Puerto Ricans are people of ethnic origins in Puerto Rico, the inhabitants, citizens of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, their descendants. Puerto Rico is home to people of many different national origins as well; the culture held in common by most Puerto Ricans is referred to as mainstream Puerto Rican culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Spain, more Andalusia and the Canary Islands. Over 90% of Puerto Ricans descend from migrants from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has been influenced by African culture, Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. Puerto Rico has received immigration from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia as well as from other European countries such as France, Ireland and Germany. Recent studies in population genetics have concluded that Puerto Rican gene pool is on average predominantly European, with a significant Sub-Saharan African and Indigenous American substrate, the latter two originating in the aboriginal people of the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico's pre-Hispanic Taíno inhabitants, respectively.
The population of Puerto Ricans and descendants is estimated to be between 8 and 10 million worldwide, with most living on the islands of Puerto Rico and in the United States mainland. Within the United States, Puerto Ricans are present in all states of the Union, the states with the largest populations of Puerto Ricans relative to the national population of Puerto Ricans in the United States at large are the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, with large populations in Massachusetts, California and Texas. For 2009, the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans, it gives a total of 3,644,515 of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773. Of the 108,262 who were foreign born outside the United States, 92.9% were born in Latin America, 3.8% in Europe, 2.7% in Asia, 0.2% in Northern America, 0.1% in Africa and Oceania each.
The populations during Spanish rule of Puerto Rico were: The original inhabitants of Puerto Rico are the Taíno, who called the island Borikén. Besides miscegenation, the negative impact on the numbers of Amerindian people in Puerto Rico, was entirely the result of Old World diseases that the Amerindians had no natural/bodily defenses against, including measles, chicken pox, mumps and the common cold. In fact, it was estimated that the majority of all the Amerindian inhabitants of the New World died out due to contact and contamination with those Old World diseases, while those that survived were further reduced through deaths by warfare with each other and with Europeans. Both run-away and freed African slaves were in Puerto Rico; this interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the oft-romanticized male conquistadors. Aside from the presence of slaves, some indication for why the Amerindian population was so diluted was the tendency for conquistadors to bring with them scores of single men hoping to serve God, country, or their own interests.
All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in Puerto Rico and surrounding Caribbean islands. In the 16th century, a significant depth of Puerto Rican culture began to develop with the import of African slaves by the Spanish, as well as by the French, the Portuguese, the British, the Dutch. Thousands of Spanish settlers immigrated to Puerto Rico from the Canary Islands during the 18th and 19th centuries, so many so that whole Puerto Rican villages and towns were founded by Canarian immigrants, their descendants would form a majority of the population on the island. In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue, revolted against their French masters. Many of the French escaped to Puerto Rico via what is now the Dominican Republic and settled in the west coast of the island in Mayagüez; some Puerto Ricans are of British heritage, most notably Scottish people and English people who came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries. When Spain revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 with the intention of attracting non-Hispanics to settle in the island, thousands of Corsicans during the 19th century immigrated to Puerto Rico, along with German immigrants as well as Irish immigrants who were affected by the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s, immigrated to Puerto Rico.
They were followed by smaller waves from China. During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico; the first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. The second influx of Jews to the island came in the 1950s, when thousands of Cuban Jews fled after Fidel Castro came to power; the native Taino population began to dwindle, with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, through disease and miscegenation. Many Spaniard men took Taino and West African wives and in the first centuries of the Spanish colonial period the island was overwhelmingly racially mixed. "By 1530 there were 14 native women married to Spaniards, n
Senate of Puerto Rico
The Senate of Puerto Rico is the upper house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The Senate, together with the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico; the structure and responsibilities of the Senate are defined in Article III of the Constitution of Puerto Rico which vests all legislative power in the Legislative Assembly. Every bill must be passed by both, the Senate and the House, signed by the Governor of Puerto Rico in order to become law; the Senate has exclusive power to decide impeachments. The constitution establishes that all secretaries appointed by the governor to the different executive departments, as well as all judges and the Comptroller, require the advice and consent of the Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court can not assume office until after confirmation by the Senate; the Senate is composed by twenty seven senators: sixteen that represent the constituent senatorial districts across the commonwealth, with two senators per district, an additional eleven which are elected at-large.
The Senate has been meeting since 1917, after the enactment of the Jones–Shafroth Act established the body formally. The current session is the 26th Senate of Puerto Rico which has a supermajority from the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico; the Senate, along with its members and staff, are housed in the eastern half of the Capitol of Puerto Rico, namely the Rafael Martínez Nadal Senate Annex Building, the Luis Muñoz Marín Office Building, the Antonio R. Barceló Building, the Luis A. Ferré Building, the Ramón Mellado Parsons Office Building and the Baltasar Corrada del Rio Office Building; the Senate of Puerto Rico was established after the signing of the Jones Act. Signed in March 2, 1917, the act made Puerto Ricans into U. S. citizens and empowered them to have a popularly elected Senate. This came to amend and improve the Foraker Act, signed in 1900, which granted limited administrative and executive powers to Puerto Ricans. From 1900 to 1917, Puerto Ricans made several attempts to convince the United States into amending the Foraker Act, so they could elect their own Senate.
In February 1914, Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, Luis Muñoz Rivera presented legislation in Congress insisting in the creation of a Puerto Rican Senate with more powers. In January 1916, Representative William Jones presented the Jones Act for Puerto Rico and other territories, it was signed by Woodrow Wilson on March 2, 1917. In August 13, 1917, the first Senate of Puerto Rico was sworn in. Antonio R. Barceló was chosen with Eduardo Georgetti as his Pro tempore. José Muñoz Rivera and Manuel Palacios Salazar were selected as Secretary and Sergeant at Arms respectively. In this first instance, the Senate was composed of 19 members, 14 of which were chosen from each of the seven senatorial districts, five elected at-large; the Senate, along with the House of Representatives, are in charge of the legislative power of the Government of Puerto Rico. The Senate has exclusive power to try and to decide impeachment cases, in meeting for such purposes, the Senators act in the name of the people of Puerto Rico.
The Constitution establishes that all Secretaries appointed by the Governor to the different executive departments, as well as all judges, require the advice and consent of the Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court can not assume office until after confirmation by the Senate. Article III of the Constitution of Puerto Rico states that no person can be a member of the Senate unless he or she: is capable of reading and writing in either Spanish or English. Elections to the Senate are held every four years on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, along with the elections for governor, resident commissioner, the House, the mayors, the municipal assemblies; the last election was held on November 8, 2016 where the members of the 26th Senate of Puerto Rico were elected. The next election is scheduled for November 3, 2020 where the members of the 27th Senate of Puerto Rico will be elected. Members of the Senate are elected for a four-year term. Tony Fas Alzamora is the most senior and longest-serving senator, having served for nine consecutive terms since 1981 for a total of 38 years.
Only American citizens that meet all the following requirements may vote for senators: must reside in Puerto Rico, must be at least 18 years old by the date of the election, must have been qualified by the Puerto Rico State Commission on Elections before the election or on the same day of the election after he presents himself to his nearest place of voting and shows proper documentation, must have not been declared mentally incapacitated by court. Citizens cast their votes in colleges which are usually the nearest public school to where the voter declared as residence. Votes are required by law to be cast in secret, unless the citizen has a physical impairment that does not allow him to; those citizens unable to travel to colleges due to medical impairments may vote at their place of residence or wherever they are convalescing. In both of these extraordinary cases, officials from the Puerto Rico State Commission on Elections will provide aid so that the citizens can cast their vote—either by using verbal or non-verbal communication—with members from the different political part
Vieques, Puerto Rico
Vieques, in full Isla de Vieques, is an island–municipality of Puerto Rico, United States in the northeastern Caribbean, part of an island grouping sometimes known as the Spanish Virgin Islands. Vieques is part of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, retains strong influences from 400 years of Spanish presence in the island. Vieques lies about 8 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland, measures about 20 miles long by 4.5 miles wide. Its most populated barrio is the administrative center on the northern side; the population of Vieques was 9,301 at the 2010 Census. The island's name is a Spanish spelling of a Native American word said to mean "small island", it has the nickname Isla Nena translated as "Little Girl Island", alluding to its perception as Puerto Rico's little sister. The island was given this name by the Puerto Rican poet Luis Lloren Torres. During the colonial period, the British name was "Crab Island". Vieques is best known internationally as the site of a series of protests against the United States Navy's use of the island as a bombing range and testing ground, which led to the Navy's departure in 2003.
Today the former navy land is a national wildlife refuge, with numerous beaches that still retain the names given by the Navy, including Red Beach, Blue Beach and Green Beach. The beaches are listed among the top beaches in the Caribbean for their azure waters and white sands. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vieques was first inhabited by ancient American Indian peoples who traveled from continental America between 3000 BCE and 2000 BCE. Estimates of these prehistoric dates of inhabitation vary widely; these tribes had a Stone Age culture and were fishermen and hunter-gatherers. Excavations at the Puerto Ferro site by Luis Chanlatte and Yvonne Narganes uncovered a fragmented human skeleton in a large hearth area. Radiocarbon dating of shells found in the hearth indicate a burial date of c. 1900 BCE. This skeleton, popularly known as El Hombre de Puerto Ferro, was buried at the center of a group of large boulders near Vieques's south-central coast one kilometer northwest of the Bioluminescent Bay.
Linear arrays of smaller stones radiating from the central boulders are apparent at the site today, but their age and reason for placement are unknown. Further waves of settlement by Native Americans followed over many centuries; the Arawak-speaking Saladoid people, thought to have originated in modern-day Venezuela, arrived in the region around 200 BC. These tribes, noted for their pottery, stone carving, other artifacts merged with groups from Hispaniola and Cuba to form what is now called the Taíno culture; this culture flourished in the region from around 1000 AD until the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th century. The European discovery of Vieques is sometimes credited to Christopher Columbus, who landed in Puerto Rico in 1493, it does not seem to be certain whether Columbus visited Vieques, but in any case the island was soon claimed by the Spanish. During the early 16th century Vieques became a center of Taíno rebellion against the European invaders, prompting the Spanish to send armed forces to the island to quell the resistance.
The native Taíno population was decimated, its people either killed, imprisoned or enslaved by the Spanish. The Spanish did not, permanently colonise Vieques at this time, for the next 300 years it remained a lawless outpost, frequented by pirates and outlaws; as European powers fought for control in the region, a series of attempts by the French and Danish to colonise the island in the 17th and 18th centuries were repulsed by the Spanish. The island received considerable attention as a possible colony from Scotland, after numerous attempts to buy the island proved unsuccessful, the Scottish fleet, en route to Darien in 1698, made landfall and took possession of the island in the name of the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and The Indies. Scottish sovereignty of the island proved short-lived, as a Danish ship arrived shortly afterward and claimed the island. From 1689 to 1693 the island was controlled by Brandenburg-Prussia as the "Isle of Crabs". At the beginning of the 19th century, the Spanish took steps to permanently settle and secure the island.
In 1811, Don Salvador Meléndez governor of Puerto Rico, sent military commander Juan Rosselló to begin what would become the annexation of Vieques by the Puerto Ricans. In 1832, under an agreement with the Spanish Puerto Rican administration, Frenchman Teófilo José Jaime María Le Guillou became Governor of Vieques, undertook to impose order on the anarchic province, he was instrumental in the establishment of large plantations, marking a period of social and economic change. Le Guillou is now remembered as the "founder" of Vieques. Vieques was formally annexed to Puerto Rico in 1854. In 1816, Vieques was visited by Simón Bolívar when his ship ran aground there while fleeing defeat in Venezuela. During the second part of the 19th century, thousands of black immigrants came to Vieques to work on the sugarcane plantations, they arrived from the nearby islands of St. Thomas, Saint Kitts, Saint Croix, many other Caribbean islands, some of them as slaves and some as independent economic migrants. By the time of settlement of Vieques the Eastern Caribbean was post-Emancipation but some arrived as contract labor.
Since this time black people have formed an important part of Vieques's s
Camping is an outdoor activity involving overnight stays away from home in a shelter, such as a tent. Participants leave developed areas to spend time outdoors in more natural ones in pursuit of activities providing them enjoyment. To be regarded as "camping" a minimum of one night is spent outdoors, distinguishing it from day-tripping and other short-term recreational activities. Camping can be enjoyed through all four seasons. Luxury may be an element, as in early 20th century African safaris, but including accommodations in equipped fixed structures such as high-end sporting camps under the banner of "camping" blurs the line. Camping as a recreational activity became popular among elites in the early 20th century. With time, it grew more democratic, varied. Modern campers frequent publicly owned natural resources such as national and state parks, wilderness areas, commercial campgrounds. Camping is a key part of many youth organizations around the world, such as Scouting, which use it to teach both self-reliance and teamwork.
Camping describes a range of approaches to outdoor accommodation. Survivalist campers set off with as little as possible to get by, whereas recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped with their own electricity and patio furniture. Camping may be combined with hiking, as in backpacking, is enjoyed in conjunction with other outdoor activities such as canoeing, climbing and hunting. Fastpacking involves both running and camping. There is no universally held definition of what is not camping. Just as with motels which serve both recreational and business guests, the same campground may serve recreational campers, migrant workers, homeless at the same time. Fundamentally, it reflects the nature of activities involved. A children's summer camp with dining hall meals and bunkhouse accommodations may have "camp" in its name but fails to reflect the spirit and form of "camping" as it is broadly understood. A homeless person's lifestyle may involve many common camping activities, such as sleeping out and preparing meals over a fire, but fails to reflect the elective nature and pursuit of spirit rejuvenation that are integral aspect of camping.
Cultures with itinerant lifestyles or lack of permanent dwellings cannot be said to be "camping", it is just their way of life. The history of recreational camping is traced back to Thomas Hiram Holding, a British travelling tailor, but it was first popularised in the UK on the river Thames. By the 1880s large numbers of visitors took part in the pastime, connected to the late Victorian craze for pleasure boating; the early camping equipment was heavy, so it was convenient to transport it by boat or to use craft that converted into tents. Although Thomas Hiram Holding is seen as the father of modern camping in the UK, he was responsible for popularising a different type of camping in the early twentieth century, he experienced the activity in the wild from his youth, when he had spent much time with his parents traveling across the American prairies. He embarked on a cycling and camping tour with some friends across Ireland, his book on his Ireland experience and Camp in Connemara led to the formation of the first camping group in 1901, the Association of Cycle Campers to become the Camping and Caravanning Club.
He wrote The Campers Handbook in 1908, so that he could share his enthusiasm for the great outdoors with the world. The first commercial camping ground in the world was Cunningham’s camp, near Douglas, Isle of Man, which opened in 1894. In 1906 the Association of Cycle Campers opened its first own camping site, in Weybridge. By that time the organization had several hundred members. In 1910 the Association was merged into the National Camping Club. Although WW1 was responsible for a certain hiatus in camping activity, the association received a new lease of life after the war when Sir Robert Baden-Powell became its president. In the US, camping may be traced to William Henry Harrison Murray 1869 publication of Camp-Life in the Adirondacks resulting in a flood of visitors to the Adirondacks that summer; the International Federation of Camping Clubs was founded in 1932 with national clubs from all over the world affiliating with it. By the 1960s camping had become an established family holiday standard and today camp sites are ubiquitous across Europe and North America.
Different types camping may be named after their form of transportation, such as with Canoe camping, car camping, RVing, backpacking, which can involve ultralight gear. Camping is labeled by lifestyle: Glamping combines camping with the luxury and amenities of a home or hotel, has its roots are in the early 1900s European and American safaris in Africa. Workamping allows campers to trade their labor variously for discounts on campsite fees, campground utilities, some degree of pay. Migrant camps are formed not as a temporary housing arrangement. Campgrounds for custom harvesters in the United States may include room to park combines and other large farm equipment. Another way of describing camping is by the manner of arrangement: reservation camping vs. drop camping. Campgrounds may require campers to check in with an employee or campground host prior to setting up camp, or they may allow "drop camping, where this is not required. Drop-in campsites may be free or a drop-box may be provided to accept payments on the honor system.
Although drop camping is specifically allowed by law, it may exist in a legal grey area, such as at California's Slab City. Social media oriented towa
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
The Socialist International is a worldwide association of political parties which seek to establish democratic socialism. It consists of democratic socialist, social-democratic and labour political parties and other organisations. Although formed in 1951 as a successor to the Labour and Socialist International, it has antecedents to the late nineteenth century; the association has grown to include 153 member parties from over 100 countries. Its members have governed in many countries including most of Europe; the Party of European Socialists, a major European political party, is an associated organisation of the SI. The current secretary general of the SI is Luis Ayala, who has held the post since 1989; the current president of the SI is the former Prime Minister of Greece George Papandreou. The International Workingmen's Association was the first international body to bring together organisations representing the working class, it was formed in London on 28 September 1864 by socialist and anarchist political groups and trade unions.
Tensions between moderates and revolutionaries led to its dissolution in 1876 in Philadelphia. The Second International was formed in Paris on 14 July 1889 as an association of the socialist parties. Differences over World War I led to the Second International being dissolved in 1916. International Socialist Commission was formed in February 1919 at a meeting in Berne by parties that wanted to resurrect the Second International. In March 1919 communist parties formed Comintern at a meeting in Moscow. Parties which did not want to be a part of the resurrected Second International or Comintern formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties on 27 February 1921 at a conference in Vienna; the ISC and the IWUSP joined to form the Labour and Socialist International in May 1923 at a meeting in Hamburg. The rise of Nazism and the start of World War II led to the dissolution of the LSI in 1940; the Socialist International was formed in Frankfurt in July 1951 as a successor to the LSI. During the post-World War II period, the SI aided social democratic parties in re-establishing themselves when dictatorship gave way to democracy in Portugal and Spain.
Until its 1976 Geneva Congress, the SI had few members outside Europe and no formal involvement with Latin America. In the 1980s, most SI parties gave their backing to the Nicaraguan Sandinistas, whose democratically-elected left-wing government was subject to a campaign to overthrow it backed by the United States, which culminated in the Iran–Contra affair after the Reagan administration covertly continued US support for the Contras after such support was banned by Congress. In the late 1970s and in the 1980s the SI had extensive contacts and discussion with the two leading powers of the Cold War period, the United States and the Soviet Union, on issues concerning East–West relations and arms control; the SI supported détente and disarmament agreements, such as SALTII, START and INF. They had several meetings and discussion in Washington, D. C. with President Jimmy Carter and Vice-President George Bush and in Moscow with Secretaries General Leonid Brezhnev and Mikhail Gorbachev. The SI's delegations to these discussions were led by the Finnish Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa.
Since the SI has admitted as member parties not only the FSLN but the left-wing Puerto Rican Independence Party, as well as former Communist parties such as the Democratic Party of the Left of Italy and the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique. Following the Tunisian revolution, the Constitutional Democratic Rally was expelled from the SI in January 2011; that month, the Egyptian National Democratic Party was expelled. As a result of the 2010–2011 Ivorian crisis, the Ivorian Popular Front was expelled in March 2011. However, according to section 5.1.3 of the statutes of the Socialist International, an expulsion requires a decision of Congress by a majority of two-thirds. On 22 May 2013, the Social Democratic Party of Germany along with other current and former member parties of the SI founded a rival international network of social-democratic parties known as the Progressive Alliance, out of criticism of the perceived corrupt and outmoded nature of the SI. For a long time, the socialist international remained distant from Latin America, considering the region as a zone of influence of the United States.
For example, it does not denounce the coup d'état against Socialist President Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954 or the invasion of the Dominican Republic by the United States in 1964. It was not until the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that we discovered "a world we did not know," explains Antoine Blanca, a diplomat for the French PS. According to him, solidarity with the Chilean left was "the first challenge worthy of the name, against Washington, of an International which, until had done everything to appear subject to American strategy and NATO". Subsequently, notably under the leadership of François Mitterrand, the SI supports sandinists in Nicaragua and armed movements in El Salvador and Honduras in their struggle against US-supported dictatorships. In the 1990s, it was joined by non-socialist parties that took note of the economic power of the European countries governed or to be governed by their partners across the Atlantic and calculated the benefits they could derive from it. During this period, "the socialist international works in a clientist way.
Popular Democratic Party (Puerto Rico)
The Popular Democratic Party is a political party in Puerto Rico that advocates to continue as a Commonwealth of the United States with self-government. The party was founded in 1938 by dissidents from the Puerto Rican Liberal Party and the Unionist Party and promoted policies on the center-left. In recent years, its leaders have described the party as centrist; as one of the long-standing parties on the island, the PPD has played a significant role in the history of Puerto Rico. In the early 1950s, for example, the party held a majority in the delegation convened to draft the Constitution of Puerto Rico. Once the constitution was ratified, the document was proclaimed by the party's leader and co-founder, Luis Muñoz Marín—who, in doing so, became the first Puerto Rican governor elected by the people of Puerto Rico; the party ruled all branches of the Puerto Rican government afterward for 36 of the past 67 years, while establishing many of the institutions that permeate Puerto Rican society today.
Today, the party is one of the two major parties in Puerto Rico with significant political strength. In the executive branch, the party's last governor was Alejandro García Padilla who governed the island from 2013–2017, it holds minorities in the legislative and judicial branches by holding minorities in the Senate, in the House, in the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, however, is from the PPD. In the municipal landscape, the party holds more than half of the seats of mayors. Ideologically, the PPD differs from the other parties active in the island. For example, the party's opponent has been the New Progressive Party, which advocates for Puerto Rico to become a state of the United States. Both parties have ruled the island unopposed for years after the Puerto Rican constitution was ratified in 1952. Members of the party are referred to in different terms depending on their faction. In general, those affiliated to the party are called populares and affiliate with the Democratic Party of the United States.
Internally, members aligned with the delegation that drafted the constitution compose the largest faction and are referred to as'conservatives'. A smaller'liberal' faction is referred to as the soberanistas, advocates for Puerto Rico to enter a compact of free association with the United States rather than remain an unincorporated part of the United States. Dissidents expelled from the Liberal Party of Puerto Rico, founded the PPD in 1938. Many of them were part of the old socialist movement of Puerto Rico; the dissident faction calling themselves the Partido Liberal, Auténtico y Completo, was led by Luis Muñoz Marín. In 1937, the debate had concerned the differences between the moderate demands of autonomy leading to gradual independence by the Liberal Party faction led by Barcelo, the desire for more radical demands of immediate independence and social reform by Muñoz and his followers. In 1940, the highest elective political office in Puerto Rican was as president of its Senate. At the time, the governor was appointed by the president of the United States.
In the 1940 election, the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico finished in a dead heat with the Liberal Party. Luis Muñoz Marin of the PPD brokered an alliance with minor Puerto Rican factions so as to secure his position as Senate president; the elections in 1944 and 1948 resulted in greater victory margins for the PPD. Once Jesús T. Piñero stepped down as the first Puerto Rican named governor, the governor's office became an elected position. In 1949, under the leadership of Luis Muñoz Marín, the PPD won the first gubernatorial elections in Puerto Rico, Muñoz became the first elected governor of the island, he served for what is the longest continuous rule by a governor in Puerto Rican history, being re-elected three times, serving a total of four 4-year terms, or 16 years. This record has been surpassed only by one of the governors under Spanish rule. On May 21, 1948, one of the PPD introduced a bill that would restrain the rights of the independence and nationalist movements in the island.
Controlled by the PPD, the legislature passed the Bill. The Bill known as the "Ley de la Mordaza", made it illegal to display a Puerto Rican flag, to sing a patriotic tune, to talk of independence, to fight for the liberation of the island; the Bill which resembled the anti-communist Smith Law passed in the United States, was signed and made into law on June 10, 1948, by the U. S.-appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Jesús T. Piñero and became known as "Ley 53"; the new law made it a crime to print, sale, to exhibit or organize or to help anyone organize any society, group or assembly of people whose intentions are to paralyze or destroy the insular government. Anyone accused and found guilty of disobeying the law could be sentenced to ten years of prison, be fined $10,000 dollars or both. According to Dr. Leopoldo Figueroa, a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, the law was repressive and violated the First Amendment of the US Constitution which guarantees Freedom of Speech, he pointed out that the law was a violation of the civil rights of the peopl