In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. Wavelength is determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is designated by the Greek letter lambda; the term wavelength is sometimes applied to modulated waves, to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids. Assuming a sinusoidal wave moving at a fixed wave speed, wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency of the wave: waves with higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, lower frequencies have longer wavelengths. Wavelength depends on the medium. Examples of wave-like phenomena are sound waves, water waves and periodic electrical signals in a conductor.
A sound wave is a variation in air pressure, while in light and other electromagnetic radiation the strength of the electric and the magnetic field vary. Water waves are variations in the height of a body of water. In a crystal lattice vibration, atomic positions vary. Wavelength is a measure of the distance between repetitions of a shape feature such as peaks, valleys, or zero-crossings, not a measure of how far any given particle moves. For example, in sinusoidal waves over deep water a particle near the water's surface moves in a circle of the same diameter as the wave height, unrelated to wavelength; the range of wavelengths or frequencies for wave phenomena is called a spectrum. The name originated with the visible light spectrum but now can be applied to the entire electromagnetic spectrum as well as to a sound spectrum or vibration spectrum. In linear media, any wave pattern can be described in terms of the independent propagation of sinusoidal components; the wavelength λ of a sinusoidal waveform traveling at constant speed v is given by λ = v f, where v is called the phase speed of the wave and f is the wave's frequency.
In a dispersive medium, the phase speed itself depends upon the frequency of the wave, making the relationship between wavelength and frequency nonlinear. In the case of electromagnetic radiation—such as light—in free space, the phase speed is the speed of light, about 3×108 m/s, thus the wavelength of a 100 MHz electromagnetic wave is about: 3×108 m/s divided by 108 Hz = 3 metres. The wavelength of visible light ranges from deep red 700 nm, to violet 400 nm. For sound waves in air, the speed of sound is 343 m/s; the wavelengths of sound frequencies audible to the human ear are thus between 17 m and 17 mm, respectively. Note that the wavelengths in audible sound are much longer than those in visible light. A standing wave is an undulatory motion. A sinusoidal standing wave includes stationary points of no motion, called nodes, the wavelength is twice the distance between nodes; the upper figure shows three standing waves in a box. The walls of the box are considered to require the wave to have nodes at the walls of the box determining which wavelengths are allowed.
For example, for an electromagnetic wave, if the box has ideal metal walls, the condition for nodes at the walls results because the metal walls cannot support a tangential electric field, forcing the wave to have zero amplitude at the wall. The stationary wave can be viewed as the sum of two traveling sinusoidal waves of oppositely directed velocities. Wavelength and wave velocity are related just as for a traveling wave. For example, the speed of light can be determined from observation of standing waves in a metal box containing an ideal vacuum. Traveling sinusoidal waves are represented mathematically in terms of their velocity v, frequency f and wavelength λ as: y = A cos = A cos where y is the value of the wave at any position x and time t, A is the amplitude of the wave, they are commonly expressed in terms of wavenumber k and angular frequency ω as: y = A cos = A cos in which wavelength and wavenumber are related to velocity and frequency as: k = 2 π λ = 2 π f v = ω
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz and 3 gigahertz known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the super-high frequency or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate by line of sight, they are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, numerous other applications. The IEEE defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band: the L band between 1 and 2 GHz and the S band between 2 and 4 GHz. Radio waves in the UHF band travel entirely by line-of-sight propagation and ground reflection. UHF radio waves are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, but can penetrate foliage and buildings for indoor reception.
Since the wavelengths of UHF waves are comparable to the size of buildings, trees and other common objects and diffraction from these objects can cause fading due to multipath propagation in built-up urban areas. Atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are more degraded by moisture than lower bands, such as VHF TV signals. Since UHF transmission is limited by the visual horizon to 30–40 miles and to shorter distances by local terrain, it allows the same frequency channels to be reused by other users in neighboring geographic areas. Public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, UHF CB are found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. The adopted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies. Radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required; when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used. Due to the short wavelengths, UHF antennas are conveniently short. UHF wavelengths are short enough that efficient transmitting antennas are small enough to mount on handheld and mobile devices, so these frequencies are used for two way land mobile radio systems, such as walkie-talkies, two way radios in vehicles, for portable wireless devices. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are short whips, sleeve dipoles, rubber ducky antennas or the planar inverted F antenna used in cellphones. Higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas; the short wavelengths allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small. High gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical.
For satellite communication and turnstile antennas are used since satellites employ circular polarization, not sensitive to the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are modifications of the slot antenna or reflective array antenna are used: the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas. Today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are still used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for land mobile radio systems for commercial, public safety, military purposes. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, although exact frequencies in use differ between countries. Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range; this allows mobile phones and mobile computing devices to be connected to the public switched telephone network and public Internet.
UHF radars are said to be effective at tracking stealth fighters, if not stealth bombers. UHF citizens band: 476–477 MHz Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz Fixed point-to-point Link 450.4875 - 451.5125 MHz Land mobile service 457.50625 - 459.9875 MHz Mobile satellite service: 406.0000 - 406.1000 MHz Segment and Service examples: Land mobile for private, Australian and Territory Government, Rail industry and Mobile-Satellite 430–450 MHz: Amateur radio 470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television 1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts 380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio service for emergency use 430–440 MHz: Amateur ra
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born in Brookline, the second child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the U. S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, he commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953, he was subsequently elected to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960.
While in the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, the incumbent vice president. At age 43, he became the second-youngest man to serve as president, the youngest man to be elected as U. S. president, as well as the only Roman Catholic to occupy that office. He was the first president to have served in the U. S. Navy. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, he subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba.
However his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of 1962. In October 1962, U. S. spy planes discovered. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement, but was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Texas. Pursuant to the Constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatically became president upon Kennedy's death. Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was killed by Jack Ruby two days and so was never prosecuted. Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the conviction was on appeal in 1967. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act and the Revenue Act of 1964.
Kennedy continues to rank in polls of U. S. presidents with historians and the general public. His personal life has been the focus of considerable public fascination following revelations regarding his lifelong health ailments and alleged extra-marital affairs, his average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in suburban Brookline, Massachusetts, to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, his paternal grandfather P. J. Kennedy was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, his maternal grandfather and namesake John F. Fitzgerald served as a U. S. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings: Rosemary, Eunice, Robert and Edward.
As of 2019, he has been the only Catholic U. S. President. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life and attended the local St. Aidan's Church, where he was baptized on June 19, 1917, he was educated at the Edward Devotion School in Brookline, the Noble and Greenough Lower School in nearby Dedham and the Dexter School through the 4th grade. His father's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street and Hollywood. In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City. Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout Troop 2 and attended St. Joseph's Church; the Kennedy family spent summers and early autumns at their home in Hyannis Port and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter retreat in Palm Beach, Florida purchased in 1933.
In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, for 8th grade. In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy started attending Choate, a prestigious board
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy is an American author and diplomat who served as the United States Ambassador to Japan from 2013 to 2017. She is a prominent member of the Kennedy family and the only surviving child of President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy. Caroline Kennedy was five days away from her sixth birthday when her father was assassinated on November 22, 1963; the following year, her mother, brother John F. Kennedy Jr. settled on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, where she attended school. Kennedy graduated from Radcliffe College and worked at Manhattan's Metropolitan Museum of Art, where she met her future husband, exhibit designer Edwin Schlossberg, she went on to receive a J. D. degree from Columbia Law School. Most of Kennedy's professional life has spanned law and politics, as well as education reform and charitable work, she has acted as a spokesperson for her family's legacy and co-authored two books with Ellen Aldermanon on civil liberties. Early in the primary race for the 2008 presidential election and her uncle Ted endorsed Democratic candidate Barack Obama for President.
After Obama selected United States Senator Hillary Clinton to serve as Secretary of State, Kennedy expressed interest in being appointed to Clinton's vacant Senate seat from New York, but she withdrew from consideration, citing "personal reasons." Congresswoman Kirsten Gillibrand replaced Clinton as the junior New York Senator. In 2013, President Obama appointed Kennedy as the United States Ambassador to Japan. Caroline Bouvier Kennedy was born on November 27, 1957, at Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan to John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy. Caroline is named after Lee Radziwill. A year before Caroline's birth, her parents had a stillborn daughter named Arabella. Caroline had a younger brother, John Jr., born just before her third birthday in 1960. Her infant brother, died two days after his premature birth in 1963. Caroline lived with her parents in Georgetown, Washington, D. C. during the first three years of her life. When Caroline was three years old, the family moved to the White House after her father was sworn in as President of the United States.
Caroline attended kindergarten in classes that were organized by her mother, she was photographed riding her pony "Macaroni" around the White House grounds. One such photo in a news article inspired singer-songwriter Neil Diamond to write his Top Ten hit song, "Sweet Caroline", which he revealed when he performed it for Caroline's 50th birthday; as a small child, Caroline received numerous gifts from dignitaries, including a puppy from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and a Yucatán pony from Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson. Historians described Caroline's childhood personality as "a trifle remote and a bit shy at times" yet "remarkably unspoiled." "She's too young to realize all these luxuries", her paternal grandmother, Rose Kennedy, said of her. "She thinks it's natural for children to go off in their own airplanes. But she is with her cousins, some of them dance and swim better than she, they do not allow her to take special precedence. Little children accept things". On the day of JFK's assassination on November 22, 1963, nanny Maud Shaw took Caroline and John Jr. away from the White House to the home of their maternal grandmother, Janet Lee Auchincloss, who insisted that Shaw be the one to tell Caroline about her father's death.
That evening and John Jr. were brought back to the White House, while Caroline was in her bed, Shaw broke the news to her. Shaw soon found out. On December 6, Jacqueline and John Jr. moved out of the White House and back to Georgetown. Their new home soon became a popular tourist attraction, they left Georgetown the following year and moved to a penthouse apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City. In 1967, Caroline christened the U. S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy in a publicized ceremony in Newport News, Virginia. Over that summer, Jacqueline took the children on a six-week "sentimental journey" to Ireland, where they met President Éamon de Valera and visited the Kennedy ancestral home at Dunganstown. In the midst of the trip and John were surrounded by a large number of press photographers while playing in a pond; the incident caused their mother to telephone Ireland's Department of External Affairs and request the issuing of a statement that she and the children wanted to be left in peace.
As a result of the request, further attempts by press photographers to photograph the threesome ended with arrests by local police and the photographers being jailed. Uncle Robert F. Kennedy became a major presence in the lives of Caroline and John following their father's assassination, Caroline saw him as a surrogate father; when Bobby was assassinated in June 1968, Jacqueline sought a means of protecting them, stating: "If they're killing Kennedys my children are targets... I want to get out of this country". Jacqueline Kennedy married Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis several months and she and the children moved to Skorpios, his Greek island; the next year, 11-year-old Caroline attended the funeral of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.. Her cousin, asked her about her feelings towards her mother's new husband and she replied, "I don't like him". In 1
Abbott Vaughn Meader was an American comedian, impersonator and film actor. Meader began his career as a musician but found fame in the early 1960s after the release of the 1962 comedy record The First Family; the album spoofed President John F. Kennedy –, played by Meader – and became the fastest selling "pre-Beatles" album in history and went on to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 1963. At the peak of his popularity, he performed his Kennedy impersonation on variety shows and in nightclubs around the country and was profiled in several magazines. Meader's career success came to an abrupt end after President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963; the First Family was pulled from stores and Meader’s bookings were cancelled. He attempted to take his career in a different direction by performing non-Kennedy related comedy and released a new comedy album, Have Some Nuts!!!, in early 1964. However, sales for the album were low, his career never rebounded as he was too associated with President Kennedy.
Meader returned to his native Maine where he resumed performing music and managed a pub. Meader was born in Waterville, Maine during one of the worst floods to hit New England: he said he was born on "the night the West Bridge washed out", he was the only child of Charles Vaughn Meader, a millworker, Mary Ellen Abbott. After his father broke his neck and drowned in a diving accident when Meader was only eighteen months old, his mother moved to Boston to work as a cocktail waitress, leaving Meader behind with relatives. A sometimes unruly and troubled child, Meader was sent to live with his mother in Boston at the age of five but she had become an alcoholic, placed him in a children's home. After shuttling among several schools in Massachusetts and Maine, Meader graduated from Brookline High School in 1953, he enlisted in the United States Army, while stationed in Mannheim, West Germany as a laboratory technician formed a country music band – the Rhine Rangers – with fellow soldiers adding impressions of popular singers to his repertoire.
Meader married the German-born Vera Heller in 1955. Meader began his career in entertainment as a piano player. Upon his return from Germany, he began a comedy act in New York City, where he discovered his skill at impersonating Kennedy. With his New England accent close to Kennedy's familiar, parodied, Harvard accent, he needed to adjust his voice only to sound like the President. Meader mastered the facial expressions that allowed him to bear a passable resemblance to Kennedy. On October 22, 1962, Meader joined writers Bob Booker and Earle Doud and a small cast of entertainers to record The First Family; the album poked fun at Kennedy's PT-109 history. The First Family became the fastest-selling record in the history of the United States, it sold 1.2 million copies during the first two weeks of its release, sold 7.5 million copies. Kennedy himself was said to have given copies of the album as Christmas gifts, once greeted a Democratic National Committee group by saying, "Vaughn Meader was busy tonight, so I came myself."
At one press conference, Kennedy was asked if the album had produced "annoyment or enjoyment." He jokingly responded, "I listened to Mr. Meader's record and, frankly, I thought it sounded more like Teddy than it did me. So, now he's annoyed." Kennedy told Benjamin Bradlee that "parts of it were amusing." Other sources, such as Thomas C. Reeves' A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy, state that President Kennedy was upset with the parodies, that First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy was furious demanding that the President keep Meader off radio and television. Still in his 20s, Meader was famous, in constant demand, he was profiled in Time and Life magazines, appeared on network television variety shows such as The Ed Sullivan Show, The Jack Paar Program, The Andy Williams Show and Hootenanny. Though a series of tour dates in early 1963 were notably unsuccessful, he still played to packed houses in Las Vegas; the First Family won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 1963. That March, Meader recorded a follow-up album, The First Family Volume Two, a combination of spoken comedy and songs performed by actors and comedians portraying members of the President's family and White House staff.
The sequel was released in the spring of 1963, while not as successful as the first volume, still sold hundreds of thousands of copies. In July 1963, Meader left Cadence Booker/Dowd to sign with MGM Records. Meader planned to abandon his JFK impersonations. In November 1963, Meader was busy recording a new comedy record, written by a different group of writers and not involving his Kennedy impersonation. On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas and Kennedy's death ended Meader's career. Copies of The First Family were pulled from stores and a JFK-related Christmas single by Meader, released by MGM's Verve Records shortly before the assassination was withdrawn. Appearances that were booked were canceled, including one for the Grammy Awards ceremony. An episode of The Joey Bishop Show was pulled, which Meader filmed one week before the assassination; the episode was never aired and was destroyed. Meader repor
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la