar river, it runs through the provinces of Teruel and Valencia, discharges into the Mediterranean sea near the city of Valencia. The river is notorious for its floods; the flood which occurred on 14 October 1957, known as the Great Flood of Valencia, flooded large part of the city of Valencia, produced a great deal of damage to both life and property. To prevent this from happening in the future, a diversion project was devised, completed in 1969, the river was divided in two at the western city limits. During floods, most of the water is diverted southwards along a new course that skirts the city, until it meets the Mediterranean; the old course of the river has been turned into a central green-space for the city, a cultural attraction known as the garden of the Turia.
Not unlike the LA River man-made diversion channel south of the city is found dry, since water flows during periods of flooding. Under ordinary flow rates the waters are directed through irrigation channels to help cultivate the fertile plain of Valencia. Throughout history the water of the River Turia has been used to irrigate the region. In modern times, a complex network of irrigation has been created, with the main axis centred on the diversion project. Beyond irrigation, these channels take runoff and surplus waters from the Turia to the wetlands and marshes around Valencia; the old riverbed is now a verdant sunken park that allows cyclists and pedestrians to traverse much of the city without the use of roads. The park, called the'Garden of the Turia' boasts numerous ponds, fountains, football pitches, cafés, climbing walls, an athletics track, a zen garden and more; the many bridges overhead carry traffic across the park. Towards the park's eastern end is the Gulliver Park, a children's adventure playground featuring a huge fibreglass model of Lemuel Gulliver tied to the ground with ropes.
The model is constructed such. In addition, Gulliver's clothes form ladders on which to play. Towards the eastern end of the river course is the Valencian Music Palace. Marking the park's eastern extreme is Valencia's new City of Arts and Sciences. Two Metrovalencia stations lie beneath the riverbed, with entrances on either bank: Túria and Alameda. List of rivers of Spain Flight over River Turia video River Turia information with maps