Dunbar High School (Washington, D.C.)
Paul Laurence Dunbar High School is a public secondary school located in Washington, D. C. The school is located in the Truxton Circle neighborhood of Northwest Washington, which serves grades 9 through 12, is a part of the District of Columbia Public Schools. The school was Americas first public school for black students. The school was renamed in 1916, when its location was changed from M Street, after the famous African-American poet, Paul Laurence Dunbar and it was designated as the citys academic high school, with other schools providing more vocational or technical training goals. Dunbar was known for its excellent academics, enough so that some black parents moved to Washington specifically so their children could attend it and its faculty was paid well by the standards of the time, earning parity pay with Washingtons white school teachers because they were all federal employees. It boasted a high number of graduates who went on to higher education. All three schools are highly regarded for their athletic programs within their respective school district in the sports of football, basketball.
There is a Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in Lexington, one of Dunbars first principals was the first black graduate of Harvard College. Almost all the teachers had graduate degrees, and several earned PhDs, by the 1950s, Dunbar High School was sending 80 percent of its students to college. Dunbar, which had been accepting outstanding black students from anywhere in the city, virtually overnight, Dunbar became a typical ghetto school. As unmotivated and disruptive students flooded in, Dunbar teachers began moving out, more than 80 years of academic excellence simply vanished into thin air. Its illustrious faculty included Anna Julia Cooper, Kelly Miller, Mary Church Terrell, birch Jr. Carter G. Woodson and Julia Evangeline Brooks who was a graduate of the school. Among its principals were Anna J. Cooper, Richard Greener, Mary Jane Patterson, and Robert Heberton Terrell. An unusual number of teachers and principals held Ph. D. degrees, including Carter G. Woodson, father of Black history Month and the second African American to earn a Phd.
from Harvard. As a consequence, Dunbar High School was considered the nations best high school for African Americans during the first half of the 20th century and it helped make Washington an educational and cultural capital. Frank Coleman, professor of physics, founder of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity and he would play for the Kings, Vancouver Grizzlies, and Washington Wizards. Anthony Jones, former player for Georgetown Univ and UNLV. Jones was selected in the 1st round by the Washington Bullets in the 1986 NBA Draft, played for the Spurs and Mavericks
Amzie Moore was an African-American civil rights leader, and entrepreneur in the Mississippi Delta. Moore was born on the Wilkin plantation near the Grenada and Carroll County lines, left on his own at fourteen after his mother died in 1925, Moore completed high school but could not realize his dream of a college education. Through the rest of his life, however, he worked hard to educate himself, even before leaving Mississippi to fight in the war, Moore was involved in race relations, once organizing a successful rally of 10,000 blacks in his hometown. He served over three and a half years in the United States Army including time overseas before returning to his job at the U. S. Post Office where he had worked since 1935. After the war, Moore opened a gas station, beauty shop and his business served as headquarters for the area’s civil rights efforts. At his gas station, which was one of the very few African-American owned ones, he refused to have separate white, beginning in 1951, Aaron Henry and Medgar Evers worked with Dr. T. R. M.
Howard, an entrepreneur, fraternal organization leader, and surgeon. The RCNL sought to encourage entrepreneurship, self-help, and civil rights in the Delta and he participated in the RCNLs campaign to boycott gas stations that failed to provide restrooms for blacks. His gas station was one of the few that allowed blacks to use restrooms between Memphis and Vicksburg, during this period, Moore belonged to the United Order of Friendship, a fraternal society headed by Howard to provide low-cost medical care to blacks. Moore conceived of the registration campaign that was the centerpiece of Freedom Summer in 1964. The local leader welcomed outside help including SNCC organizer Robert Parris Moses, Moses said that Moore was a guiding force from the start. His house was used as a dormitory and safe house for activists during the movements voter-registration drives in the 1960s, recalled Margaret Block. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Andrew Young, John Lewis, Thurgood Marshall, John Dittmer, Local People, the Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi.
Charles M. Payne, Ive Got the Light of Freedom, The Organizing Tradition, howards Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power
My Soul Is Rested
My Soul Is Rested, Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered is a book of oral history regarding the American Civil Rights Movement by journalist Howell Raines. Raines began his research for this book while the editor for the Atlanta Constitution. He felt that the story of sacrifice and courage that had led to these changes needed to be more completely told by the people who lived it. As a journalist in Atlanta, Raines already had access to members of the movement who had become prominent politicians in the South. As he conducted interviews he obtained from the names and contact information for others who should be included. His southern heritage helped to obtain interviews with people who had fought racial desegregation, all but two of the interviews included were expressly conducted for this book between October 1974 and April 1976. The interview with Autherine Lucy was conducted by Culpepper Clark, a historian at the University of Alabama, the material from Martin Luther King, Sr. was excerpted from in interview conducted by the author for a television program on PBS station KETV in Atlanta.
The book took nineteen months to complete, in the meantime Raines had left the Constitution to work on it. By the time it was published he had become the editor at the St. Petersburg Times. My Soul Is Rested is like that, while discussing the impact of the book, he wrote, the power of My Soul Is Rested lies in part in its recalling for us what the South was like when the Movement started. Nowadays, when the problems of race relations are more complicated both morally and legally, too many people forget the cruelties that blacks have suffered in this country. After the book was published Raines heard from friends in Atlanta and he learned through Charles Haslam, president of the American Booksellers Association, that G. P. Putnams regional salesman for the Southeast was making negative presentations of the book with racial overtones, Raines began to pursue the issue with Richs department store, a major book distributor in Atlanta. Richs chief book buyer, Faith Brunson, said that they would only a few copies of the book because people were not interested in it except for Julian Bond.
My Soul Is Rested Stirs Unrest in Marketing, Southern Changes, The Journal of the Southern Regional Council, 1878-2003. The Right to Have a Coke, new York Times,23 October 1977, p BR2. My Soul is Rested, Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered
Daughters of the American Revolution
The Daughters of the American Revolution is a lineage-based membership service organization for women who are directly descended from a person involved in the United States struggle for independence. A non-profit group, they work to promote preservation, education. It currently has approximately 180,000 members in the United States and its motto is God and Country. The DAR is a white organization with a record of excluding African American women. In 1889 the centennial of President George Washingtons inauguration was celebrated, out of the renewed interest in United States history, numerous patriotic and preservation societies were founded. The first meeting of the society was held August 9,1890, the first DAR chapter was organized on October 11,1890, at the Strathmore Arms, the home of Mary Smith Lockwood, one of the DARs four co-founders. Other founders were Eugenia Washington, a great-grandniece of George Washington, Ellen Hardin Walworth and they had held organizational meetings in August 1890.
The First Lady, Caroline Lavina Scott Harrison, wife of President Benjamin Harrison, lent her prestige to the founding of DAR, having initiated a renovation of the White House, she was interested in historic preservation. She helped establish the goals of DAR, which was incorporated by charter in 1896. This was in addition to fraternal and civic organizations flourishing in this period. The DAR chapters raised funds to initiate a number of historic preservation and they began a practice of installing markers at the graves of Revolutionary War veterans to indicate their service, and adding small flags at their gravesites on Memorial Day. Other activities included commissioning and installing monuments to battles and other related to the War. The DAR recognized women patriots contributions as well as those of soldiers, for instance, they installed a monument at the site of a spring where Polly Hawkins Craig and other women got water to use against flaming arrows, in the defense of Bryan Station.
In addition to installing markers and monuments, DAR chapters have purchased and operated historic houses, see DAR Historic Sites and Database for a map and database of DAR sites. Washington, D. C. had segregated facilities under laws established by a Southern-dominated Congress, in 1945, African-American jazz singer Hazel Scott was excluded from performing at Constitution Hall. In October 1945, the DAR invited First Lady Bess Truman to a tea at the hall, congressman Powell protested and asked Truman not to attend the tea. She chose to go, but said publicly that she opposed discrimination, the White House received letters asking Bess Truman to resign from the DAR in protest of their policy, she declined to do so. Other letters supported her having attended the tea, the DAR did not officially reverse its white performers only policy until 1952
Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation. Desegregation is largely a matter, integration largely a social one. The movement toward desegregation, breaking down the nations Jim Crow system, integration, on the other hand, Professor Oscar Handlin maintains, implies several things not yet necessarily accepted in all areas of American society. In one sense it refers to the levelling of all barriers to other than those based on ability, taste. But in another sense integration calls for the distribution of a minority throughout society. Here, according to Handlin, the emphasis is on balance in areas of occupation, residency. From the beginning the military establishment rightly understood that the breakup of the unit would in a closed society necessarily mean more than mere desegregation. It constantly used the terms integration and equal treatment and opportunity to describe its racial goals, rarely, if ever, does one find the word desegregation in military files that include much correspondence.
Integration happens even without a mandate from the law, desegregation, on the other hand, was the legal remedy to segregation. Making almost the point, Henry Organ, identifying himself as a participant in the Civil Rights Movement on the Peninsula in the 60s. The term integration, on the hand, pertains to a social domain, it does. In their book By the Color of Our Skin Leonard Steinhorn, give white Americans the sensation of having meaningful, repeated contact with blacks without actually having it. Reviewing this book in the libertarian magazine Reason, Michael W. Lynch sums up some of their conclusions as, Blacks and whites live, work, pray and entertain separately. If a significant number of black children arent comfortable with them, it isnt by choice and its one thing for members of the black elite and upper middle class to choose to retire to predominantly black neighborhoods after a lucrative days work in white America. Its quite another for people to be unable to enter that commercial sphere because they spent their formative years in a community that didnt, or couldnt, prepare them for it.
Writes Patterson, The greatest problem now facing African-Americans is their isolation from the norms of the dominant culture. Although widespread, this distinction between integration and desegregation is not universally accepted, for example, it is possible to find references to court-ordered integration from sources such as the Detroit News, PBS, or even Encarta. These same sources use the phrase court-ordered desegregation, apparently with exactly the same meaning
George W. Lee
George Washington Lee was an African-American civil rights leader and entrepreneur. He was a president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership and head of the Belzoni, Mississippi. He was assassinated in 1955 for organizing African Americans to try to register to vote, born in 1903, George Washington Lee grew up in poverty in Edwards, Mississippi. His mother was a plantation worker who married after Lee was born. After Lees mother died when George was young, he was taken in by her sister, Lee graduated from high school, a rarity for blacks living in his circumstances. Afterward he went to the port of New Orleans, where he worked on the banana docks, Lee was typical of a generation of activists who came to civil rights after they had made a success in business. Like so many in this category, he came up the way through backbreaking work, thrift. During the 1930s and the Great Depression, Lee accepted a call to become a preacher in Belzoni, the town was located in Humphreys County in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.
Most blacks in the state lived in this region and the majority in poverty as farm workers. Lee continued to work to himself, he joined with local black business. Serving as pastor at four churches, he opened a small grocery store. Lee considered both vocations as serving the African-American community, in a back room of his house, he and his wife, set up a small printing business. These efforts provided enough resources that Lee felt he had a base for entering the battle for rights in the early 1950s. As a part of the NAACP, Lee worked tirelessly in trying to register African Americans to vote, Lee was the first black in memory to register to vote in Humphreys County, Mississippi. In 1953, Lee and Gus Courts, another black grocer, when the sheriff refused to accept their poll taxes, which were required for voter registration, they took him to court. Between them and Courts registered nearly all of the countys ninety black voters in 1955, whites were enraged by the previous years decision by the U. S.
Supreme Courts in Brown v. Board of Education, ruling that segregated public schools were unconstitutional. Whites in Mississippi were determined to resist efforts at integration, particularly in black-majority areas of the Delta and they founded the White Citizens Council, with chapters throughout counties in the Delta. Lee and Courts continued their work, Lee was a vice president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, a leading black organization in the state
Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey. Its mission in the 21st century is to ensure the political, educational and their national initiatives included political lobbying, publicity efforts, and litigation strategies developed by their legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of foreign refugees. Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the common term colored people. The NAACP bestows annual awards to people of color in two categories, Image Awards are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and Spingarn Medals are for outstanding achievement of any kind and its headquarters is in Baltimore, Maryland. The NAACP is headquartered in Baltimore, with regional offices in New York, Georgia, Texas, Colorado. Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region, local and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U. S.
the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, julian Bond, Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock. For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was led by its executive secretary. James Weldon Johnson and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were more widely known as NAACP leaders than were presidents during those years. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action, local chapters are supported by the Branch and Field Services department and the Youth and College department. The Legal department focuses on cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government. The Washington, D. C. bureau is responsible for lobbying the U. S. government, the goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. As of 2007, the NAACP had approximately 425,000 paying and non-paying members, the NAACPs non-current records are housed at the Library of Congress, which has served as the organizations official repository since 1964.
The records held there comprise approximately five million items spanning the NAACPs history from the time of its founding until 2003, in 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states disenfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippis passage of a new constitution in 1890, through 1908, southern legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this caused the exclusion of most blacks and many whites from the political system in southern states. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation, men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not qualify to register
Emmett Louis Till was an African-American teenager who was lynched in Mississippi at the age of 14 after being falsely accused of flirting with a white woman. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew attention to the history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. Till posthumously became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement, near Chicago, and was visiting relatives in Money, a small town in the Mississippi Delta region. He spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the proprietor of a small grocery store there. Several nights later, Bryants husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam went armed to Tills great-uncles house and they took him away and beat and mutilated him before fatally shooting him and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Three days later, Tills body was discovered and retrieved from the river, Tills body was returned to Chicago. His mother, who had raised him, insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket to show the world the brutality of the killing.
The open-coffin funeral held by Mamie Till Bradley exposed the world to more than her son Emmett Tills bloated, mutilated body and her decision focused attention not only on American racism and the barbarism of lynching but on the limitations and vulnerabilities of American democracy. S. Intense scrutiny was brought to bear on the lack of civil rights in Mississippi. In September 1955, Bryant and Milam were acquitted by a jury of Tills kidnapping. Protected against double jeopardy and Milam publicly admitted in an early 1956 interview with Look magazine that they had killed Till, problems identifying Till had affected the trial, possibly contributing to Bryants and Milams acquittals. In 2004 the case was reopened by the United States Department of Justice. As part of the investigation, the body was exhumed and autopsied and he was reburied in a new casket, which is the standard practice in cases of body exhumation. His original casket was donated to the Smithsonian Institution and it is displayed in the National Museum of African American History, the trial of Bryant and Milam attracted a vast amount of press attention.
Tills murder is noted as a pivotal catalyst to the phase of the Civil Rights Movement. In December 1955, the Montgomery Bus Boycott began in Alabama and lasted more than a year, in a 2008 interview, first made public in 2017, Carolyn Bryant disclosed that she had fabricated her testimony that Till had made verbal or physical advances towards her. Events surrounding Emmett Tills life and death, according to historians, some writers have suggested that almost every story about Mississippi returns to Till, or the Delta region in which he died, in some spiritual, homing way. An Emmett Till Memorial Commission was established in the early 21st century, the Sumner County Courthouse was restored and includes the Emmett Till Interpretive Center
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States. Historically, it is differentiated from the Upper South as being the states most dependent on plantation-type agriculture, the Deep South was commonly referred to as the Lower South or the Cotton States, for their production of cotton as the primary commodity crop. Today, the Deep South is usually delineated as being those states, the seven states that seceded from the United States before the firing on Fort Sumter and the start of the American Civil War, and were the first to form the Confederate States of America. Ultimately the Confederacy included eleven states, in order of secession they are, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas. The first six states to secede were those that held the largest number of slaves, a large part of the original Cotton Belt. Some of this is coterminous with the Black Belt, originally referring to areas of Alabama and Mississippi with fertile soil. The term came to be used for much of the Cotton Belt, though often used in history books to refer to the seven states that originally formed the Confederacy, the term Deep South did not come into general usage until long after the Civil War ended.
Up until that time, Lower South was the designation for those states. This was the part of the South many considered the most Southern, the general definition expanded to include all of South Carolina, Alabama and Louisiana, and often taking in bordering areas of East Texas and North Florida. Houston is the largest city of the Deep South region and they sometimes served as overseers on plantations. Georgia -1,132,184 out of 3,009,484 people identified as English, making them 37. 62% of the states total. Mississippi -496,481 people out of 1,551,364 people identified as English, making them 32. 00% of the total, the largest national group by a wide margin. Florida -1,132,033 people out of 5,159,967 identified English as their only ancestry group, making them 21. 94% of the total. Louisiana -440,558 people out of 2,319,259 people identified only as English, making them 19. 00% of the total people and the second-largest ancestry group in the state at the time. Those who wrote only French were 480,711 people out of 2,319,259 people, or 20. 73% of the total state population.
Texas -1,639,322 people identified as English only out of a total of 7,859,393 people, making them 20. 86% of the people in the state. These figures to do not take into account people who identified as English, when the two were added together, people who self identified as being of English with other ancestry, made up an even larger portion of southerners. South Carolina was settled earlier than those states commonly classified as the Deep South, the map to the right was prepared by the Census Bureau from the 2000 census, it shows the predominant ancestry in each county as self-identified by residents themselves
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
University of Georgia
Its primary location is a 762-acre campus adjacent to the college town of Athens, approximately an hours drive from the global city of Atlanta. The university has been labeled one of the Public Ivies, a publicly funded university considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League. The university was founded in 1785 as the United States first state-chartered university and its historic North Campus is on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places as a designated historic district. The contiguous campus areas include rolling hills and extensive green space including nature walks, fields and large and varied arboreta. Close to the campus is the universitys 58-acre Health Sciences Campus that has an extensive landscaped green space, more than 400 trees. The university offers over 140 degree programs in an array of disciplines. Consisting of thirteen separate libraries, the UGA Libraries rank among the nation’s largest and best research libraries containing 5.7 million volumes, the University of Georgia is one of 126 member institutions that comprise the Association of Research Libraries.
The university is organized into seventeen schools and colleges, the university has three primary campuses. The largest one is the campus in Athens that has 460 buildings. The university has two campuses located in Atlanta and Lawrenceville, Georgia. The university operates several service and outreach stations spread across the state, the total acreage of the university in 30 Georgia counties is 41,539 acres. Varsity and intramural student athletics are a part of student life. UGA served as a member of the SEC in 1932. In their 121-year history, the varsity sports teams have won 39 national championships and 130 conference championships. The Georgia Redcoat Marching Band, the marching band of the university, plays at sports. The Senatus Academicus was composed of the Board of Visitors and the Board of Trustees with the Georgia Senate presiding over those two boards, the first meeting of the universitys board of trustees was held in Augusta, Georgia on February 13,1786. The meeting installed its first president, Abraham Baldwin, a native of Connecticut, Baldwin was a delegate to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and one of two Georgia delegates to sign the final document.
Many features on the University of Georgia campus resemble the campus of Yale, on July 2,1799, the Senatus Academicus met again in Louisville and decided that the time was right to open the university