Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, San Marino and Vatican City, it has an official minority status in western Istria. It had official status in Albania, Monaco and Greece, is understood in Corsica and Savoie, it used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages. Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe.
It is the fourth most spoken first language in the European Union with 69 million native speakers and it is spoken as a second language by 16 million EU citizens. Including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 90 million. Italian is the main working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera, its influence is widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most taught foreign language in the world. Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken by the upper class of Florentine society, its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent, by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders.
The incorporation into Italian of learned words from its own ancestor language, Latin, is another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language, scientific terminology and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Italians were literate in Latin, its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive but, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. All words and syllables finish with pure vowels, a factor that makes Italian words easy to use in rhyming. Italian has a 7 vowel sound system. During the Middle Ages, the established written language in Europe was Latin, though the great majority of people were illiterate, only a handful were well versed in the language. In the Italian peninsula, as in most of Europe, most would instead speak a local vernacular; these dialects, as they are referred to, evolved from Vulgar Latin over the course of centuries, unaffected by formal standards and teachings.
They are not in any sense "dialects" of standard Italian, which itself started off as one of these local tongues, but sister languages of Italian. Mutual intelligibility with Italian varies as it does with Romance languages in general; the Romance dialects of Italy can differ from Italian at all levels and are classified typologically as distinct languages. The standard Italian language has a poetic and literary origin in the writings of Tuscan writers of the 12th century, though the grammar and core lexicon are unchanged from those used in Florence in the 13th century, the modern standard of the language was shaped by recent events. However, Romance vernacular as language spoken in the Apennine peninsula has a longer history. In fact, the earliest surviving texts that can be called vernacular are legal formulae known as the Placiti Cassinesi from the Province of Benevento that date from 960–963, although the Veronese Riddle from the 8th or early 9th century, contains a late form of Vulgar Latin that can be seen as a early sample of a vernacular dialect of Italy.
The language that came to be thought of as Italian developed in central Tuscany and was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the Commedia, to which another Tuscan poet Giovanni Boccaccio affixed the title Divina, were read throughout the peninsula and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language. In addition to the widespread expo
Newarke Houses Museum
The Newarke Houses Museum is a public museum in Leicester, England. It incorporates the museum of the Royal Leicestershire Regiment, has a range of exhibits illustrating post-medieval and contemporary Leicester; the museum is close to the 15th century Magazine Gateway and within the precincts of the medieval'Newarke', the'New Work' of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The museum stands in the middle of the De Montfort University campus; the museum occupies two buildings: Wyggeston's Chantry House, Thomas Skeffington's Skeffington House. The houses were used during the Siege of Leicester in 1645 as part of the English Civil; the two properties were sold in 1908 and while Chantry House remained a private residence, Skeffington House became a school for boys. Both properties were acquired and converted for museum use to 1953 as part of the celebrations surrounding the coronation of the Queen. One room on the ground floor of the museum has been kept to represent what the houses would have looked like in the 17th Century.
Amongst the items on display are various possessions of Daniel Lambert, an 18th century resident of Leicester who weighed over 50 stone and became famous in his lifetime as Britain's largest man, remains one of the city's famous icons. Possessions on display include items of his chair; the museum houses a 1950s Leicester street scene modelled in Wharf Street with a number of model shops, as well as an exhibition of toys from Tudor times to the present. Other collections relate to Leicester's industrial and hosiery industry, such as Corah's and Wolsey, major clothing firms in Leicester; the museum has an exhibit with a focus on the more recent history of Leicester, from the 19th century onward. During the period 2014 to 2018 it held a rolling series of exhibitions marking the centenary of the First World War entitled'Leicester Remembers'; the museum includes a display about the Royal Leicestershire Regiment, such as drums used by the regiment band, a tiger, the mascot of the regiment. The museum houses a large collection of items relating to life during the wars.
These cover aspects of the home front. The museum holds a large collection of medals, with records regarding the involvement of people within the Leicester Regiment, which can be accessed via a computer. A model trench sits on the first floor. Other items include a Morrison Shelter and gas masks to reflect the Home Front during the Second World War; the gardens of the museum are laid out on separate sides of the main building which has an extension into the garden. These are laid to box hedges in medieval style maze-like geometric patterns; the garden was stocked in Victorian times with a variety of exotic trees and other plants, several of which survive to the present day. The end wall of the garden had gun loops cut in it by Cromwell's troops, the Round-heads, in the English Civil War when the Cavalier Prince Rupert was besieging the town in 1645; these features are a sign of Leicester's involvement in the English Civil War. Jewry Wall Museum New Walk Museum Abbey Pumping Station Leicester Guildhall Also, List of museums in Leicestershire Newarke Houses Museum website
A course is a layer of the same unit running horizontally in a wall. It can be defined as a continuous row of any masonry unit such as bricks, concrete masonry units, shingles, etc. Coursed masonry construction is that in which units are arranged in regular courses, not irregularly. On the other hand, coursed rubble masonry construction is that in which units of random size, that are not cut down, are used to build courses and the in-between spaces are filled with mortar or smaller stones. If a course is the horizontal arrangement a wythe is the vertical section of a wall. A standard 8-inch CMU block is equal to three courses of brick, so, it easy to build a brick-on-CMU wall. A bond pattern is the arrangement of several courses; the types of bond patterns can be found under Brickwork. When building a masonry wall the corners are first built and the spaces between them are filled by the remaining courses. Masonry coursing can be arranged in various orientations, according to which side of the masonry is facing the outside and how it is positioned.
Stretcher: Units are laid horizontally with their longest end parallel to the face of the wall. This orientation can display the bedding of a masonry stone. Header: Units are laid on their widest edge so that their shorter ends face the outside of the wall, they tie them together. Rowlock: Units laid on their narrowest edge so their shortest edge faces the outside of the wall; these are used for garden walls and for sloping sills under windows, however these are not climate proof. Soldier: Units are laid vertically on their shortest ends so that their narrowest edge faces the outside of the wall; these are used for window tops of walls. Sailor: Units are laid vertically on their shortest ends with their widest edge facing the wall surface. Shiner or rowlock stretcher: Units are laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed; this orientation can display fossils within a masonry stone. Different patterns can be used in different parts of a building, some decorative and some structural.
Stretcher Course: This is a course made up of a row of stretchers. This is the simplest arrangement of masonry units. If the wall is two wythes thick, one header is used to bind the two wythes together. Header Course: This is a course made up of a row of headers. Bond Course: This is a course of headers that bond the facing masonry to the backing masonry. String Course: A horizontal row of masonry, narrower than the other courses, that extends across the façade of a structure or wraps around decorative elements like columns; this is decorative. Sill course: Stone masonry courses at the windowsill, projected out from the wall. Split course: Units are cut down so they are smaller than their normal thickness. Springing Course: Stone masonry on which the first stones of an arch rest. Starting Course: The first course of a unit referring to shingles. Case Course: Units form the foundation or footing course, it is the lowest course in a masonry wall used for multiple functions structural. Barge Course: Units form the coping of a wall by bricks set on edge
Core-and-veneer and rubble, wall and rubble and rubble, emplekton all refer to a building technique where two parallel walls are constructed and the core between them is filled with rubble or other infill, creating one thick wall. And in poorly constructed walls, the rubble was not consolidated. Mortar and cement were used to consolidate the core rubble and produce studier construction. Modern masonry still uses veneer walls; such walls end up as cavity walls by the inclusion of space between the external veneer and the core in order to provide for moisture and thermal control. Both the early Greeks used rubble-filled masory walls; the word emplekton was borrowed from Greek ἔμπλεκτον and meant "rubble" but came to apply to the construction technique as well. The Romans started with basic emplekton masonry walls, but developed the technique one step further using temporary walls, that were removed after the cemented rubble had cured; this Roman technique was called opus caementicium, led to modern ferroconcrete construction.
The buildings of the Taj Mahal are constructed with walls of brick and rubble inner cores faced with either marble or sandstone locked together with iron dowels and clamps. Some of the walls of the mausoleum are several metres thick. Koch, Ebba; the Complete Taj Mahal: And the Riverfront Gardens of Agra. London: Thames & Hudson. P. 97. ISBN 978-0-500-34209-1. In the large complexes at Chaco Canyon, the Ancestral Puebloans used the wall and rubble technique, with walls of shaped sandstone; the Ancestral Puebloans used mud both with the veneer and to consolidate the core. This core and veneer technique was used at other Ancestral Puebloans sites outside of Chaco Canyon. Pueblos used mud bricks for the veneer. In the Puuc region, as far south as at least Tikal, the Mayans developed core-and-veneer walls to the point where, by the classic period, they were filled with concrete. Traditional core-and-veneer walls suffered from moisture migration and thermal expansion and contraction, they had a low tensile strength, hence a poor resistance to stretching.
Tensile strength was increased by increasing the width of the walls or by providing masonry "piers", either inside the wall or as additional exterior support. Bungaroosh Cavity wall "Figure 14; the large number of stones used, requires strong and stable scaffolding inside the building". Contribution to the medieval building technology based on the reconstruction of a rounded church. EXARC. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Shows construction and cross-section of core-and-veneer wall "Drystone Walls in England". Britain Express. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Showing cross-section of a core-and-veneer wall
Leicester is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, the county town of Leicestershire. The city close to the eastern end of the National Forest; the 2016 mid year estimate of the population of the City of Leicester unitary authority was 348,300, an increase of 18,500 from the 2011 census figure of 329,839, making it the most populous municipality in the East Midlands region. The associated urban area is the 11th most populous in England and the 13th most populous in the United Kingdom. Leicester is at the intersection of two major railway lines—the north/south Midland Main Line and the east/west Birmingham to London Stansted CrossCountry line. Leicester is the home to football club Leicester City and rugby club Leicester Tigers; the name of Leicester is recorded in the 9th-century History of the Britons as Cair Lerion, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Ligora-ceastre. In the Domesday Book of 1086, it is recorded as Ledecestre; the first element of the name, Ligora or Legora, is explained as a Brittonic river name, in a suggestion going back to William Somner an earlier name of the River Soar, cognate with the name of the Loire.
The second element of the name comes from the Latin castrum, reflected in both Welsh cair and Anglo-Saxon ceastre. Based on the Welsh name, Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes a king Leir of Britain as an eponymous founder in his Historia Regum Britanniae. Leicester is one of the oldest cities in England, with a history going back at least two millennia; the native Iron Age settlement encountered by the Romans at the site seems to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC. Little is known about this settlement or the condition of the River Soar at this time, although roundhouses from this era have been excavated and seem to have clustered along 8 hectares of the east bank of the Soar above its confluence with the Trent; this area of the Soar was split into two channels: a main stream to the east and a narrower channel on the west, with a marshy island between. The settlement seems to have controlled a ford across the larger channel; the Roman name was a latinate form of the Brittonic word for "ramparts", suggesting the site was an oppidum.
The plural form of the name suggests it was composed of several villages. The Celtic tribe holding the area was recorded as the "Coritanians" but an inscription recovered in 1983 showed this to have been a corruption of the original "Corieltauvians"; the Corieltauvians are believed to have ruled over the area of the East Midlands. It is believed that the Romans arrived in the Leicester area around AD 47, during their conquest of southern Britain; the Corieltauvian settlement lay near a bridge on the Fosse Way, a Roman road between the legionary camps at Isca and Lindum. It remains unclear whether the Romans fortified and garrisoned the location, but it developed from around the year 50 onwards as the tribal capital of the Corieltauvians under the name Ratae Corieltauvorum. In the 2nd century, it received a bathhouse. In 2013, the discovery of a Roman cemetery found just outside the old city walls and dating back to AD 300 was announced; the remains of the baths of Roman Leicester can be seen at the Jewry Wall.
Knowledge of the town following the Roman withdrawal from Britain is limited. There is some continuation of occupation of the town, though on a much reduced scale in the 5th and 6th centuries, its memory was preserved as the Cair Lerion of the History of the Britons. Following the Saxon invasion of Britain, Leicester was occupied by the Middle Angles and subsequently administered by the kingdom of Mercia, it was elevated to a bishopric in either 679 or 680. Their settlement became one of the Five Burghs of the Danelaw, although this position was short-lived; the Saxon bishop, fled to Dorchester-on-Thames and Leicester did not become a bishopric again until the Church of St Martin became Leicester Cathedral in 1927. The settlement was recorded under the name Ligeraceaster in the early 10th century. Following the Norman conquest, Leicester was recorded by William's Domesday Book as Ledecestre, it was noted as a city but lost this status in the 11th century owing to power struggles between the Church and the aristocracy and did not become a legal city again until 1919.
Geoffrey of Monmouth composed his History of the Kings of Britain around the year 1136, naming a King Leir as an eponymous founder figure. According to Geoffrey's narrative, Cordelia had buried her father beneath the river in a chamber dedicated to Janus and his feast day was an annual celebration; when Simon de Montfort became Lord of Leicester in 1231, he gave the city a grant to expel the Jewish population "in my time or in the time of any of my heirs to the end of the world". He justified his action as being "for the good of my soul, for the souls of my ancestors and successors". Leicester's Jews were allowed to move to the eastern suburbs, which were controlled by de Montfort's great-aunt and rival, Countess of Winchester, after she took advice from the scholar and cleric Robert Grosseteste. There is evidence that Jews remained there until 1253, enforcement of the banishment within the city was not rigorously enforced. De Montfort however issued a second edict for the expulsion of Leicester's Jews in 1253, after Grosseteste's death.
De Montfort's m
Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together. Dry stone structures are stable because of their unique construction method, characterized by the presence of a load-bearing façade of selected interlocking stones. Dry stone construction is best known in the context of stone walls, traditionally used for the boundaries of fields and churchyards, or as retaining walls for terracing, but dry stone sculptures, buildings and other structures exist; the art of dry stone walling was inscribed in 2018 on the UNESCO representative list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity, for dry stone walls in countries such as France, Italy and Spain. Some dry stone wall constructions in north-west Europe have been dated back to the Neolithic Age; some Cornish hedges are believed by the Guild of Cornish Hedgers to date from 5000 BC, although there appears to be little dating evidence.
In County Mayo, Ireland, an entire field system made from dry stone walls, since covered in peat, have been carbon-dated to 3800 BC. The cyclopean walls of the acropolis of Mycenae, have been dated to 1350 BC and those of Tiryns earlier. In Belize, the Mayan ruins at Lubaantun illustrate use of dry stone construction in architecture of the 8th and 9th centuries AD. Great Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, Africa, is a large city "acropolis" complex, constructed from the 11th to the 15th centuries AD. Terminology varies regionally; when used as field boundaries, dry stone structures are known as dykes in Scotland. Dry stone walls are characteristic of upland areas of Britain and Ireland where rock outcrops or large stones exist in quantity in the soil, they are abundant in the West of Ireland Connemara. They may be found throughout the Mediterranean, including retaining walls used for terracing; such constructions are common where large stones are plentiful or conditions are too harsh for hedges capable of retaining livestock to be grown as reliable field boundaries.
Many thousands of miles of such walls exist. In the United States they are common in areas with rocky soils, such as New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and are a notable characteristic of the bluegrass region of central Kentucky as well as Virginia, where they are referred to as rock fences or stone fences, the Napa Valley in north central California; the technique of construction was brought to America by English and Scots-Irish immigrants. The technique was taken to Australia and New Zealand. Similar walls are found in the Swiss–Italian border region, where they are used to enclose the open space under large natural boulders or outcrops; the higher-lying rock-rich fields and pastures in Bohemia's south-western border range of Šumava are lined by dry stone walls built of field-stones removed from the arable or cultural land. They serve both as the lot's borders. Sometimes the dry stone terracing is apparent combined with parts of stone masonry that are held together by a clay-cum-needles "composite" mortar.
The dry stone walling tradition of Croatia was added to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November 2018, alongside those of Cyprus, Greece, Slovenia and Switzerland. In Croatia, dry stone walls were built for a variety of reasons: to clear the earth of stone for crops; some walls date back to the Liburnian era. Notable examples include the island of Baljenac, which has 23 kilometres of dry stone walls despite being only 0.14 square kilometres in area, the vineyards of Primošten. In Peru in the 15th century AD, the Inca made use of otherwise unusable slopes by building dry stone walls to create terraces, they employed this mode of construction for freestanding walls. Their ashlar type construction in Machu Picchu uses the classic Inca architectural style of polished dry stone walls of regular shape; the Incas were masters of this technique, in which blocks of stone are cut to fit together without mortar. Many junctions are so perfect that not a knife fits between the stones.
The structures have persisted in the high earthquake region because of the flexibility of the walls, because in their double wall architecture, the two portions of the walls incline into each other. A wall's style and method of construction will vary, depending on the type of stone available, its intended use and local tradition. Most older walls are constructed from stones and boulders cleared from the fields during preparation for agriculture but many from stone quarried nearby. For modern walls, quarried stone is always used; the type of wall built will depend on the nature of the stones available. One type of wall is called a "double" wall and is constructed by placing two rows of stones along the boundary to be walled; the foundation stones are ideally set into the ground so as to rest on the subsoil. The rows are composed of large flattish stones. Smaller stones may be used as chocks in areas; the walls are built up to the desired height layer-by-layer and, at intervals, large tie-stones or through stones are placed which span both faces of the wall and sometimes project.
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