The Royal Palace of Gödöllő / Gödöllő Palace is an imperial and royal Hungarian palace located in the municipality of Gödöllő in Pest county, central Hungary. It is famous for being a favourite place of Queen Elisabeth of Hungary; the palace is one of the most important, largest monuments of Hungarian palace architecture. Its builder, Count Antal Grassalkovich I was a typical figure of the regrouping Hungarian aristocracy of the 18th century, he was a Royal Septemvir, president of the Hungarian Chamber, confidant of Empress Maria Theresa. The construction began around 1733, under the direction of András Mayerhoffer a famous builder from Salzburg who worked in Baroque and Zopf style; the palace has a double U shape, is surrounded by an enormous park. The building underwent several modifications during the 18th century. By the building had 8 wings, - besides the residential part - it contained a church, a theatre, a riding-hall, a hothouse, a greenhouse for flowers and an orangery. After the male side of the Grassalkovich family died out in 1841, the palace had several owners, in 1867 it was bought for the crown.
The decision of parliament designated it the resting residence of the King of Hungary. This state lasted until 1918, thus Francis Joseph and Charles IV and the royal family spent several months in Gödöllő every year. During this period the palace became the symbol of independent Hungarian statehood, and, as a residential centre it had a political significance of its own, it was Queen Elisabeth who specially loved staying in Gödöllő, where the Hungarian personnel and neighbourhood of the palace always warmly welcomed her. She was able to converse fluently in Hungarian. Following her tragic death, a memorial park adjoining; the period of the royal decades brought their enlargements and modifications. The suites were made more comfortable, a marble stable and coach house were built; the riding hall was remodelled. Between the two world wars the palace served as the residence for Regent Miklós Horthy. No significant building took place during this period, apart from an air-raid shelter in the southern front garden.
After 1945 the palace, like many other buildings in Hungary, fell into decay. Soviet and Hungarian troops used the building, some of the beautifully decorated rooms were used for an old people's home, the park was divided into smaller plots of land; the protection of the palace as a historical monument started in 1981, when the National Board for Monuments launched its palace project. The most important tasks of preservation began in 1986 and were completed in the end of 1991. During this time the palace was emptied. By 1990 the Soviet troops left the southern wing the old people's home was closed down. During this time the roof of the riding-hall and the stable-wing was reconstructed, the façade of the building was renovated, as well as the trussing of the central wings and the double cupola. Research was carried out in the archives and in the building, thus the different building periods of the monument were defined. Painted walls and rooms were uncovered. Architectural structures were discovered, so were the different structures of the park.
The utilisation of the main front wings of the palace was designed as a clear and well-developed architectural project. The first floor's 23 rooms accommodate the interior exhibition; the emphasis was laid on the revival of the atmosphere of the royal period and the introduction of the time of the Grassalkovich family. Reconstruction is the principle of the interiors completed so far creating the state as it was around the 1880s. One of the most striking features of the Empress Elisabeth Exhibition is its historical accuracy; the painted foyer and the Grand Hall on the first floor are used for various programmes, with a link to the programme organisation and gastronomic activity unit on the ground floor. Right before the double drive there is a car park for the visitors, suitable for 60 cars and 5 buses at a time; the visitor service units and the connected infrastructure are situated on the ground floor: cloak-room, ticket office, tourist information centre, payphone, etc. Various retail units are found on the northern side: a souvenir centre, photo studio, while on the southern side there is a coffee shop and several function rooms.
The northern front garden, at the main façade with its so-called Italian bastions and walkways was reconstructed with historical authenticity in 1998. The cheerful inner court is a resting place; the 26-hectare English park, open to the public every year, was declared a nature reserve in 1998. Its botanical curiosities are much appreciated by the visitors. Riding competitions are held in the park annually. Gödöllő travel guide from Wikivoyage The Royal Palace of Gödöllő
Achilleion is a palace built in Gastouri on the Island of Corfu for Empress of Austria, Elisabeth of Bavaria known as Sisi, after a suggestion by Austrian Consul Alexander von Warsberg. Elisabeth was saddened by the tragic loss of her only son, Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria during the Mayerling Incident in 1889, a year she had this summer palace built in the region of Gastouri, about ten kilometres to the south of the city of Corfu in Achilleio. Achilleion's location provides a panoramic view of Corfu city to the north, across the whole southern part of the island; the architectural style was intended to represent an ancient palace of mythical Phaeacia The palace was designed with the hero Achilles of Greek mythology as its central theme, from which the name is derived. Corfu was Elisabeth's favourite vacation place and she wanted a palace to gratify her admiration for Greece, its language and its culture; the property operates as a museum under the management of Hellenic Tourism Development Company, with parent organization: Greek National Tourism Organization.
The Achilleion property was owned by Corfiote philosopher and diplomat Petros Vrailas Armenis and it was known as "Villa Vraila". In 1888, the Empress of Austria after visiting the place decided that it was the ideal location for her to build her palace on Corfu; the palace was built on a 200,000 m2 area. Elisabeth's husband, Emperor Franz Josef of Austria, had owned some nearby land as well; the German sculptor Ernst Herter was commissioned to create works inspired from Greek mythology. His sculpture Dying Achilles, created in Berlin in 1884 as inscribed in the statue, forms the centrepiece of the Achilleion Gardens; the architectural design was intended to represent an ancient Phaeacian palace. The building, with the classic Greek statues that surround it, is a monument to platonic romanticism as well as escapism and was named after Achilles: Achilleion. Paintings and statues of Achilles are abundant, both in the main hall and in the gardens, depicting contrasting heroic and tragic scenes of the Trojan war.
The architectural style is Pompeian and has many parallels to that of the Russian imperial residence in Crimea. Elisabeth wrote that "I want a palace with pillared colonnades and hanging gardens, protected from prying glances — a palace worthy of Achilles, who despised all mortals and did not fear the gods." Sisi only used the Achilleion as a refuge from the world and her past. She only received her daughters Archduchess Marie Valerie and Archduchess Gisela with their husbands there. Elisabeth's husband, Emperor Franz Joseph I, never saw the palace; the Imperial gardens on top of the hill provide a scenic view of the surrounding green hills and valleys, with the Ionian sea in the background. Elisabeth visited Achilleion until spring 1896, she lost interest in her palace though and considered selling it. Much of the interior was moved back to Vienna. In September 1898 Elisabeth was assassinated by Italian anarchist Luigi Lucheni in Geneva. After Elisabeth's death, the palace was not used often. German Kaiser Wilhelm II used it as a summer residence.
During Kaiser Wilhelm's visits a lot of diplomatic activity took place in Achilleion and it became a hub of European diplomacy. Besides the Greek royal family, Wilhelm's sister Sophia of Prussia, the Queen consort of Greece came to visit Corfu; the Kaiser invited intellectuals like the German archaeologist Wilhelm Dörpfeld to his retreat. The Emperor had a great interest in the plants of the park and hired Carl Ludwig Sprenger, a renowned botanist, who would live in the palace for about three months every year. Wilhelm came to Achilleion during the Easter season as he enjoyed the local festivities and cultural events; the German imperial family were staying on Corfu for about one month every year until the outbreak of World War One, except in 1910 and 1913 when they did not go there due to political conflicts on the Balkans. Wilhelm, expanding on the main theme of the grounds, commissioned his own Achilles statue from the sculptor Johannes Götz who created an imposing bronze sculpture that stands as guardian of the gardens, facing north toward the city.
Archaeologist Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz, the Kaiser's advisor, was invited by the Kaiser to come to Corfu for advice as to where to position the huge statue. This tribute to Achilles from the Kaiser was inscribed at the statue's base by Kekulé: To the Greatest Greek from the Greatest German The inscription was subsequently removed after WWII; the Kaiser's statue represents Achilles in full hoplite uniform with intricate detailing such as a relief of a gorgon's head at the shield to petrify any enemies, as well as lion heads as knee protectors. This tall statue is surrounded by palm trees. Kaiser Wilhelm visited the place until 1914; the Kaiser attended performances at the Municipal Theatre of Corfu while vacationing at the Achilleion. The Kaiser, while vacationing at Achilleion and while Europe was preparing for war, had been involved in excavations at the site of the ancient temple of Artemis in Corfu, he removed the statue of German poet Heinrich Heine which Empress Elisabeth had installed at Achilleion.
Kaiser's actions became the subject of the film-poem The Gaze of the Gorgon, written by British poet Tony Harrison. During World War I, the Achilleion was used as a military hospital by Serbian troops. After World War I, it became the property of t
Ducal palace, Mantua
The Palazzo Ducale di Mantova is a group of buildings in Mantua, northern Italy, built between the 14th and the 17th century by the noble family of Gonzaga as their royal residence in the capital of their Duchy. The buildings are connected by corridors and galleries and are enriched by inner courts and wide gardens; the complex includes some 500 rooms and occupies an area of c. 34,000 m². Although most famous for Mantegna's frescos in the Camera degli Sposi, they have many other significant architectural and painted elements; the Gonzaga family lived in the palace from 1328 to 1707. Subsequently, the buildings saw a sharp decline, halted in the 20th century with a continuing process of restoration and the designation of the area as museum. In 1998, a hidden room was discovered by Palace scholars, led by musicologist Paula Bezzutti; the room is thought to have been used for performances of Monteverdi's music in the late 16th century. The entrance of the palace is from Piazza Sordello, onto which the most ancient buildings, the Palazzo del Capitano and the Magna Domus, open.
They formed the original nucleus of the so-called Corte Vecchia. The Palazzo del Capitano was built in the late 13th century by the Captain of the People Guido Buonacolsi. Built on two floors and separated from the Magna Domus by an alley, in the early 14th century it received a further floor and was united to the Magna Domus by a large façade with a portico; the additional floor consists of a huge hall, known as "Hall of the Weapon Room" of "Hall of Diet", as it housed the Diet of Mantua in 1459. The monumental Scalone delle Duchesse, built in the 17th century and renovated in 1779 by Paolo Pozzo, leads to the Room of the Morone, named after the 1494 canvas of the Veronese painter Domenico Morone, portraying the Expulsion of the Bonacolsi in 1328. In the noble floor of the Captain's Palace is the First Room of Guastalla, with a fresco frieze with portraits of the Gonzaga family, which once extended to the successive room, the "Room of Pisanello", from the artist who, from 1433, painted a series of frescoes depicting a Tournament and other scenes, which were left unfinished.
His commissioner, Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, is portrayed in the paintings. The frescoes were restored in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1519 Isabella d'Este moved her residence from the Castle of St. George to this older sector of the Gonzaga palace, in the so-called "Widow Apartment". Isabella's apartment included two wings now divided by the entrance to the Cortile d'Onore; the "Grotto Wing" housed the wooden furnitures and the paintings from her famous studiolo, commissioned from 1496 to 1505 to Mantegna, Lorenzo Costa the Elder and Perugino, as well as new ones by Correggio. Another hall in the same wing is the Camera Granda or Scalcheria, frescoed in 1522 by the Mantuan artist Lorenzo Leonbruno; the apartment included further halls in the so-called "Wing of Santa Croce", from the name of a church of the time of Matilda of Canossa, over whose remains were built rooms such as the Sala delle Imprese Isabelliane, the Sala Imperiale, Sala delle Calendule, Sala delle Targhe and Sala delle Imprese. Guglielmo X Gonzaga, in the 16th century, transformed the rooms of the Corte Vecchia creating the Refectory, facing the Hanging Garden, the Sala dello Specchio, used for music.
During the Habsburg rule in Mantua, the Refectory was refurbished, with the creation of the Sala dei Fiumi with paintings on the walls on which the rivers in the Mantuan territory are portrayed as giants. At the same time was created the Appartamento degli Arazzi, comprising four halls. Three of the latter have tapestries, executed in the Flanders on cartoons by Raphael, the same used for those in the Raphael Rooms in the Vatican Palace, they were bought at Brussels by Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga in the early 16th century to decorate what at the time was called the Green Apartment. After decorating the Palatine church of St. Barbara and a period in the Ducal Palace's stores, the Flemish tapestries were restored in 1799 and placed in the current location. A further restoration was carried on during the Napoleonic Wars in the Sala dello Zodiaco known as "Napoleon I's Hall", after the French emperor slept there. Main article: Castello di San Giorgio, Mantua The Castle of St. George was built from 1395 and finished in 1406 under commission by Francesco I Gonzaga, designed by Bartolino da Novara, one of the most renowned military architects of the time.
It has a square plan with four corner towers, surrounded by a ditch with three entrances, each one with a drawbridge. In 1459 architect Luca Fancelli, commissioned by marquis Ludovico III Gonzaga, who assigned several rooms of the Corte Vecchia for the Council of Mantua called by Pope Pius II, restored the castle, which lost its military and defensive function; the Camera Picta or Camera degli Sposi is the most famous room of the palace, known for its frescoes executed by Andrea Mantegna, from 1465 to 1475, as attested by slab celebrating the end of the works. The painter's decoration creates an illusionistic space, as if the chamber was a loggia with three openings facing country landscapes among arcades and curtains; the painted scenes portrays me
Schönbrunn Palace was the main summer residence of the Habsburg rulers, located in Hietzing, Vienna. The 1,441-room Baroque palace is one of the most important architectural and historical monuments in the country. Since the mid-1950s it has been a major tourist attraction; the history of the palace and its vast gardens spans over 300 years, reflecting the changing tastes and aspirations of successive Habsburg monarchs. In 1569, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II purchased a large floodplain of the Wien river beneath a hill, situated between Meidling and Hietzing, where a former owner, in 1548, had erected a mansion called Katterburg; the emperor ordered the area to be fenced and put game there such as pheasants, ducks and boar, in order for it to serve as the court's recreational hunting ground. In a small separate part of the area, "exotic" birds such as turkeys and peafowl were kept. Fishponds were built; the name Schönbrunn has its roots in an artesian well from. During the next century, the area was used as a recreation ground.
Eleonora Gonzaga, who loved hunting, spent much time there and was bequeathed the area as her widow's residence after the death of her husband, Ferdinand II. From 1638 to 1643, she added a palace to the Katterburg mansion, while in 1642 came the first mention of the name "Schönbrunn" on an invoice; the origins of the Schönbrunn orangery seem to go back to Eleonora Gonzaga as well. The Schönbrunn Palace in its present form was built and remodelled during the 1740–50s during the reign of empress Maria Theresa who received the estate as a wedding gift. Franz I commissioned the redecoration of the palace exterior in the neoclassical style as it appears today. Franz Joseph, the longest-reigning emperor of Austria, was born at Schönbrunn and spent a great deal of his life there, he died there, at the age of 86, on 21 November 1916. Following the downfall of the Habsburg monarchy in November 1918, the palace became the property of the newly founded Austrian Republic and was preserved as a museum. After World War II and during the Allied Occupation of Austria, Schönbrunn Palace was requisitioned to provide offices for both the British Delegation to the Allied Commission for Austria, for the headquarters for the small British Military Garrison present in Vienna.
With the reestablishment of the Austrian republic in 1955, the palace once again became a museum. It is still sometimes used for important events such as the meeting between U. S. president John F. Kennedy and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1961. Since 1992 the palace and gardens have been owned and administered by the Schloss Schönbrunn Kultur-und Betriebsges.m.b. H. A limited-liability company wholly owned by the Republic of Austria; the company conducts restoration of all palace properties without state subsidies. UNESCO catalogued Schönbrunn Palace on the World Heritage List in 1996, together with its gardens, as a remarkable Baroque ensemble and example of synthesis of the arts; the sculpted garden space between the palace and the Neptune Fountain is called the Great Parterre. The French garden, a big part of the area, was planned by Jean Trehet, a disciple of André Le Nôtre, in 1695, it contains, among other things, a maze. The complex however includes many more attractions: Besides the Tiergarten, an orangerie erected around 1755, staple luxuries of European palaces of its type, a palm house is noteworthy.
Western parts were turned into English garden style in 1828–1852. The area called Meidlinger Vertiefung to the west of the castle was turned into a play area and drill ground for the children of the Habsburgs in the 19th century. At this time it was common to use parks for the military education of young princes. Whereas the miniature bastion, built for this purpose, does not exist anymore, the garden pavilion, used as shelter still does, it was turned into a café in 1927 and is known as Landtmann’s Jausen Station since 2013. At the outmost western edge, a botanical garden going back to an earlier arboretum was re-arranged in 1828, when the Old Palm House was built. A modern enclosure for Orangutans, was restored besides a restaurant and office rooms in 2009; the Great Parterre of Schönbrunn is lined with 32 sculptures, which represent virtues. The garden axis points towards a 60-metre-high hill, which since 1775 has been crowned by the Gloriette structure. Maria Theresa decided the Gloriette should be designed to glorify Habsburg power and the Just War, thereby ordered the builders to recycle "otherwise useless stone", left from the near-demolition of Schloss Neugebäude.
The same material was to be used for the Roman ruin. The Gloriette was destroyed in the Second World War, but had been restored by 1947, was restored again in 1995; the Gloriette today houses a café and an observation deck which provides panoramic views of the city. Known as the Ruin of Carthage, the Roman Ruin is a set of follies, designed by the architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg and erected as an new architectural feature in 1778. Integrated into its parkland surroundings, this architectural ensemble should be understood as a picturesque horticultural feature and not as a ruin, which due to lack of maintenance it had grown to resemble prior to its recent restoration. The
Bellagio is a comune in the Province of Como in the Italian region of Lombardy. It is located on Lake Como known by its Latin-derived name Lario, whose arms form an inverted Y; the triangular land mass at the base of the inverted Y is the Larian Triangle: at its northern point sits Bellagio, looking across to the northern arm of the lake and, behind it, the Alps. It has always been famous for its location, it belongs to a mountain community named Comunità montana del Triangolo lariano, with base in Canzo. Bellagio is situated upon the cape of the land mass; the city centre occupies the tip of the promontory, while other districts are scattered along the lake shores and up the slopes of the hills. The great Pleistocene glaciations with their imposing flows coming from the Valtellina and Valchiavenna modelled the actual landscape of Lake Como: at least four times the glaciers went as far as Brianza to the south. From the ancient glacial blanket only the highest tops emerged, one of them Mount St. Primo, which obliged the glaciers to divide into two arms.
Nowadays, a luxuriance of trees and flowers is favoured by a sweet climate. The average daytime temperature during winter is below 6 to 7 °C, while during summer it is around 25 to 28 °C, mitigated during the afternoon by the characteristic breva, the gentle breeze of Lake Como; the historic centre of Bellagio shelters 350m southwest of the promontory of the Larian Triangle, between the Villa Serbelloni on the hill and the Como arm of the lake. At the far tip of the promontory are a park and a marina. Parallel to the shore are three streets, Mazzini and Garibaldi in ascending order. Cutting across them to form a sloped grid are seven medieval stone stairs running uphill; the Basilica of San Giacomo and a stone tower, sole relic of medieval defences, sit in a piazza at the top. Though there are signs of a human presence around Bellagio in the Paleolithic Period, it is only in the 7th to 5th centuries BC that there appears on the promontory a castellum a place of worship and of exchange which served the numerous small villages on the lake.
The first identifiable inhabitants of the territory of Bellagio, from 400BC, were the Insubres, a Celtic tribe in part of Lombardy and on Lake Como up to the centre of the lake, occupying the western shore. The Insubres lived free and independently until the arrival of the Gauls, led by Belloveso, around the year 600 BC, undid the Insubres and settled in Milan and Como, occupying the shores of the lake and creating a garrison at the extreme point of their conquest, Bellagio; the Gauls thus became Gallo-Insubres, merged with the primitive inhabitants and introduced their customs and traditions, leaving traces in local names: Crux Galli, on the side of Lezzeno, Gallo, a small chapel on the old road of Limonta which marks today the border between the two municipalities. In 225 BC, the territory of the Gallo-Insubres was occupied by the Romans, in their gradual expansion to the north; the Romans, led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeated the Gallo-Insubres in a fierce battle near Camerlata, occupying Como and the shores of the lake.
Insubre hopes of independence were raised by an alliance with Hannibal during the Second Punic War, but dashed by defeat in 104 BC and absorption into a Roman province in 80 BC. Bellagio became both a Roman garrison and a point of passage and wintering for the Roman armies on their way through to the province of Raetia and the Splügen pass. Troops wintered at the foot of the present Villa Serbelloni, sheltered from north winds and the Mediterranean climate; such variant Latin names as Belacius and Bislacus suggest Bellagio was Bi-lacus. Between 81 and 77 BC Cornelius Scipio brought 3,000 Latin colonists to Lake Como. From 59 BC Julius Caesar, as pro-consul, brought up another 5000 colonists, most 500 Greeks from Sicily, their names are still borne by their descendants. Bellagio became a mixture of races which became more complex in the following centuries, it increased its strategic importance because, as well as a place for wintering, it sheltered warships at Loppia, where the natural creek made it easy to repair them.
Around Loppia there formed one of the first suburbs of Bellagio. The Romans introduced many Mediterranean crops, including laurel. Among the other plant species introduced were the chestnut widespread in southern Italy, the cypress, so well naturalised today as to be considered native, many kinds of herbaceous plants. In the early decades of the Empire, two great figures brought fame to the lake and Bellagio: Virgil and Pliny the Younger. Virgil, the Latin poet, visited Bellagio and remembered the lake in the second book of the Georgics, verse 155. Pliny the Younger, resident in Como for most of the year, among others, a summer villa near the top of the hill of Bellagio. Pliny describes in a letter the long periods he spent in his Bellagio villas, not only studying and writing but hunting and fishing. Through Bellagio passed, in 9 AD, the Roman legions led by Publius Quinctilius Varus, which had to cross the Splügen pass into Germany against Arminius, they were annihilated in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
At the time of the barbarian invasions, Narse
The Prater is a large public park in Vienna's 2nd district. The Wurstelprater, an amusement park, simply called "Prater", lies in one corner of the Wiener Prater and includes the Wiener Riesenrad Ferris wheel; the name Prater derives from one or the other or both Latin words pratum, meaning meadow, Praetor, meaning magistrate or lawyer via Spanish prado or Italian prato. The area that makes up the modern Prater was first mentioned in 1162, when Emperor Friedrich I gave the land to a noble family called de Prato; the word "Prater" was first used in 1403 referring to a small island in the Danube north of Freudenau, but was extended to mean the neighbouring areas as well. The land changed hands until it was bought by Emperor Maximilian II in 1560 to be a hunting ground. To deal with the problem of poachers, Emperor Rudolf II forbade entry to the Prater. On April 7, 1766, Emperor Joseph II declared the Prater to be free for public enjoyment, allowed the establishment of coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater.
Throughout this time, hunting continued to take place in the Prater, ending only in 1920. In 1873, a World Exhibition was held in the Prater, for which a large area of land was set aside, centered on the Rotunda, which burnt down in 1937; this land now houses the Messegelände. On the grounds of modern-day Kaiserwiese, an attraction called "Venice in Vienna” was established in 1895 by Gabor Steiner; the area included an artificial lagoon to simulate the canals of Italy. In 2004, major renovations to the Wurstelprater began, a new underground railway line was finished and brought into service on May 11, 2008, which includes three stops along the Prater. Wien Praterstern railway station has been in operation for a long time and is only a few dozen metres away from an entrance to the park; the overall area of the park has been reduced by the building of the Ernst-Happel-Stadion, the Südosttangente and Krieau Race Track. In 2013, the new campus of the Vienna University of Economics and Business was opened next to the Prater.
The Hauptallee is the main artery, lined with horse chestnut trees, closed to motorists and known to sports enthusiasts from the annual Vienna Marathon. The Wiener Prater is home to a narrow gauge railway. Another unusual object to be found in the Wiener Prater is the Republik Kugelmugel, a spherical micronation; the Wiener Prater houses a planetarium and the Prater Museum. Singer's Midgets Official Prater site Liliputbahn miniature railway Official Vienna Tourism: Prater Prater on Citype Information: Prater Wien
English landscape garden
The English landscape garden called English landscape park or the English garden, is a style of "landscape" garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical jardin à la française of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe. The English garden presented an idealized view of nature, it drew inspiration from paintings of landscapes by Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin, from the classic Chinese gardens of the East, described by European travellers and were realized in the Anglo-Chinese garden, The English garden included a lake, sweeps of rolling lawns set against groves of trees, recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape. The work of Lancelot "Capability" Brown was influential. By the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul.
It had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century. The English landscape garden was centred on the English country house; the predecessors of the landscape garden in England were the great parks created by Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor at Castle Howard, Blenheim Palace, the Claremont Landscape Garden at Claremont House. These parks featured vast lawns and pieces of architecture, such as the classical mausoleum designed by Hawksmoor at Castle Howard. At the center of the composition was the house, behind which were formal and symmetrical gardens in the style of the garden à la française, with ornate carpets of floral designs and walls of hedges, decorated with statues and fountains; these gardens, modelled after the gardens of Versailles, were designed to impress visitors with their size and grandeur. The new style that became known as the English garden was invented by landscape designers William Kent and Charles Bridgeman, working for wealthy patrons, including Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, banker Henry Hoare.
William Kent was an architect and furniture designer who introduced Palladian style architecture to England. Kent's inspiration came from Palladio's buildings in the Veneto and the landscapes and ruins around Rome—he lived in Italy from 1709 to 1719, brought back many drawings of antique architecture and landscapes, his gardens were designed to complement the Palladian architecture of the houses he built. Charles Bridgeman was the son of a gardener and an experienced horticulturist, who became the Royal Gardener for Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark, responsible for tending and redesigning the royal gardens at Windsor, Kensington Palace, Hampton Court, St. James's Park and Hyde Park, he collaborated with Kent on several major gardens, providing the botanical expertise which allowed Kent to realize his architectural visions. Kent created one of the first true English landscape gardens at Chiswick House for Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; the first gardens that he laid out between 1724 and 1733 had many formal elements of a Garden à la française, including alleys forming a trident and canals, but they featured something novel: a picturesque recreation of an Ionic temple set in a theatre of trees.
Between 1733 and 1736, he redesigned the garden, adding lawns sloping down to the edge of the river and a small cascade. For the first time the form of a garden was inspired not by architecture, but by an idealized version of nature. Rousham House in Oxfordshire is considered by some as the most accomplished and significant of William Kent's work; the patron was General Dormer, who commissioned Bridgeman to begin the garden in 1727 brought in Kent to recreate it in 1737. Bridgeman had built a series of gardens, including a grotto of Venus, on the slope along the river Cherwell, connected by straight alleys. Kent turned the alleys into winding paths, built a turning stream, used the natural landscape features and slopes, created a series of views and tableaus decorated with allegorical statues of Apollo, a wounded gladiator, a lion attacking a horse, other subjects, he placed "eye-catchers", pieces of classical architecture, to decorate the landscape, made use of the "ha-ha", a concealed ditch that kept grazing animals out of the garden while giving an uninterrupted vista from within.
He added cascades modelled on those of the garden of Aldobrandini and Pratolino in Italy, to add movement and drama. Stowe, in Buckinghamshire, was an more radical departure from the formal French garden. In the early 18th century, Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, had commissioned Charles Bridgeman to design a formal garden, with architectural decorations by John Vanbrugh. Bridgeman's design included a Rotunda designed by Vanbrugh. In the 1730s, William Kent and James Gibbs were appointed to work with Bridgeman, who died in 1738. Kent remade the lake in a more natural shape, created a new kind of garden, which took visitors on a tour of picturesque landscapes, it included a Palladian bridge.