Gerald Leighton Patterson MC was an Australian tennis player. Patterson was active in the decade following World War I. During his career he won three Grand Slam tournaments in the singles event as well as six titles in the doubles competition, he was born in Melbourne, educated at Scotch College and Trinity Grammar School and died in Melbourne on 13 June 1967. He was the co-World No. 1 player for 1919 along with Bill Johnston. Tall and well-built, Gerald Patterson played a strong serve-and-volley game. At Wimbledon 1919, Patterson beat 41 year old Norman Brookes, defending champion in the Challenge Round. At Wimbledon 1922, the Challenge Round was abolished and Patterson won the title beating Randolph Lycett in the final. In 1927, Patterson was five championship points down in the Australian singles final against Jack Hawkes, but won in five sets. Patterson was known as the "Human Catapult" for his powerful serve that many of the top players had trouble returning, he enjoyed great success representing Australia in Davis Cup and amassed a 32–14 win–loss record and was part of the winning team in 1919.
Patterson played Davis Cup in 1920, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1928 and as captain in 1946. He was a player ahead of his time, playing with a steel racquet strung with wire in 1925, he was inducted into the Sport Australia Home of Fame in December 1986. This was followed by induction into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1989 and the Australian Tennis Hall of Fame in August 1997. Patterson was the nephew of Australian opera singer Dame Nellie Melba and father of racing driver Bill Patterson. Patterson was awarded the Military Cross for bravery as an officer in Royal Field Artillery in 1917 at Messines. 1Patterson was the first tennis player to play in three Grand Slam singles tournaments within one calender year. Gerald Patterson at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Gerald Patterson at the Association of Tennis Professionals Gerald Patterson at the International Tennis Federation Gerald Patterson at the Davis Cup Australian Dictionary of Biography article
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la
Karrie Ann Webb is an Australian professional golfer. She plays on the U. S.-based LPGA Tour and turns out once or twice a year on the ALPG Tour in her home country. She is a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame, she has 41 wins on the LPGA Tour, more than any other active player. Webb was born in Queensland, she was a member of the Australian Amateur team, making six international appearances from 1992–1994, including a 1994 appearance in the Espirito Santo Trophy World Amateur Golf Team Championships. This was the year she became the Australian Strokeplay Champion where she scored a 128 on a par 68 course, over 36 holes. Webb began her professional golfing career in 1994 playing on the Ladies European Tour where she finished second at the Women's Australian Open and the Futures Tour in the U. S. where she won one tournament. In 1995 she became the youngest winner of the Weetabix Women's British Open in her rookie season in Europe, prior to it being classed as an LPGA major, was European Rookie of the Year.
She qualified for the LPGA Tour after she finished second at the LPGA Final Qualifying Tournament despite playing with a broken bone in her wrist. In 1996 Webb won her first LPGA tournament in her second LPGA start at the HealthSouth Inaugural on the fourth hole of a sudden death playoff, she won three other tournaments and became the first LPGA player to win $1 million mark in a single season topping the year end money list. She was the 1996 LPGA Rookie of the Year. In 1997 Webb won three times on the LPGA Tour including another win at the Weetabix Women's British Open, won her first Vare Trophy and was voted 1997 ESPY Best Female Golfer. In 1999 Webb won her first major championship at the du Maurier Ltd. Classic and won her first LPGA Tour Player of the Year award. Webb took part in the largest playoff in LPGA Tour history at the 1999 Jamie Farr Kroger Classic. Se Ri Pak birdied the first sudden death playoff hole to defeat Webb, Mardi Lunn, Carin Koch, Sherri Steinhauer, Kelli Kuehne. In 2000, Webb won two more major championships, following up her win at the Nabisco Championship with a win at the U.
S. Women's Open; this gained her a second consecutive Rolex Player of the Year title and Vare Trophy and she topped the money list, missing out on a chance to become the LPGA's first single-season $2 million winner by taking a mid season break to return home to Australia to run with the Olympic torch. Teamed with Rachel Hetherington representing Australia she won the Women's World Cup in Malaysia, was awarded the preeminent sport award in Australia, the Dawn Fraser Award. and was named Female Player of the Year by the Golf Writers Association of America. She defended her U. S. Women's Open title in 2001 and won the LPGA Championship to become the youngest winner of the LPGA Career Grand Slam, she teamed with David Duval to play against Annika Sörenstam and Tiger Woods in a made-for-TV Battle at Bighorn between the two best male and two best female players in the world. At the time, it provided women's golf its largest audience ever. Webb's win at the 2002 Women's British Open, which had become an LPGA major in 2001, meant she completed a Super Career Grand Slam – every available major championship in women's golf in her career.
Webb now suffered a three-year slump. She collected just two LPGA wins in the next two years and in 2005 had a best LPGA finish of tied sixth although she did team up with Rachel Hetherington to represent Australia at the Women's World Cup of Golf and won her fifth ANZ Ladies Masters title back home in Australia. Webb qualified for entry to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2000, but was not eligible for induction until she had played ten LPGA Tour events in each of ten seasons, she met this criterion on 9 June 2005. At age 30, she became the youngest living person to enter the Hall of Fame, kept that distinction until 2007, when fellow LPGA star Se Ri Pak was inducted. Webb staged a comeback season in 2006. In the final round at the Kraft Nabisco Championship she holed a 116-yard shot from the fairway to eagle the 18th hole and birdied the same hole in a sudden-death playoff to beat Lorena Ochoa and win her second Kraft Nabisco Championship, she won four other tournaments including Mizuno Classic.
Her 2006 Kraft Nabisco win took her into the top ten of the Women's World Golf Rankings for the first time since they were introduced in February 2006. Her 41 LPGA Tour victories places her tied for 10th with Babe Zaharias on the list of players with the most career LPGA tournament wins and first among all active players. LPGA Tour playoff record LPGA majors are shown in bold. 1998 Australian Ladies Masters2 1999 Australian Ladies Masters2 2000 AAMI Women's Australian Open4, Australian Ladies Masters2 2001 ANZ Ladies Masters4 2002 AAMI Women's Australian Open4 2005 ANZ Ladies Masters4 2007 MFS Women's Australian Open4, ANZ Ladies Masters4 2008 MFS Women's Australian Open4 2010 ANZ Ladies Masters4 2013 Volvik RACV Ladies Masters4 2014 ISPS Handa Women's Australian Open5 2000 Nichriei World Ladies Cup 2001 Nichriei World Ladies Cup 2006 Mizuno Classic3 1995 Weetabix Women's British Open1 1997 Weetabix Women's British Open1 2000 AAMI Women's Australian Open4 2001 ANZ Ladies Masters4 2002 AAMI Women's Australian Open4, Weetabix Women's British Open1 2005 ANZ Ladies Masters4 2006 Evian Masters1 2007 MFS Women's Australian Open4, ANZ Ladies Masters4 2008 MFS Women's Australian Open4 2010 ANZ Ladies Masters4 2013 Volvik RACV Ladies Masters4, ISPS Handa Ladies European Masters 2014 ISPS Handa Women's Australian Open5 1995 Golden Flake Golden Ocala Futures Classic 2000 Women's World Cup Golf (with Rachel Het
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Concord, New South Wales
Concord is a suburb in the inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 10 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Canada Bay. Concord is known as the'Parklands Suburb' of the Inner West. Concord West is a separate suburb, to the north-west. Concord takes its name from Concord, Massachusetts, in the USA, the site of the Battle of Concord, one of the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War; some historians believe the Sydney suburb was named Concord to encourage a peaceful attitude between soldiers and settlers. The first land grants in the area were made in 1793; the original Concord Council was established in 1883. Concord Council amalgamated with Drummoyne Council in 2000 after 117 years of self governance to form the City of Canada Bay, it is the name of the surrounding parish. Concord features a small shopping strip on Majors Bay Road. Several cafes and restaurants featuring outside dining are located here.
There is a small shopping strip on Cabarita Road. St Luke's Anglican Church is one of the oldest churches in Concord; the church is located at Burton Street near Concord Oval. Its current organ was donated by Dame Eadith Walker, of the famous Walker family on her 21st birthday in 1883. St Mary's Catholic Church is a prominent architectural landmark on Parramatta Road; the first church on the site was built in 1845 until a new church was built in 1874. A school operated in the original church building until a separate school building was built and opened by Cardinal Moran in 1894. A convent for the Sisters of Charity was erected next to the church in 1898; the present church building was completed in 1929. Concord has many parks, including: Queen Elizabeth Park Henley Park Majors Bay Reserve, including Arthur Walker and Ron Routly Reserves. Concord Golf Course, Massey Park, Cintra Park Concord Oval Sid Richards Park Central Park, St Lukes Park, Bayview Park, Edwards Park, Greenlees Park, Goddard Park, Rothwell Park.
State Transit and Transit Systems operate 9 routes via Concord: 439 & L39: Mortlake to the City via Five Dock & Leichhardt 458: Burwood station to Ryde 460: Concord Hospial to Five Dock 464: Mortlake to Ashfield station 466: Cabarita Park to Ashfield station via Bayview Park 502: Bayview Park to the City via Victoria Road 526: One weekday service from Concord High School to Olympic Park wharf via Burwood & Strathfield M41: Hurstville via Campsie and Ryde to MarsfieldConcord West railway station & North Strathfield railway station service the Concord area. The stops are on the Northern line 14 km from Central Station. Sydney Ferries service the Concord area stopping at Cabarita Wharf. Concord was once serviced by an independent tram line which ran from Mortlake and Cabarita junction through Majors Bay Road, though to Burwood Road south though Burwood CBD and terminating at Enfield, its most southern point; this tram system did not join with the rest of the Sydney wide tram network which ceased operating in the early 1960s.
Bus services between Mortlake/Breakfast Point and Cabarita to Burwood follow the old tram lines through the suburb, which were removed in 1948. Few hints of Concord's trams remain today apart from the extra width of Majors Bay Road and Brewer Street in order to accommodate a double track tramway and the existence of Tramway Lane and Cabarita Junction, where the tram tracks split, with one track providing the Mortlake branch and the other the Cabarita branch. Schools in the suburb are Concord Public School Concord High School St Mary's Primary School Mortlake Public School At the 2016 census, there were 14,533 residents in Concord. 62.1% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were Italy 6.4%, China 5.3%, England 2.0%, South Korea 1.8% and India 1.5%. In Concord 57.6% of people only spoke English at home, compared to the national average of 68.5&. Other languages spoken at home included Italian 11.0%, Mandarin 5.8%, Cantonese 3.4%, Greek 3.3% and Arabic 3.3%. The most common responses for religion in Concord were Catholic 45.4%, No Religion 20.2% and Anglican 7.8%.
Notable people who have resided in the suburb have included: Isaac Nichols - Australia Post's first postmaster and original owner of Walker Estate Phillip Wilcher - Australian classical pianist and composer one of the original members of The Wiggles Thomas Walker - Australian politician, prominent land owner in Concord, father of Dame Eadith Campbell Walker. Walker built the Italianate mansion Yaralla in the 1860s, it was extended in the 1890s by John Sulman and is now used as the Dame Eadith Walker Convalescent Hospital. It is listed on the Register of the National Estate. Thomas Walker Convalescent Hospital was built in fulfilment of Walker's will, it too was designed by John Sulman and is on the Register of the National Estate Dame Eadith Walker - Australian philanthropist and major land owner in Concord for much of the late 19th and early 20th Century who aided in establishing Concord Repatriation General Hospital Selwyn Francis Edge - businessman, racing driver, record-breaker. He is principally associated with selling and racing De Dion-Bouton, Gladiator, AC C
A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played. It comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, a fairway, the rough and other hazards, a green with a flagstick and hole. A standard round of golf consists of 18 holes. Most courses contain 18 holes. Par-3 courses consist of 18 holes all of which have a par of three strokes. Many older courses are links coastal. Courses are private and municipally owned, feature a pro shop. Many private courses are found at country clubs. Although a specialty within landscape design or landscape architecture, golf course architecture is considered a separate field of study; some golf course architects become celebrities in their own right, such as Robert Trent Jones, Jr.. The field is represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, the European Institute of Golf Course Architects, the Society of Australian Golf Course Architects, although many of the finest golf course architects in the world choose not to become members of any such group, as associations of architects are not government-sanctioned licensing bodies, but private groups.
While golf courses follow the original landscape, some modification is unavoidable. This is the case as new courses are more to be sited on less optimal land. Bunkers and sand traps are always artificial, although other hazards may be natural; the layout of a course follows certain traditional principles, such as the number of holes, their par values, the number of holes of each par value per course. It is preferable to arrange greens to be close to the tee box of the next playable hole, to minimize travel distance while playing a round, to vary the mix of shorter and longer holes. Combined with the need to package all the fairways within what is a compact square or rectangular plot of land, the fairways of a course tend to form an oppositional tiling pattern. In complex areas, two holes may share the same tee box, fairway, or green, it is common for separate tee-off points to be positioned for men and amateurs, each one lying closer to the green. Eighteen-hole courses are traditionally broken down into a "front 9" and a "back 9".
On older courses, the holes may be laid out in one long loop and ending at the clubhouse, thus the front 9 is referred to on the scorecard as "out" and the back 9 as "in". More recent courses tend to be designed with the front 9 and the back 9 each constituting a separate loop beginning and ending at the clubhouse; this is for the convenience of the players and the club, as it is easier to play just a 9-hole round, if preferred, or stop at the clubhouse for a snack between the front 9 and the back 9. A successful design is as visually pleasing. With golf being a form of outdoor recreation, the strong designer is an adept student of natural landscaping who understands the aesthetic cohesion of vegetation, water bodies, grasses and woodwork, among other elements. Most golf courses have only par-3, −4, −5 holes, although some courses include par-6 holes; the Ananti CC and the Satsuki golf course in Sano, Japan are the only courses with par 7 holes. Typical distances for the various holes from standard tees are as follows.
Men Par 3 – 250 yards and below Par 4 – 251–450 yards Par 5 – 451–690 yards Women Par 3 – 210 yards and below Par 4 – 211–400 yards Par 5 – 401–575 yards Harder or easier courses may have longer- or shorter-distance holes, respectively. Terrain can be a factor, so that a long downhill hole might be rated par 4, but a shorter uphill or treacherous hole might be rated par 5. Tournament players will play from a longer-distance tee box, behind the standard men's tee, which increases the typical distance of each par; this compensates for the longer distance pro players can put on tee and fairway shots as compared to the average "bogey golfer". The game of golf is played in what is called a "round"; this consists of playing a set number of holes in an order predetermined by the course. When playing on an 18-hole course, each hole is played once. To begin a hole, players start by striking the ball off a tee. Playing the ball off a tee can only be used on the first shot of every hole although it is not required to use a tee on the first shot.
Tees are a small wooden or plastic peg used to hold the ball up, so that when hit by the club the ball travels as far as possible. The first section of every hole consists of tee-box. There is more than one available box where a player places his ball, each one a different distance from the hole to provide differing difficulty; the teeing ground is as level as feasible, with mown grass similar to that of a putting green, most are raised from the surrounding fairway. Each tee box has