click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ruby Elzy

Ruby Pearl Elzy, was a pioneer American operatic soprano. Elzy was born in Pontotoc and educated at Rust College, the Ohio State University and the Juilliard School. At Juilliard she was a pupil of Lucia Dunham, her sister Amanda Elzy was a prominent educationist after whom Amanda Elzy High School in Greenwood, Mississippi is named. Their mother Emma Elzy was a teacher and prominent member of the Methodist church, in whose memory the Mississippi Conference of the United Methodist Church presents an annual Emma K. Elzy award. Ruby had another sister and two brothers and Robert, their father Charlie abandoned the family. Elzy entertained at the White House, December 15, 1937, for First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt's luncheon for the wives of U. S. Supreme Court Justices, she appeared on Broadway in films, on radio and on the concert stage. She appeared with Paul Robeson in the film of The Emperor Jones, with Bing Crosby and Mary Martin in Birth of the Blues, though neither of these were starring roles, she sang in the Hollywood Bowl.

Elzy created the role of Serena in George Gershwin's folk opera Porgy and Bess and performed in it more than eight hundred times. Serena sings the heart-wrenching soprano aria and lament "My Man's Gone Now" after her husband Robbin is murdered in a crap game, but fellow cast member and lead soprano Anne Brown and not Elzy is heard singing the aria on the 1940 original cast album of selections from Porgy and Bess. Elzy sang the demanding aria on the 1937 CD release of the Gershwin Memorial Concert that took place three months after the composer's death at the Hollywood Bowl. In 1940, she was chosen by composer Harold Arlen to record the world premiere of his original suite of Negro spirituals, "Reverend Johnson's Dream", which would be her only commercial recording. During the same year Ruby married Jack Carr, an actor/singer who appeared on stage with her in "Porgy and Bess"; the marriage lasted until her death. Elzy rose above poverty and prejudice to become one of the most acclaimed singers of her generation, but her career lasted a decade.

Just as she was reaching the peak of her powers as a singer and about to achieve her greatest dream—to star in the title role of Giuseppe Verdi's Aida—and one week after her final performance as Serena, Ruby Elzy died in Detroit following surgery to remove a benign tumor. She was only 35 years old. In 2006, Elzy's biographer, David E. Weaver, produced a first-ever CD compilation of Elzy, featuring the singer in twenty rare recorded and broadcast performances; the CD, entitled Ruby Elzy in Song, was released on the Cambria label. Birth of the Blues David E. Weaver, Black Diva of the Thirties: The Life of Ruby Elzy, University Press of Mississippi, September 2004. "The Sweet Sound of Ruby Elzy", review of CD Ruby Elzy in Song by Pulitzer Prize-winning critic Lloyd Schwartz on NPR's Fresh Air, broadcast 28 June 2007: https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=11510015

Peter Kőszegi

Peter Kőszegi was a Hungarian prelate in the 13th century, who served as Bishop of Veszprém from 1275 until his death. He was unrecognized Archbishop-elect of Esztergom between 1277 and 1278; as a member of the powerful Kőszegi family, he subordinated his diocese to his family's political interests in order to extend their influence over Western Hungary. Peter was born in the second half of the 1240s into the influential and wealthy Kőszegi family, as one of the four sons of the powerful lord Henry I Kőszegi, his three brothers – Nicholas I, Ivan and the much younger Henry II – elevated into high dignities during the age of the late Árpáds. When the minor Ladislaus IV of Hungary ascended the Hungarian throne in 1272, the kingdom fell into anarchy and many groupings of barons fought against each other for supreme power. Peter's father Henry was one of the key figures in that period, who entered alliance with the Gutkeleds and the Geregyes, forming one of the two main baronial groups, while the other one was dominated by the Csák and Monoszló clans.

Henry was killed in the Battle of Föveny in late September 1274. Peter first appeared in contemporary records in May 1275. Prior to that, his family had no interests in Veszprém County, but the Ugod branch of the Csák kindred possessed landholdings and castles in the region. Peter's election occurred under political pressure, when the Kőszegis regained their influence in the royal council by mid-1275. Under such circumstances, the town of Veszprém and the surrounding lands became buffer zone between the two rivaling families, the Kőszegis and the Csáks. In early 1276, Peter Csák and his allies launched a massive military campaign against the Kőszegi and Gutkeled dominions, their troops devastated the territory of the Diocese of Veszprém. During the attack, 68 canons and clergymen were killed, several others were tortured and robbed, while all the treasures of the Veszprém cathedral chapter, including the library and archives of its school were looted and burnt; the canonical university was never rebuilt after Peter Csák's campaign.

According to contemporary records, this was "the worst barbaric and most destructive attack" in Hungary since the Mongol invasion. Despite that, Peter Kőszegi retained his position, his election was confirmed by the pope in mid-1276. He was styled traditionally as chancellor of the Queen Elizabeth of Sicily in 1277, from 1284 to 1285. Following the death of Archbishop-elect Benedict, some canons of the cathedral chapter of Esztergom elected Peter Kőszegi as his successor on 13 March 1277. Beyond his brothers and their allies, neither Ladislaus IV nor the other baronial groups acknowledged the process, while Nicholas Kán contested the election, referring to his status of archbishop-elect from the previous years. In order to solve the situation, Pope John XXI summoned both prelates to Rome, but they refused to attend. Soon, Pope John died on 20 May 1277, Pope Nicholas III succeeded him after a six-month vacancy; the new pope summoned both Nicholas Kán and Peter Kőszegi to the Roman Curia on 27 January 1278.

Peter Kőszegi refused to travel but sent his protege Paul Balog in order to receive papal support for his case. On 1 June 1278, Pope Nicholas declared. Thereafter, Pope Nicholas III appointed Lodomer as the new Archbishop of Esztergom on 13 June 1279, ending a seven-year period of vacancy. On 21 May 1280, Peter Kőszegi excommunicated Nicholas Pok and his three brothers, who had participated in Peter Csák's looting raids against the Diocese of Veszprém. In the upcoming years, the Pok brothers continued to plunder the Transdanubian estates of the bishopric, for instance they attacked and ravaged the church property in Tapolca, Csököly and Görgeteg around 1278. In retaliation, beside the punishment of excommunication, Peter Kőszegi's troops raided the family monastery of the Pok clan in the namesake village near Győr, he ordered to transfer its treasury and jewelry to the St. Michael's Cathedral of Veszprém. In 1285, he led his episcopal army in the siege of the castle of Szigliget owned by the Pok kindred.

There, he confiscated the seized religious relics and values, including chasubles and gems for his diocese. Some historians connect and merge the two events, consider the treasury of the Pok monastery were transferred to Szigliget Castle sometimes after the Mongol invasion. During his episcopate, Peter Kőszegi subordinated his diocese and its resources to his family's political interests in order to extend their influence over Western Hungary. During the royal campaign against Ivan Kőszegi at the turn of 1283 and 1284, Peter provided help to his brother and sent his episcopal banderium. Having Ladislaus IV failed, Henry and – despite his clerical position – Bishop Peter stormed into Southern Transdanubia and jointly invaded and besieged the episcopal town of Pécs in March 1284; when Albert I, Duke of Austria led a military campaign against Ivan Kőszegi, who pillaged the Austrian and Styrian lands from his province, his army intended to besiege Borostyánkő in 1285, but Ivan asked for help from his three brothers, including Peter, who recruited an army of 1,000 people.

The brothers jointly routed Albert's army. To increase his wealth and dominance, Peter unlawfully usurped the tithe from the nun monastery located in the valley of Veszprém. Duke Albert launched a massive royal campaign with his 15,000-size

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, literature and physiology or medicine; this award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death; the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, of the Netherlands, "for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions." From 1901 to 2018, the award has been bestowed on a total of 180 individuals. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.

Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.

According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences were to award the Prize in Chemistry. The committee and institution serving as the selection board for the prize announce the names of the laureates in October; the prize is awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. "The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. The Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount"; the Nobel Banquet is held in Stockholm City Hall. A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected; the award can be given to a maximum of three recipients per year. It consists of a gold medal, a diploma, a cash grant; the Nobel Laureates in chemistry are selected by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In its first stage, several thousand people are asked to nominate candidates.

These names are discussed by experts until only the laureates remain. This slow and thorough process, is arguably. Forms, which amount to a personal and exclusive invitation, are sent to about three thousand selected individuals to invite them to submit nominations; the names of the nominees are never publicly announced, neither are they told that they have been considered for the Prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. In practice, some nominees do become known, it is common for publicists to make such a claim – founded or not. The nominations are screened by committee, a list is produced of two hundred preliminary candidates; this list is forwarded to selected experts in the field. They remove all but fifteen names; the committee submits a report with recommendations to the appropriate institution. While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can occur if the individual died in the months between the nomination and the decision of the prize committee; the award in chemistry requires the significance of achievements being recognized is "tested by time."

In practice it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. As a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized; some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a Prize, as the discoverers may have died by the time the impact of their work is realized. A Chemistry Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money; the Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal feature an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse; the Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Physiology or Medicine, Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a different design; the image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize.

The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design. Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden; each diploma is uniquely designed by

Middle state

The State of the Middle, refers to the virtue of impartiality, avoiding excess and preserving equity in Tamil philosophy. It is not to be confused with; the phrase was introduced as the name of both the concept and a chapter in the Tirukkuṟaḷ by Tiruvaḷḷuvar. It is referred to from Kurals 111 to 120; the Kural 113 summarises the concept as follows: Forsake in the moment that gain which, though it should bring advantage, is without equity. In the Tamil language, நடுவு means'centre' and நிலை means'state'. Tiruvaḷḷuvar opined that the wisdom of those who follow the State of the Middle will be an unperishing example for future generations, he said those who are virtuous, follow the State of the Middle, or vicious, or those who diverge from the State of the Middle, will be known by the nature of peoples' opinion of them. While life's goodness may fluctuate people are still obliged to keep the State of the Middle. Should following the State of the Middle result in ones low estate, the wise shower them with praise still.

Suppose one should consider diverging from the State of the Middle, one should prepare for impending ruin. To incline neither side like a set of scales is a sign of a virtue. If one's soul is impartial, one cannot be of obliquitous promises, always expected to keep one's word and is expected to be impartial to friends and enemies. Tiruvaḷḷuvar concludes by saying that traders are expected to protect the goods of others as if it were their own; the concept has an intrinsic place in Tamil society. It is referred to vaguely by Kaṉiyan Pūngunṟanār in the Puṟanāṉūṟu when he suggests it that life should neither be full of pleasure nor full of sorrow. Bharathiyar makes a reference to நடுமை நிலை in his. Manimekalai details that kings and judges were expected to be impartial, measure the guilt of the offender and grant punishment accordingly without being too excessive. Any divergence from justice was said to resemble a river of milk with a water current in its course. Aristotle's "Golden Mean" and a central theme of Aristotelean ethics.

Confucius's Doctrine of the Mean Buddhist philosophy's Middle path

Thirdstory

Thirdstory is an American band from New York City consisting of singer-songwriters Elliott Skinner, Ben Lusher, Richard Saunders. Thirdstory formed in New York City in early 2014; the Trio is signed to Verve Records a record label under Universal Music Group. The band opened for Tori Kelly on the Unbreakable Tour in spring 2016, released their debut EP, Searching, on May 6, 2016; this was followed by a single, “G Train” featuring Pusha T released in November 2016. In 2017, they performed with Chance the Rapper on the Be Encouraged Tour as members of his band. On January 31, 2018, Thirdstory announced their debut album, Cold Heart, to be released on March 9, 2018; the album includes single "G Train" and other songs from the "Searching" EP. Cold Heart Searching "G Train" ft. Pusha T "Still In Love"

Green River, Utah

Green River is a city in Emery County, United States. The population was 952 at the 2010 census; the city is located on the banks of a major tributary of the Colorado River. The San Rafael Swell region is to the west of the city, while Canyonlands National Park lies to the south. Today located in Emery County, the city was split between Emery and Grand counties until January 6, 2003, when Emery County's boundaries were expanded to follow the city limits. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Green River has a total area of 12.6 square miles, of which 12.5 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.87%, is water. Interstate 70 passes just south of the city, with access from Exits 160 and 164. Grand Junction, Colorado lies 102 miles to the east and Cove Fort, I-70's western terminus, is 162 miles to the west. Price lies 64 miles to the northwest on US Routes 6 and 191. Crystal Geyser, a cold water "geyser"—actually a carbon-dioxide driven, erupting well—is located about nine miles southeast of town.

According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Green River has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps. The 1829 to 1850s Old Spanish Trail trade route passed across the Green River in the area of modern Green River from 1829 into the 1850s. John Wesley Powell embarked on the first of two voyages down the Green River in May 1869 and floated the river all the way to its confluence with the Colorado and beyond. Powell left a detailed account of the river and the surrounding landscape and prepared the first thorough maps of the river basin. Powell left his mark on the in other ways as well, he and his men named most of the canyons, geographic features, rapids along the Green River during his two voyages in 1869 and 1871. Powell paved the way for generations of explorers and scientists interested in the unique geology of the basin of the Green River; the settlement of Green River started as a river crossing for the U. S. mail. In 1876, a Mr. Blake set up a way station on the east side of the river.

It became a stopover for travelers with a ferry for transporting people and animals across the river. In 1883 the line known as the Utah Division of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad was built and a train station was opened; the west side of the river became known as "Greenriver", the east side of the river became known as "Elgin", is still referred to by that name today. With the coming of the railroad, the town went from a small farm hamlet to a boom town with workers coming to build the bridge and the road bed for the railroad. After completion of the railroad, Green River became a fueling, watering stop for the railroad, with switching yards and engine sheds. A hotel called the Palmer House was built and became the scheduled meal stop for trains from both directions for many years. Green River enjoyed the railroad boom until 1892, when the railroad transferred most of its operations to Helper; the population of the town declined significantly. Throughout the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s the mining of uranium played a significant role in the economy of Green River.

Several trucking companies hauled ore from mines in the Four-Corners Mining District west of Green River, the San Rafael Swell, the Henry Mountains, the area, now Lake Powell. The U. S. Air Force built the Green River Launch Complex just outside Green River in 1964, it was an annex of the U. S. Army's White Sands Missile Range. From 1964 to 1973 the Air Force launched 141 Athena missiles from the Green River complex, near the Crystal Geyser, as part of research to improve nuclear missiles. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Green River station, operating its California Zephyr daily in both directions between Chicago and Emeryville, California. Interstate 70, along with U. S. 6, U. S. 191, U. S. 50 passes through Green River, the first eastbound services after Salina and the final westbound services, due to the fact that the two cities are 110 miles apart, the longest stretch with no services in the United States. The Main road in Green River is a short State road, SR 19, with Business I-70.

As of the census of 2000, there were 973 people, 329 households, 238 families residing in the city. The population density was 77.8 people per square mile. There were 376 housing units at an average density of 30.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.3% White, 0.9% African American, 1.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 7.1% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.6% of the population. There were 329 households out of which 41.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.4% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.48. In the city, the population was spread out with 35.7% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,000, the median income for a family was $31,667. Males had a median income of $28,417 versus $16,477 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,326. About 12.5% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% o