University of Campinas
The University of Campinas called Unicamp, is a public research university in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Unicamp is ranked among the top universities in Brazil and Latin America. Established in 1962, Unicamp was designed from scratch as an integrated research center unlike other top Brazilian universities created by the consolidation of existing schools and institutes, its research focus reflects on half of its students being graduate students, the largest proportion across all large universities in Brazil, in the large number of graduate programs it offers: 153 compared to 70 undergraduate programs. It offers several non-degree granting open-enrollment courses to around 8,000 students through its extension school, its main campus occupies 3.5 square kilometres located in the Barão Geraldo district, a suburban area 12 kilometres from the center of Campinas, built shortly after the creation of the university. It has satellite campuses in Limeira and Paulínia, manages two technical high schools located in Campinas and Limeira.
Funding is provided entirely by the state government and, like other Brazilian public universities, no tuition fees or administrative fees are charged for undergraduate and graduate programs. Unicamp is responsible for around 15% of Brazilian research, a disproportionately high number when compared to much larger and older institutions in the country such as the University of São Paulo, it produces more patents than any other research organization in Brazil, being second only to the state-owned oil company, Petrobras. Multiple international university rankings place it amongst the best universities in the world, with QS placing it in the Top 200 globally and ranking it the 11th best university under 50 years, in 2015 it was rated as the best university in the country by Brazil's Ministry of Education. In the early 1960s the Government of the State of São Paulo planned to open a new research center in the interior of the state to promote development and industrialization in the region, commissioned Zeferino Vaz, founder of the University of São Paulo's School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, to organize it.
In parallel, a medical school was being planned in Campinas, a demand from the local population that dated from the early 1940s. The School of Medicine of Campinas was created by law in 1959, but actual implementation never took place; the new university was created by law on December 28, 1962, but effective functioning begun in 1966. Before that, only the School of Medicine functioned. In April 1963 the first vestibular, the general admissions exam, with 1,592 candidates competing for 50 spots in the medicine program; the first lecture in the newly created University of Campinas took place on May 20 of the same year. By 1965, the organizing commission for the new university started looking for a location for a new campus. A large area comprising 110 hectares was donated by the Almeida Prado family, located in a valley in the district of Barão Geraldo in the city of Campinas, near the intersections of multiple highways; until Barão Geraldo was a small village surrounded by farmland, in particular sugar cane plantations.
The new development brought dramatic change to the district, resulting in entire new neighborhoods being zoned and built by the same Almeida Prado family. Work on the new campus begun on October 5, 1966, the first building completed was the Institute of Biology, followed by administrative buildings. In the same year, Zeferino Vaz was nominated the rector. In parallel to the new campus, new units were opened in other cities; the Dental School of Piracicaba was absorbed in 1967, in 1969 the Engineering School of Limeira. Over the following two decades, the new university expanded rapidly; the campus grew to 19 institutes and schools, after Zeferino Vaz died in 1981 was named after him. With the campus construction completed, the School of Medical Sciences was moved into the new campus, its teaching hospital, Hospital de Clínicas, became the largest public hospital in the region. Expansion on the campus continued with new buildings and expansions being added nearly every year, but by the late 1970s, the university faced a crisis.
During its fast expansion, it relied on draft bylaws borrowed from the University of São Paulo, lacked formal internal regulations with the aging Zeferino Vaz, while no longer the rector, acting as a moderating force between parties with conflicting interests, in particular the leftist academic community and the State's government, appointed by the conservative military regime ruling the country. After Zeferino's death in 1981, a conflict took place between the university's General Coordinator and backed by the government, the Directive Council, composed of directors of the different institutes; the rector introduced new rules reducing the power of the General Coordinator. As retaliation, the State's government removed 6 members of the Directive Council, replacing them with people from the state's Education Council, loyal to the governor, Paulo Maluf. Tensions between the academic community and the government-appointed counselors increased, with the future Minister of Education, Paulo Renato Costa Souza president of the Faculty Association, classifying the episode as a "white intervention".
Following the dismissal of several institute heads and members of the administration, the administrative workers went on strike, with the support of students and faculty. With activities in the university frozen by the strike, the governor declared a formal intervention in the
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Dorothy Day was an American journalist, social activist, Catholic convert. Day lived a bohemian lifestyle before gaining public attention as a social activist after her conversion, she was a political radical the best known radical in American Catholic Church history. Day's conversion is described in The Long Loneliness. Day was an active journalist, described her social activism in her writings. In 1917 she was imprisoned as a member of suffragist Alice Paul's nonviolent Silent Sentinels. In the 1930s, Day worked with fellow activist Peter Maurin to establish the Catholic Worker Movement, a pacifist movement that combines direct aid for the poor and homeless with nonviolent direct action on their behalf, she practiced civil disobedience, which led to additional arrests in 1955, 1957, in 1973 at the age of seventy-five. As part of the Catholic Worker Movement, Day co-founded the Catholic Worker newspaper in 1933, served as its editor from 1933 until her death in 1980. In this newspaper, Day advocated the Catholic economic theory of distributism, which she considered a third way between capitalism and socialism.
Pope Benedict XVI used her conversion story as an example of how to "journey towards faith... in a secularized environment." Pope Francis included her in a short list of exemplary Americans, together with Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr. and Thomas Merton, in his address before the United States Congress. The Church has opened the cause for Day's possible canonization, accepted by the Holy See for investigation. Due to this, the Church refers to her with the title of Servant of God. Dorothy May Day was born on November 8, 1897, in the Brooklyn Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, she was born into a family described by one biographer as "solid and middle class". Her father, John Day, was a Tennessee native of Irish heritage, while her mother, Grace Satterlee, a native of upstate New York, was of English ancestry, her parents were married in an Episcopal church in Greenwich Village. She had a sister. In 1904, her father, a sports writer devoted to horse racing, took a position with a newspaper in San Francisco.
The family lived in Oakland, until the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 destroyed the newspaper's facilities, her father lost his job. From the spontaneous response to the earthquake's devastation, the self-sacrifice of neighbors in a time of crisis, Day drew a lesson about individual action and Christian community; the family relocated to Chicago. Day's parents were nominal Christians who attended church; as a young child, she showed a marked religious streak. When she was ten she started to attend Church of Our Saviour, an Episcopal church in the Lincoln Park neighborhood of Chicago, after its rector convinced her mother to let Day's brothers join the church choir, she was taken with its music. She studied the catechism and was baptized and confirmed in that church in 1911. Day was an avid reader in her teens fond of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, she worked from one book to another, noting Jack London's mention of Herbert Spencer in Martin Eden, from Spencer to Darwin and Huxley. She learned about anarchy and extreme poverty from Peter Kropotkin, who promoted a belief in cooperation in contrast to Darwin's competition for survival.
She enjoyed Russian literature in university Dostoevsky and Gorky. Day read a lot of conscious work, which gave her a background for her future. In 1914, Day attended the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign on a scholarship, she was a reluctant scholar. Her reading was chiefly in a Christian radical social direction, she avoided campus social life, supported herself rather than rely on money from her father, buying all her clothing and shoes from discount stores. She left the university after two years, moved to New York City, she settled on the Lower East Side and worked on the staff of several Socialist publications, including The Liberator, The Masses, The Call. She "smilingly explained to impatient socialists that she was'a pacifist in the class war.'" Years Day described how she was pulled in different directions: "I was only eighteen, so I wavered between my allegiance to Socialism and Anarchism. When I read Tolstoy I was an Anarchist. My allegiance to The Call kept me a Socialist, although a left-wing one, my Americanism inclined me to the I.
W. W. Movement."She celebrated the February Revolution in Russia in 1917, the overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a reformist government. In November 1917, she was arrested for picketing at the White House on behalf of women's suffrage as part of a campaign called the Silent Sentinels organized by Alice Paul and the National Women's Party. Sentenced to 30 days in jail, she served 15 days before being released, ten of them on a hunger strike, she spent several months in Greenwich Village, where she became close to Eugene O'Neill, whom she credited with having produced "an intensification of the religious sense, in me". She had a love affair of several years with Mike Gold, a radical writer who became a prominent Communist, she maintained friendships with such prominent American Communists as Anna Louise Strong, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, who became the head of the Communist Party USA. Day lived a bohemian life. In February 1921, after ending an unhappy love affair with Lionel Moise, having an abortion, "the great tragedy of her life," she married Berkeley Tobey in a civil ceremony.
She spent the better part of a year with him in E
1964 Brazilian coup d'état
The 1964 Brazilian coup d'état was a series of events in Brazil from March 31 to April 1 that led to the overthrow of President João Goulart by members of the Brazilian Armed Forces, supported by the United States government. The following day, with the military in control of the country, the Brazilian Congress came out in support of the coup and endorsed it by declaring vacant the office of the presidency; the coup put an end to the government of Goulart known as Jango, a member of the Brazilian Labour Party, democratically elected Vice President in the same election in which conservative Jânio Quadros, from the National Labor Party and backed by the National Democratic Union, won the presidency. Quadros resigned in 1961, the same year of his inauguration, in a clumsy political maneuver to increase his popularity. Quadros anticipated those mass demonstrations would demand his return to office and strengthen his position, but he miscalculated. With the presidency vacant and according to the constitution in force, enacted in 1946, Quadros should have automatically been replaced by Goulart.
However, because Goulart was on a diplomatic trip to the People's Republic of China at the time, because, although a moderate nationalist, Goulart was accused of being a communist by right-wing militants, he was unable to take office. After lengthy negotiations, led by Tancredo Neves, Goulart's supporters and the right-wing reached an agreement under which the parliamentary system would replace the presidential system in the country. Goulart would continue as head of state, although weakened, Neves would be named the prime minister. In 1963, however, a referendum re-established the presidential system with Goulart as president, he took office with full powers, during his rule several problems in Brazilian politics became evident, as well as disputes in the context of the Cold War, which helped destabilize his government. The Basic Reforms Plan proposed by Goulart had the potential to socialize the profits of large companies to ensure a better quality of life for most Brazilians, but was labelled as a "socialist threat" by right-wing sectors of society and of the military, which organized major demonstrations against the government in the Marches of the Family with God for Freedom.
The coup brought to Brazil a military regime politically aligned to the interests of the United States government. This regime lasted until 1985, when Tancredo Neves was indirectly elected the first civilian president of Brazil since the 1960 elections. Jânio Quadros resigned on August 25, 1961. At the time of his resignation, João Goulart was in the People's Republic of China on a foreign relations trip. On August 29, the Brazilian Congress heard and vetoed a motion to stop Goulart from being named the president, brought by the heads of the three branches of the military and some politicians, who claimed Goulart's inauguration would put the country "on the road to civil war." A compromise was reached: Brazil would become a parliamentary democracy, with Goulart as president. As such, he would with limited powers of head of government. Tancredo Neves was named as the new prime minister. On January 6, 1963, Goulart changed the system of government back to a presidential democracy in a referendum in which he won by a large margin.
Goulart found himself back in power with a deteriorating political and economic situation. During this period, Goulart was politically isolated, with a foreign policy, independent of any alignment, he criticized the Bay of Pigs invasion by the US, but criticized the Cuban regime of Fidel Castro during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The country's economic situation deteriorated rapidly. Attempts to stabilize the currency were financed by aid packages from the International Monetary Fund, his failure to secure foreign investment and curb domestic inflation put the country in a difficult situation which exacerbated social conflicts. On March 13, 1964, Goulart gave a speech where he promised to nationalize the country's oil refineries, as well as carry out "basic reforms" including rent control; this was followed by a large demonstration on March 19, where a conservative group marched on Praça da Sé, São Paulo, in a demonstration called "March of the Family with God for Freedom" against Goulart and his policies.
The friction between the military and Goulart boiled over with his intervention in a revolt by sailors of the Brazilian Navy led by José Anselmo dos Santos known as Cabo Anselmo, exposed as an agent provocateur. On March 25, 1964, nearly 2,000 sailors assembled in Rio de Janeiro, petitioning for better living conditions and pledging their support for Goulart's reforms; the Minister of the Navy, Sílvio Mota, ordered the arrest of the sailors leading the assembly. Mota sent a detachment of marines to arrest the leaders and break up the assembly, led by Rear Admiral Cândido Aragão; these marines remained with the other sailors. Shortly after Aragão's refusal to arrest the leaders, Goulart issued orders prohibiting any invasion of the assembly location, sacked Sílvio Mota as Minister of the Navy; the following day, March 26, the Minister of Labor, Amauri Silva, negotiated a compromise, the sailors agreed to leave the assembly building. They were promptly arrested for mutiny. Goulart pardoned the sailors shortly after.
Soon after, on March 30, 1964, the day before the coup, Goulart gave a speech to a gathering of sergeants, where he asked for the military's support for his reforms. In the United Stat
Boa Esperança, Minas Gerais
Boa Esperança is a Brazilian municipality from the state of Minas Gerais. The municipality is located by the Serra da Boa Esperança, which became celebrated through song that brings its name, compounded by Lamartine Babo and performed by several singers. Across its territory passes Rio Grande, important to the development of the region; the economy of Boa Esperança is based on tourism. The municipality of Boa Esperança came up with gold rush of the late 19th century; the first settlement was established in 1778, in 1804 it was called'Dores do Pântano. In 1814 started the construction of the Church, at that time arose the first coffee plantations, which marked a phase of wealth and progress for the parish. In 1866 the parish was elevated by provincial law to the status of village. On 15 November 1868 the seat of local government was built and the village was elevated by Provincial Law No. 1611 to the status of municipality. In 1957–1958, with the construction of the Furnas Dam and subsequently of the Furnas Lake, the town began to grow throughout tourism.
Boa Esperança is located in the southern-tropical part of Brazil, at 21 degrees, 5 minutes, 24 second south, 45 degrees, 33 minutes, 57 seconds west, at an altitude of 775 metres, in the internal part of the State of Minas Gerais. It covers an area of 860.669 square kilometres. ClimateSituated on the southern outskirts of the tropical zone and, under the influence of the high elevation of the region, the climate type is tropical mesothermal with an average annual rainfall of about 1,500 millimetres; the annual temperature is 19 °C. Summer and spring are the hottest seasons with a maximum daily temperature ranging from 25 to 29 °C. November and January are the warmest months reaching 36–37 °C and with a minimum temperature of 9–10 °C. RiversGrande River, Paraná River, some of their tributaries receive water by the Furnas Dam, which surrounds the city. FaunaBoa Esperança is home to several species of birds such as darter, Roadside Hawk, lapwing, Jabir and grassquit. Among the mammals in the area there are capybara, brocket deer, fox, paca, megabat and others.
Some of these species may have migrated from other areas. FloraIn this area there are forests and araucarias rich in vegetation, including mimosa, cinnamomum, manilkara bidentata, Hymenaea courbaril, Swietenia macrophylla, Balfourodendron riedelianum. In riparian forests there are croton and pine. Scattered trees and sub-shrubs present Annona crassiflora, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Stenocalyx dysentericus, Tabebuia ochracea, Kielmeyera coriacea, its population in 2010 was 38,509 inhabitants. Mayor: Antonio Carlos Vilela Boa Esperança is asn agro-pastoral Municipality, it produces grain, garlic, bean, sugarcane, soybean, several species of fruit, coffee. Coffee is the main product and it has a good level of production, it is exported to other countries. Livestock, domestic pig, poultry are some of the oldest economic activities in the area. Trade, the "royalties" paid by Furnas Central Electric, tourism are among the main activities of the tertiary sector. BR-369 highway MG-167
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the