João Carlos Martins
João Carlos Martins, whose complete name is João Carlos Gandra da Silva Martins born June 25, 1940 in Sao Paulo, Brazil is an acclaimed Brazilian classical pianist and conductor, who has performed with leading orchestras in the United States and Brazil. He has recorded his complete keyboard works. For decades Martins has been engaged as the leading pianist at the Boston Symphony, the Los Angeles Philharmonic and other ensembles; the New York Times wrote, "Maestro Martins has lived a life of renown, challenge and triumph sufficient to fill a lively memoir". After his career as a concert pianist was derailed by injuries and accidents, he reinvented himself as a conductor, leading hundreds of performances worldwide including acclaimed concerts at Carnegie Hall, he is a conductor at the Bachiana Filarmonica Orchestra. He has founded social programs for underprivileged youth in Latin America. A child prodigy, Martins began studying the piano with José Kliass at the age of eight; the following year, he won a competition sponsored by the Bach Society of Brazil.
Soon thereafter, the legendary Alfred Cortot proclaimed: "With this kind of tone, with the ability of his fingers, he could become important for the history of piano playing." At the age of 18, he was among the first Latin Americans to be invited to participate in the prestigious Casals Music Festival in Puerto Rico. International attention grew in 1961 when, aged 20, he performed at his debut concert in Washington, D. C. Bach's 48 Fugues from the Well-Tempered Clavier; the reviewers were ecstatic. He was well-known in Brazil as a child prodigy, his name spread throughout the concert world. Three years he made his New York debut, followed by engagements with major orchestras in the United States, recitals throughout the world, including sold-out performances at Carnegie Hall and Avery Fisher Hall. Recordings of Book I & II of the Well-Tempered Clavier, for the Connoisseur Society label, followed soon thereafter and in 1968 RCA released Alberto Ginastera's Piano Concerto with Martins and the Boston Symphony under Erich Leinsdorf: a acclaimed first recording of this work, which appeared for weeks on Billboard's best seller list.
He became a regular at Boston Symphony. Between 1979 and 1998, Martins devoted himself to recording Bach's complete works for keyboard on the Concord Concerto and Labor Records labels, his collection of the complete keyboard works of Bach - a 20 CD edition released on the Concord Concerto label, the most extensive series of Bach keyboard recordings by a single pianist - resulted in spectacular reviews throughout the world, including feature articles and cover stories in some of the most prestigious music magazines. In 1981, he was appointed Brazil's Secretary of Culture. Afflicted by injuries and setbacks throughout his mercurial career, Martins has shown remarkable perseverance and determination. While visiting Bulgaria, Martins was attacked by thugs, receiving injuries to his skull and brain, lost the use of his right arm. After undergoing numerous treatments, including a new version of biofeedback therapy on his right arm, he played a triumphant comeback concert in Carnegie Hall in 1996, appearing as soloist with the American Symphony Orchestra, performing Ravel and Ginastera.
In early 2000, he undertook an unsuccessful operation in his right hand, which rendered his hand useless. Instead of retiring from the piano, Martins continued to play using his left hand and one finger of the right hand. After his career as a pianist finished due to problems which developed in his left hand, he turned to conducting, despite limited hand-movements. Since he has led hundreds of performances worldwide including acclaimed concerts at Carnegie Hall. Harold C. Schonberg, Pulitzer-winning music critic of the New York Times, said, "His technique sends fireworks in all directions... he does everything with extraordinary élan." The Boston Globe characterized him as "The most exciting player of Bach on the modern piano to emerge since Glenn Gould," and National Public Radio described Martins' Bach as "in the same tradition of, Furtwängler's Beethoven or Bernstein's Brahms. The pianist has placed such a vivid stamp on the material that it is no longer the composer's alone… It's breathtaking.”
In 2001 a book, entitled "Conversations with Martins", was published about his career. It was written by noted pianist and Juilliard School professor David Dubal, to coincide with João's new recordings of Mozart and Beethoven. In 2004 a German documentary was released, Die Martins-Passion, which won several international awards; the film accompanies Martins during his darkest hours, tracing the early triumphs and dramatic events of his life. It portrays film sequences from his childhood and early years, as well as some of his most impressive performances. In the movie, Martins encounters some of his friends including the soccer player Pelé and the legendary jazz pianist Dave Brubeck. A biographical drama film, "João, O Maestro", was directed by Bruno Barreto and stars Alexandre Nero and Rodrigo Pandolfo as Martins at adult and young age and Alinne Moraes as Carmen, his current wife; the movie was launched worldwide in August, 2017. Martins is known for initiating social programs for underprivileged youth in Brazil, through his foundation the "Fundação Bachiana Filarmônica", which supports two orchestras that he has founded, the Bachiana Philharmonic Orchestra and the Youth Bachiana Orchestra.
Nélida Piñon is a Brazilian author and professor. She is a recipient of the FIL Award. Piñon was born in 1937 in Rio de Janeiro of Galician immigrants, her first novel was Guia-Mapa de Gabriel Arcanjo, written in 1961, it concerns a protagonist discussing Christian doctrine with her guardian angel. In the 1970s she became noted for erotic novels A casa de paixão and A força do destino, written in 1977. In 1984 she had her greatest success with A Republica dos Sonhos, English translation The Republic of Dreams; the work involves generations of a family from Galicia. This relates to her own family's experience. Among other distinctions, Piñon was awarded the 1995 FIL Award and the 2005 Prince of Asturias Award for literature, she was President of Academia Brasileira de Letras from 1996 to 1997, occupied the José Bonifácio Chair of Iberoamerican Affairs of the University of São Paulo in 2015. Guia-Mapa de Gabriel Arcanjo Fundador A Casa da Paixão A força do destino The Republic of Dreams, tr. Helen Lane, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-77050-2 A doce cançao de Caetana I love my husband.
Big-Bellied Cow O Pão de Cada Dia Walmap Prize, 1970, for her historical novel, ´Fundador´ Mario de Andrade Prize, 1973, from the Association of Arts Critics in São Paulo for her novel, "A casa de paixão". Brazilian Writers’ Union Prize, 1987. FIL Award, 1995. Menéndez Pelayo International Prize, 2003 Puterbaugh Conference on World Literature honoree, 2004 Prince of Asturias Award, 2005 Camargo Namorato, Luciana, et al. "Special Section: Nélida Piñón." World Literature Today, 79.1, April 2005: 7-28. ISSN: 01963570. Piñon, Nélida, Archive Of Hispanic Literature On Tape. 1979. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress. Https://www.loc.gov/item/93842452/ Culturebase.net Nélida Piñón recorded in Rio de Janeiro for the Archive of Literature of the Hispanic Division at the Library of Congress on November 26, 1999
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product, the fourth largest by area in the country; the state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, the sixth largest municipality in Brazil, after the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Fortaleza, but its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5,500,000 inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in the most of any state. With an area of 586,528 square kilometres —larger than Metropolitan France—it is the fourth most extensive state in Brazil; the main producer of coffee and milk in the country, Minas Gerais is known for its heritage of architecture and colonial art in historical cities such as São João del Rei, Ouro Preto, Diamantina and Mariana. In the south, the tourist points are the hydro mineral spas, such as Caxambu, Lambari, São Lourenço, Poços de Caldas, São Thomé das Letras, Monte Verde and the national parks of Caparaó and Canastra.
The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and large areas of fertile lands. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls are the attractions; some of Brazil's most famous caverns are located there. In recent years, the state has emerged as one of the largest economic forces of Brazil, exploring its great economic potential. Two interpretations are given for the origin of the name Minas Gerais, it comes from "Minas dos Matos Gerais", the former name of the colonial province. So a first and more common understanding affirms that the name means "General Mines", with the word Gerais serving as an adjective to the mines, which were themselves spread in several spots around a larger region. Another explanation is that this ignores the two large geographical spaces which conformed the state in its history: the region of the mines, the region of the Gerais; these corresponded to the areas of Sertão which were farther and hard to access from the mining spots. The confusion comes from the fact that the term "Gerais" is taken as an adjective to "Minas" in the first version, although according to this point of view it refers to the region called Gerais.
A further complication is that this is not a well-defined area on the map of the state, but rather a designation to these parts outside the mining spots, more related to the geography of Sertão, more isolated from the state's nucleus. Minas Gerais is in the north of the southeastern subdivision of Brazil, which contains the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, it borders on Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and the state of Espírito Santo. It shares a short boundary with the Distrito Federal. Minas Gerais is situated between 14°13'58" and 22°54'00" S latitude and between 39°51'32" and 51°02'35" W longitude, it is larger in area than Metropolitan Spain. Minas Gerais features some of the longest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
The most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines. Emeralds found in this location are comparable to the best Colombia-origin emeralds, are most a bluish-green color; each region of the state has a distinct character, geographically and to a certain extent culturally. The central and eastern area of the state is hilly and rocky, with little vegetation on the mountains. Around Lagoa Santa and Sete Lagoas a typical Karst topography with caves and lakes is found; some of the mountains are entirely iron ore, which led to extensive mining. Recent advances in environmental policy helped to put limits to mining. About 200 kilometres to the east of Belo Horizonte is the second Metropolitan Region of the state, Vale do Aço, which has iron and steel processing companies along the course of the Rio Doce and its tributaries.
Vale do Aço's largest cities are Coronel Fabriciano and Timóteo. Now that mining is restricted large areas of forest are being removed for timber, charcoal and to clear land for cattle ranching; the original forest cover of these inland hills is much fragmented. The city of Governador Valadares is in the limit of this region with the poorer North; the south of Minas Gerais is green, with coffee and milk production. This region is notably cooler than the rest of the state, some locations are subject to temperatures just below the freezing point during the winter; the region is famed for its mineral-water resorts, including the cities of Poços de Caldas, Lambari, São Lourenço and Caxambu. Many industries are located at Pouso Alegre; the southeast of the state, called Zona da Mata was the richest region unti
Joãosinho Trinta was a Brazilian director of parades for Samba Schools in Rio de Janeiro Brazil during Carnival. Trinta is credited in changing the aesthetics of the main carnival Parade in Rio during the 1980s. Trinta introduced a new standard for the costumes and enlarged the scenery, creating new dimensions of visual impact; the local press gave him large space in the media as a public person in Brazil, after his reply to critics: "Only intellectuals like poverty, the poor people like luxury."Trinta's style was copied by competing Schools of Samba. In 1989 he caused another media impact through the parade, when he called attention to the operatic elements of Carnival and brought to the Avenue Marques de Sapucai a parade, void of any shining costumes and used an aesthetic of trash to print a dark image into the history of the event; the parade of Samba School Beija Flor that year marks a historic shift in the evolution of the genre. The most publicized image of the parade was the Black Christ, a tourist landmark in Rio that would have been represented as a gigantic beggar, but due to a prohibition articulated by the Catholic church ended up parading under a veil of black plastic, a dark shape that resonated with the social debate happening in the country at the time.
Joaosinho Trinta died in 2011 and was buried in his native state of Maranhão
Brazilian Expeditionary Force
The Brazilian Expeditionary Force or FEB consisted of about 25,700 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II. This air–land force consisted of: a complete Infantry Division, a Liaison flight, a Fighter squadron, it fought in Italy from September 1944 to May 1945, while the Brazilian Navy as well as the Air Force acted in the Battle of the Atlantic from the middle of 1942 until the end of the war. During the eight months of its campaign, fighting at the Gothic Line and in the 1945 final offensive, the FEB took 20,573 Axis prisoners, consisting of two generals, 892 officers, 19,679 other ranks. Brazil was the only independent South American country to send ground troops to fight overseas, losing 948 men killed in action across all three services during the Second World War. Brazil's participation alongside the Allied powers in World War II was by no means a foregone conclusion though Brazil had supported the Triple Entente in World War I.
Brazilian participation was naval, although it did send a "military mission" to the Western Front. The Brazilian Navy and Air Force played a role in the Battle of the Atlantic after mid-1942. Brazil contributed an infantry division that entered combat on the Italian Front in 1944; as in 1914, Brazil in 1939 maintained a position of neutrality trading with both the Allies and the Axis powers. As the war progressed, trade with the Axis countries became impossible and the US began forceful diplomatic and economic efforts to bring Brazil onto the Allied side; these efforts led to the creation of the Joint Brazil-US Defense Commission, chaired by James Garesche Ord and worked to strengthen military ties between the two countries during the war. It was designed to reduce the likelihood of Axis attacks on US shipping as soldiers traveled across the Atlantic to Africa and Europe, minimized the influence of the Axis in South America. At the beginning of 1942, Brazil permitted the US to set up air bases on their territory in return for the offer by the US to encourage the formation of a steel industry - Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional, in Brazil.
The US bases were located in the states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Norte, where the city of Natal hosted part of the US Navy's VP-52. In addition, US Task Force 3 established itself in Brazil; this included a squadron equipped to attack submarines and merchant vessels attempting to trade with Japan. Although Brazil remained neutral, this increasing cooperation with the Allies led the Brazilian government to announce at the Pan American States Conference in Rio, on 28 January 1942, its decision to sever diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy; as a result, from the end of January to July 1942, although no declaration of war yet existed between Germany and Brazil, German U-boats sank 13 Brazilian merchant vessels. In August 1942, U-507 alone sank five Brazilian vessels in two days, causing more than 600 deaths: On August 15, the Baependi, traveling from Salvador to Recife, was torpedoed at 19:12, its 215 passengers and 55 crew members were lost. At 21:03, U-507 torpedoed the Araraquara traveling from Salvador towards the north of the country.
Of the 142 people on board, 131 died. Seven hours after the second attack, U-507 attacked the Aníbal Benévolo. All 83 passengers died. On August 17, close to the city of Vitória, the Itagiba was hit at 10:45, with a death toll of 36. Another Brazilian ship, the Arará, traveling from Salvador to Santos, stopped to help the crippled Itagiba, but ended up as the fifth Brazilian victim of the German submarine, with a death toll of 20. In all, 21 German and 2 Italian submarines caused the sinking of 36 Brazilian merchant ships involving 1,691 drownings and 1,079 other casualties; the sinkings were the reason. Berlin Radio pronouncements led to increasing nervousness among the Brazilian population, so unlike 1917, in 1942 it seemed that the Brazilian government did not want war. In some cities like Rio de Janeiro, the people started to protest against such a situation which included some harassment of German communities; the passive position of the Vargas government proved untenable in the face of public opinion.
The government found itself with no alternative but to declare war on Germany and Italy on August 22, 1942. The decision regarding the creation of the FEB came after the Potenji River Conference, a meeting between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Getulio Vargas, held in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte on board a destroyer of the U. S. Navy; this Conference took place in 28 and 29 January 1943 right after President Roosevelt took part on the Casablanca Conference in Morocco. The participation of the Brazilian Navy in World War II was not directly connected to the FEB and the Italian Campaign, having been engaged in the Battle of the Atlantic; as a result of the Axis attacks, Brazil suffered nearly 1,600 dead, including 500 civilians and more than 1,000 of Brazil's 7,000 sailors involved in the conflict. The naval losses included 470 sailors of the merchant marine and 570 sailors of the Navy, a total of 36 ships sunk by the Germans, more than 350 dead in three accidental sinkings; the main task of the Brazilian Navy was, together with the Allies, to ensure the safety of ships sailing between the Central and South Atlantic to Gibraltar.
Alone or in coordination with Allied forces, it escorted 614 convoys that protected 3,164 merchant and transport troop ships.
Otto Lara Resende
Otto Lara Resende was a Brazilian journalist and writer. Resende began teaching French at age fourteen and at eighteen years old began working as a journalist in the Belo Horizonte newspaper O Diário. In his career he worked at literary supplement of Diário de Minas. In Rio de Janeiro, Resende worked for the Diário de Notícias, O Globo, Diário Carioca, Correio da Manhã, Última Hora and Jornal do Brasil newspapers and Senhor magazines, TV Globo, he graduated in Law from the Federal University of Minas Gerais. On July 3, 1979 Resende was elected to the Brazilian Academy of Letters, taking the chair 39, vacant by the death of Elmano Cardim. Academia Brasileira de Letras profile