The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chicano or Chicana is a chosen identity of some Mexican Americans in the United States. The term Chicano is sometimes used interchangeably with Mexican-American. Both names are chosen identities within the Mexican-American community in the United States; the term became used during the Chicano Movement by Mexican Americans to express pride in a shared cultural and community identity. The term Chicano had negative connotations before the Chicano Movement, still is viewed negatively and archaic by more conservative members of this community. Over time, it has gained some acceptance as an identity of pride within the Mexican-American community in the United States; the pro-indigenous/Mestizo nature of Chicano nationalism is cemented in the idea of mestizaje. It was the experience of Mexican Americans in the United States which culminated in the creation of a Chicano identity; the Chicano poet and writer Tino Villanueva traced the first documented use of the term as an ethnonym to 1911, as referenced in a then-unpublished essay by University of Texas anthropologist José Limón.
Linguists Edward R. Simmen and Richard F. Bauerle report the use of the term in an essay by Mexican-American writer, Mario Suárez, published in the Arizona Quarterly in 1947. In 1857, a gunboat, the Chicana, was sold to Jose Maria Carvajal to ship arms on the Rio Grande; the King and Kenedy firm submitted a voucher to the Joint Claims Commission of the United States in 1870 to cover the costs of this gunboat's conversion from a passenger steamer. No particular explanation of the boat's name is known; the origin of the word "chicano" is disputed. Some claim; the name Mexica as spoken in its original Nahuatl, Mexico by the Spaniards at the time of the Conquistadors, was pronounced with a and was transcribed with an x during this time period. According to this etymological hypothesis, the difference between the pronunciation and spelling of chicano and mexicano stems from the fact that the modern-day Spanish language experienced a change in pronunciation regarding a majority of words containing the x.
In most cases the has been a change of spelling. The word Chicano would have been affected by this change. Many Chicanos replace the ch with the letter x, forming Xicano, due to the original spelling of the Mexica Empire. In the United States, some Mexican-Americans choose the Xicano spelling to emphasize their indigenous ancestry. In Mexico's indigenous regions and Westernized natives are referred to as mexicanos, referring to the modern nation, rather than the pueblo identification of the speaker, be it Mayan, Mixtec, Huasteco, or any of hundreds of other indigenous groups. Thus, a newly emigrated Nahuatl speaker in an urban center might referred to his cultural relatives in this country, different from himself, as mexicanos, shortened to chicanos; the Handbook of Texas combines the two ideas: According to one explanation, the pre-Columbian tribes in Mexico called themselves Meshicas, the Spaniards, employing the letter x, spelled it Mexicas. The Indians referred to themselves as Meshicanos and as Shicanos, thus giving birth to the term Chicano.
Some believe that the early 20th-century Hispanic Texan epithet chicamo shifted into chicano to reflect the grammatical conventions of Spanish-language ethno- and demonyms, such as americano and peruano. However, Chicanos do not agree that chicamo was a word used within the culture, as its assertion is thus far unsubstantiated. Therefore, most self-identifying Chicanos do not agree that Chicano was derived from the word chicamo. Another hypothesis is that chicano derives from the indigenous population of Guanajuato, the Chichimecas, combined with the word Mexicano. An alternative idea is that it is an altered form of Chilango, meaning someone from Mexico City or Central Mexico. A similar notion is that the word derives from Chichen Itza, the Mayan temple ruin and its associated culture in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. Chicano would thus be a Hispanized word for Chichen and Mayans, rather than the Aztec or Nahua people. Chicanos, like many Mexicans, are Mestizos who have heritage of both indigenous American cultures and European Spanish, through colonization and immigration.
The term Latino refers to a native or inhabitant of Latin America or a person of Latin American origin living in the U. S. Hispanic refers to Spain, but, in effect, to those of Spanish-speaking descent; the term was first brought up in the 1970s but it was not until the 1990s that the term was used on the U. S. Census. Since it has been used by politicians and the media; the correct amalgamation is Latin American or Latin Americans, as coined by the Portuguese in the 17th century. The term's meanings are debatable, but self-described Chicanos view the term as a positive, self-identifying social construction. Outside of Mexican-American communities, within them, Chicano has sometimes been considered pejorative by those who do not prefer the term. Regardless, its implications are subjective, but usually
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Donald Grover Wise is an American tenor saxophonist and music producer. He gained attention as reliable sideman of the singer-songwriter Delbert McClinton from Lubbock, for more than 20 years. Wise played with many artists and in venues all over the globe in his more than 50-year musical career, he released four CDs under his own name before retiring from the music business in 2008. Wise lives with his family in Knoxville, Tennessee. At the beginning of his musical life cycle Wise learned to play clarinet. At age 12 he moved to the saxophone alto sax and a year settled on the tenor sax, he was inspired by the blues of the 1950s. He joined his first band in 1957, it was at the birth of rock'n' roll, they called themselves the Rhythm Rockers. Early saxophone influences were Red Prysock, Sam "The Man" Taylor, Earl Bostic, David "Fathead" Newman, a little King Curtis, Sam Butera, Junior Walker. With these musical inspirations, over the years he developed his versatility and his own signature sound and became a sought-after session musician.
Wise toured with various bands across the U. S. in the 1970s and'80s and has performed with Jeffrey Osborne, Ruben Ramos, Chuck Jackson, Maxine Brown, Taj Mahal, Willie Nelson, Marcia Ball, Rickey Godfrey, Jimmie Dale Gilmore, Tower of Power, Huey Lewis, Hal Ketchum, Teresa James and Joe Ely. A milestone was the invitation from Ray Charles to back him on a nationally broadcast TV appearance for the ESPYs in New York City in 1997. Wise was member of the "Allstar Band" performing the Inaugural-Concert for George H. W. Bush in 1989. While recording in 1985 with Radio Zebra, a Texas rock group with whom he had toured Germany a month prior, he received a call from Delbert McClinton to fill the position as saxophonist in his band. Wise remained a pillar of the group for 23 years, he served as instrumentalist and co-producer of McClinton's Grammy-nominated album Live from Austin in 1989 and as musician of Grammy winner Cost of Living in 2005. After more tours in Central Europe and Scandinavia, a large fan base grew outside the U.
S. and led to the popularity of his music. His eclectic skills brought various honors, from Country Sax Player of the Year at the Oklahoma Country Music Awards in 1980, to 2002 when he earned the Best Instrumentalist Cammy Award from the Beach Music Association, his playing style is written about in John Laughter's Contemporary Saxophone, with four of his solos from the Live from Austin CD featured on the book's companion disc. Reviewers in a variety of journals, e-zines describe his soulful solos and just-right backup playing. In 1997 he produced the first CD of his own, which garnered excellent reviews and led to three more discs over the next eight years. Colleagues including Delbert McClinton, Marcia Ball, Gary Bunton, Britt Johansen, Robin Griffin, Bugs Henderson, Big Joe Maher, Teresa James and Steve Williams helped get his ideas heard and appreciated. Friend and co-producer, Wally Moyers, owner of Studio 84 in Lubbock, was invaluable in achieving the sound Wise wanted. Besides featuring his friends' and colleagues' talents, Wise complemented these projects with his own musicianship as a sax pro, as well as his gifts as a composer, lyricist and singer.
In 2008, after an acclaimed tour of Finland and Norway, Wise exited the Delbert McClinton band to devote his time to his family and hobbies. Sometimes he still plays as a guest with various artists, such as Mingo Fishtrap from Austin, Texas, or on Delbert McClinton's annual Sandy Beaches Cruise. Wise plays "The Martin Tenor" built in 1951 with the Otto Link 7S, metal mouthpiece. In addition, he has a Martin silver tenor saxophone, a Martin alto, a Conn soprano sax. Country Saxophonist of the Year, 1980, Oklahoma Country Music Association Cammy Award – Best Instrumentalist, 2002, Beach Music Association Excerpt of productions, Wise has contributed as a saxophonist, composer and/or songwriter: All released by Horn O' Copia Recordings. 1997 In Wise Hands 2000 In the Verge of Survival 2002 Genuine Snake 2005 Swingin' Up a Storm 1981 Warhorse Band: Live in Lubbock 1985 Radio Zebra: Different stripes for different types 1988 Bugs Henderson & The Shuffle Kings: American Music 1989 Delbert McClinton: Live from Austin 1990 Genuine Houserockin' Music, Vol. 4 1991 The Best of Mountain Stage Live, Vol. 2 1992 Hot Rhythm & Cool Blues – Texas Style 1993 Bugs Henderson: Years in the jungle 1997 Delbert McClinton: One of the Fortunate Few 1998 Big Blues Extravaganza!: The Best of Austin City Limits 1998 Bugs Henderson & The Shuffle Kings: Have Blues...
Must Rock 2000 Kevin McKendree: Miss Laura's Kitchen 2001 All Aboard: The Beach Boogie Train, Vol. 3 2001 The Delta Riders: Kickin' up Dust 2002 Delbert McClinton: Room to Breathe 2002 Todd Sharp: Walking All the Way 2003 Johnny Flash & The Rockets: I Hear My Baby Knocking 2003 Paul Craver: Let the Music Play 2003 Delbert McClinton: Live 2003 Bugs Henderson & The Shuffle Kings: We're a Texas Band – Live in Germany 2005 Delbert McClinton: Cost of living 2005 Teresa James: Rhythm Method 2008 Rob Roy Parnell: Let's Start Something 2010 Rickey Godfrey: Nasty Man 2012 Topcat Records 20th Anniversary Extravaganza Official website Video-Interview with Don Wise on his Homepage Don Wise & Marcia Ball on Youtube Delbert McClinton: Standing on shaky Ground on YouTube Rickey Godfrey Website
The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation; the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, being annexed by the United States. The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas; the Mexican government had become centralized and the rights of its citizens had become curtailed regarding immigration from the United States.
Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835; the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas, his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered.
Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing all of the defenders. A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto; the Mexican troops were routed, vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s; the annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.
After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, Spanish Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. On the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States claimed the land west of the Sabine River, all the way to the Rio Grande. From 1812 to 1813 anti-Spanish republicans and U. S. filibusters rebelled against the Spanish Empire in what is known today as the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition during the Mexican War of Independence. They won battles in the beginning and captured many Texas cities from the Spanish that led to a declaration of independence of the state of Texas as part of the Mexican Republic on April 17, 1813; the new Texas government and army met their doom in the Battle of Medina in August 1813, 20 miles south of San Antonio, where 1,300 of the 1,400 rebel army were killed in battle or executed shortly afterwards by royalist soldiers.
It was the deadliest single battle in Texas history. 300 republican government officials in San Antonio were captured and executed by the Spanish royalists shortly after the battle. What is significant is a Spanish royalist lieutenant named Antonio López de Santa Anna fought in this battle and followed his superiors' orders to take no prisoners. Another interesting note is two founding fathers of the Republic of Texas and future signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz, took part in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition. Although the United States renounced that claim as part of the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain in 1819, many Americans continued to believe that Texas should belong to their nation, over the next decade the United States made several offers to purchase the region. Following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, the provinces of Texas and Coahuila were combined to become the state Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. After months of grumbling by Tejanos outraged at the loss of their political autonomy, state officials agreed to make Tex
Sugar Land, Texas
Sugar Land is a city in Fort Bend County, United States, located in the southwestern part of the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. Located about 19 miles southwest of downtown Houston, Sugar Land is a populous suburban municipality centered around the junction of Texas State Highway 6 and U. S. Route 59. Beginning in the 19th century, the present-day Sugar Land area was home to a large sugar plantation situated in the fertile floodplain of the Brazos River. Following the consolidation of local plantations into Imperial Sugar Company in 1908, Sugar Land grew as a company town and incorporated as a city in 1959. Since Sugar Land has grown alongside other edge cities around Houston, with large-scale development of master-planned communities contributing to population swells since the 1980s. Sugar Land is one of the most fastest-growing cities in Texas, its population increased more than 158% between 1990 and 2000. Between 2000 and 2007, Sugar Land saw a 46% increase in jobs; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 78,817.
Following the annexation of the Greatwood and New Territory communities in December 2017, the city's population was estimated at 118,118 as of January 1, 2019. Sugar Land is home to the headquarters of Imperial Sugar; the Imperial Sugar crown logo is featured in logo. Prior to the founding of Texas, the Atakapa people lived in the area that would become Sugar Land. Sugar Land has roots in the original Mexican land grant made to Anglo-American Stephen F. Austin. One of the first settlers of the land, Samuel M. Williams, called this area Oakland Plantation because many different varieties of the trees were on the land, such as willow oak, post oak, water oak, southern red oak, live oak. Williams' brother, purchased the land from Austin in 1838, they developed the plantation by growing cotton and sugarcane. During these early years, the plantation was the center of social life along the Brazos River. In 1853, Benjamin Terry and William J. Kyle purchased the Oakland Plantation from the Williams family.
Terry is known for organizing a division of Texas Rangers during the Civil War and for naming the town. Upon the deaths of Terry and Kyle, Colonel E. H. Cunningham bought the 12,500-acre plantation soon after the Civil War, he had a sugar-refining plant built here, developed the town around it in 1879, platting the land and attracting settlers during the post-Reconstruction era. In 1906, the Kempner family of Galveston, under the leadership of Isaac H. Kempner, in partnership with William T. Eldridge, purchased the 5,300-acre Ellis Plantation, one of the few plantations in Fort Bend County to survive the Civil War; the Ellis Plantation had been part of the Jesse Cartwright league. In 1908, the partnership acquired the adjoining 12,500-acre Cunningham Plantation, with its raw-sugar mill and cane-sugar refinery; the partnership changed the name to Imperial Sugar Company. Around the turn of the 20th century, most of the sugarcane crops were destroyed by a harsh winter; as part of the Kempner-Eldridge agreement, Eldridge moved to the site to serve as general manager and build the company-owned town of Sugar Land.
The trains running through Sugar Land are on the route of the oldest railroad in Texas. They run adjacent to the sugar refinery, west of the town, through the center of what used to be known as the Imperial State Prison Farm, it operated with convict lease labor. Between the end of the civil War and 1912, more than 3,500 prisoners died in Texas as a result of the racist convict leasing program. Archaeologists have uncovered unmarked graves of African Americans from this period in the region around Sugar Land's prison and sugar factory. Since the early 21st century, this area has been redeveloped as the suburban planned community of Telfair; as a company town from the 1910s until 1959, Sugar Land was self-contained. Imperial Sugar Company provided housing for the workers, encouraged construction of schools, built a hospital to treat workers, provided businesses to meet the workers' needs. Many of the original houses built by the Imperial Sugar Company remain today in The Hill and Mayfield Park areas of Sugar Land, have been passed down through generations of family members.
During the 1950s, Imperial Sugar wanted to expand the town by building more houses. It developed a new subdivision, Venetian Estates, which featured waterfront homesites on Oyster Creek and on man-made lakes; as the company town expanded, so did the interest of establishing a municipal government. Voters chose to make Sugar Land a general-law city in 1959, with T. E. Harman becoming the first mayor. In the early 1960s, a new subdivision development called; that year, the Imperial Cattle Ranch sold about 1,200 acres to a developer to create what became Sugar Creek in 1968. As a master-planned community, Sugar Creek introduced the concept of country club living to Sugar Land. Custom houses were built to surround two golf courses, country clubs, swimming pools, a private home security service were part of the amenities developed; the success of Sugar Creek, buoyed by the construction of U. S. Highway 59 made Sugar Land's vast farmlands attractive to real estate developers for residential housing. In 1977, development began on First Colony, a mast