West Australian Football League
The West Australian Football League is an Australian rules football league based in Perth, Western Australia. The WAFL is the third-most popular league in the nation, behind the nationwide Australian Football League and South Australian National Football League; the league consists of nine teams, which play each other in a 24-round season lasting from March to September, with the top five teams playing off in a finals series, culminating in a Grand Final. The league runs reserves and colts competitions; the WAFL was founded in 1885 as the West Australian Football Association, has undergone a variety of name changes since re-adopting its current name in 2001. For most of its existence, the league was considered one of the traditional "big three" Australian rules football leagues, along with the Victorian Football League and South Australian National Football League. However, since the introduction of two Western Australia-based clubs into the VFL – the West Coast Eagles in 1987 and the Fremantle Football Club in 1995 – the popularity and standard of the league has decreased to the point where it is considered a feeder competition to the AFL.
Although payments are made to players, it is considered to be a semi-professional competition. A salary cap of A$200,000 per club is in place; the league is affiliated with the two Western Australia-based AFL clubs. Players who are not selected to play with their respective AFL clubs instead play for allocated clubs in the WAFL; the competition is governed by the West Australian Football Commission, based at Subiaco Oval. There are ten teams that compete in the WAFL: a Claremont played at the Claremont Showgrounds from 1925 to 1927 and again from 2014 until 2016 when Claremont Oval was closed for re-development, at Subiaco Oval from 1945 to 1947 when Claremont Oval was being rebuilt after a grandstand fire in 1944. B East Fremantle played at Fremantle Oval from 1898 to 1952, excluding a period in 1906 where home games were played at East Fremantle Oval. C East Perth played at Wellington Square from 1902 to 1909, at Perth Oval from 1910 to 1987 and from 1990 to 1999, at the WACA Ground during 1988 and 1989.
D Perth played at the WACA Ground from 1899 to 1958 and during 1987 and 1988. E Subiaco played at Shenton Park between 1901 and 1905, at Mueller Park in 1906 and 1907, at Subiaco Oval from 1908 to 2003. F West Perth played at Leederville Oval from 1915 to 1993. Ten other clubs competed in the competition: Fremantle Football Club was known as Unions Football Club from 1886 to 1889.a Up until the turn of the century, there were a limited number of grounds available for use by the clubs, with all clubs sharing the different grounds. As such, the Esplanade Park and Fremantle Park in Fremantle, the Old Recreation Ground and the New Recreation Ground in Perth were all used as "home" grounds by the above teams. B The High School withdrew from the competition due to lack of players two rounds into the inaugural season. C Rovers were a "wandering" team – they had no home ground, drew players from all over the metropolitan area. D West Australian Football Club merged with Victorians in 1889 to form the Metropolitan Football Club, which in turn became the West Perth Football Club.
The WAFL has a salary cap in place. In 2016 the Total Player Payments cap is $294,000 for the non-AFL aligned clubs, while the cap for East Perth and Peel Thunder is $191,100. In January 2015, the WAFL executive announced. Under the arrangement, Seven agreed to a three-year deal involving the telecast of 18 home and away matches as well as all Finals matches, broadcast throughout Western Australia; the WAFL match of the round was broadcast on ABC throughout Western Australia every Saturday afternoon during the regular home and away season. Matches were replayed nationwide on-demand from the ABC iView service and re-broadcast on the ABC2 channel early Friday morning at 2.30 am local time. Radio stations which cover the competition include 720 ABC Perth, ABC Grandstand Digital, 91.3 SportFM, 107.3 HFM and KIX Country Digital. Since 2015, the current major sponsor of the WAFL Premiership is Telecommunications Company Optus. Prior to that, AAMI were major sponsors of the league. Attendance at WAFL matches dropped when each of the two Western Australian based AFL teams entered the league.
In recent years, however the attendances have increased with 2009 recording the first combined annual attendance of more than 200,000 since 1994. A largest recent crowd was 24,638 at the 2010 WAFL Grand Final between Swan Districts and Claremont at Subiaco Oval; the all-time attendance record is 52,781 in 1979 for East Fremantle v South Fremantle at Subiaco Oval. Patrons at the WAFL pay at the gates; the following are the most recent attendance figures. Organised football in the Perth/Fremantle region of Western Australia dates back to 1881. Back though rugby union was the dominant football code, with only one senior club, "Unions", playing Australian Rules. In 1883 a second club, "Swans", but Australian Rules' growth remained much subdued compared to that of Victoria and South Australia. However, in those days many young men of Perth's wealthier families were educated in Adelaide, the capital of South Australia. On returning home from there they wished to play the sport they'd grown up with and no doubt exerted some influence on their less affluent peers as to such.
Coincidentally, the press at the time reported there was a growing dissatisfaction with rugby as a spectacle. During the 1880s, the discoveries of gold
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
The Western Bulldogs is a professional Australian rules football club that competes in the Australian Football League, the sport's premier competition. Founded in 1877 in Footscray, an inner-western suburb of Melbourne, the club won nine premierships in the Victorian Football Association before gaining entry to the Victorian Football League in 1925; the club has won two VFL/AFL premierships, in 1954 and 2016, was runner up in 1961. The Western Bulldogs' home guernsey features two thick horizontal hoops—one red and one white—on a royal blue background; the club's headquarters and training facilities are located in Footscray at Whitten Oval, nicknamed "The Kennel", its original home ground. The club draws much of its supporter base from Melbourne's traditionally working class western region, plays its home matches at Docklands Stadium in the Docklands area in the city's inner-west. In 1996, the club changed its name from the "Footscray Football Club" to its nickname, the "Western Bulldogs". Newspapers record Australian rules football being played in the Melbourne suburb of Footscray in the mid-1870s, during which time a local junior football club was formed.
In 1880, the club changed its name to the Prince Imperials in honour of Napoléon, Prince Imperial, the heir to French throne, who had died in battle. The club reverted to Footscray a few years later. In 1886, Footscray gained admission to the Victorian Football Association after amalgamating with the Footscray Cricket Club to form a senior football club; the club tended occupying the lower rungs of the VFA ladder. The club began to improve after the VFL breakaway of 1896, finishing on top of the VFA ladder in 1898, 1899 and 1900; as no finals were played, Footscray were declared premiers. The club played in and won its first finals match in 1903, against Richmond, the minor premiers, but lost the follow-up finals match to North Melbourne. After losing to West Melbourne in the 1906 VFA Grand Final, the club won its first premiership by defeating Brunswick in 1908. Another premiership followed in 1913; the club entered two years of recess during World War I and returned in 1918. Still rebuilding, the club won the wooden spoon.
From bottom to top in one year, 1919 saw the club win the premiership, again in 1920. The club went back-to-back in 1923 and 1924; the 1924 premiership would be Footscray's last in the VFA. After the 1924 season, the club challenged the premiers of the VFL, Essendon, to a charity match, otherwise known as the Championship of Victoria, for the benefit of opera singer Dame Nellie Melba's Limbless Soldiers' Appeal. Footscray recorded an upset victory; the win was a significant factor in Footscray gaining admission to the VFL. In 1919, there were nine clubs competing in the VFL, due to the return of all the foundation teams plus Richmond after World War I, as well as University Football Club deciding not to rejoin the VFL; this caused one team to be idle every Saturday and the VFL was keen to do away with this bye each week. On the night of 9 January 1925, a committee meeting of the VFL, chaired by Reg Hunt of Carlton, decided to expand the league from nine clubs to twelve, it was decided in the meeting to admit Footscray, along with two other VFA clubs and North Melbourne.
Footscray played their first VFL match against Fitzroy on Saturday 2 May at the Brunswick Street Oval in front of 28,000 spectators. Former Richmond star George Bayliss had the honour of kicking Footscray's first VFL goal, although they ended up losing by nine points against an experienced league side, they earned great respect. Future Brownlow medallist Allan Hopkins was regarded as Footscray's best player that day; the following week, playing their first VFL home game at the Western Oval against a strong South Melbourne team, the Tricolours recorded their first VFL victory by 10 points in front of 25,000 spectators with a strong team effort. Footscray adapted quickly to the standard of VFL football despite losing some of their VFA stars, by 1928 were a contender for the finals, missing only on percentage in 1931. Though they slipped to eleventh place in 1930, 1935 and 1937, in 1938 they became the first of the new clubs to reach the finals, they fell back drastically in 1939, but played better during the war-torn 1940s, winning their first nine games in 1946.
Between 1938 and 1951, Footscray failed to win any finals matches, losing all six of its semi-final appearances. In 1953, the club set a record by conceding only 959 points in the home-and-away season due to a powerful defence featuring Whitten, Dave Bryden, Wally Donald, Herb Henderson and Jim Gallagher. Footscray won its first semi-final, against Essendon, but lost the preliminary final to Geelong, a key factor being the absence of star full-forward Jack Collins, suspended for four matches at the end of the home-and-away season; the Bulldogs went into the 1954 VFL season as premiership contenders. However, the season did not start well with losses St Kilda and Richmond, both of which finished in the bottom four the previous season. In the following two matches, against South Melbourne and Carlton, the club returned to form with Jack Collins booting eight and nine goals to help propel the Bulldogs to victory. In Round 7 against Hawthorn at Glenferrie Oval, led by Don Ross after Whitten injured his shoulder, came from 23 points down at the last break to kick seven goals and win by nine points.
With Richmond upsetting Collingwood at Victoria Park that same day, the Bulldogs went to the top of the ladder, where they would stay until Round 11, when they lost to Collingwood by ten points in a top-of-the-ladder c
Line-out (rugby union)
A line-out or lineout is a means by which, in rugby union, play is restarted after the ball has gone into touch. When the ball goes out of the field of play, the opposing team is awarded a line-out. A line-out is one of the two methods of restarting play after the ball has gone into touch, the other is the "quick throw-in". Due to the specific rules placed on quick throw-ins they are uncommon in a rugby match with the majority of restarts from touch taking the form of a line-out. Where the line-out is taken depends on the manner in which the ball was played into touch. If it is kicked directly into touch, without first landing in the field-of-play or touching the referee or an opponent, not in touch, the line-out is formed in line with the spot from where it was kicked, with two exceptions: if the kick was a penalty kick or if the kicker had at least one foot on or behind his own 22-metre line, the line-out is formed at the spot where the ball crossed the touch-line. In all other cases, the line-out is formed at the spot where the ball crossed the touch-line, except that if this spot is within 5 metres of the goal-line, the line-out is formed on the 5-metre line.
A line-out is awarded if a player in possession of the ball crosses or touches the touchline whilst still in possession of the ball. A player in the line-out will attempt either to catch the ball or to knock it back to a "receiver", a player from their own side, standing close to the line-out on their side of the pitch and in a position to receive such a ball; each team may have, at most, one receiver at a line-out. Players not forming part of the line-out, or acting as receiver, must stay at least 10 metres behind the line at which the line-out is formed until the line-out is over. A line-out ends when the ball, or a player carrying it, leaves the line-out, or, if a ruck or maul is formed at the line-out, when all the feet of all the players forming the ruck or maul move beyond the line of touch; the line-out was contested with both teams jumping unsupported to retrieve the ball. However, lifting in the line-out was introduced under Law 19 of the World Rugby laws. Players must not interfere with the opposition during the line-out.
In particular, they must not interfere with or tackle a jumper while his feet are off the ground, or interfere with players supporting him. Players in the line-out must not close the gap or enter the gap, except in the act of jumping for the ball, nor may they jump or support a jumper before the ball is thrown. Penalty kicks and free kicks are awarded 15 metres infield from the touch-line. If the ball is thrown beyond the 15-metre line, a player from the throwing team, not taking part in the line-out may run forward to take the ball. If he does so, an opponent may run forward to contest possession. Players who are taking part in the line-out may move beyond the 15-metre line as soon as the ball leaves the thrower's hands. If, however, a player runs forward or infield and the ball is not thrown beyond the 15-metre line, that player is off-side; the line-out ends. Players from the side not throwing may jump to compete for the ball, though they must be careful not to attract a penalty for interfering with an opposing jumper.
Alternatively, they may choose not to contest the line-out but to drive onto the catcher as soon as he returns to the ground. When a team is awarded a line-out close to their opponent's goal-line, they will attempt to form a maul around the catcher and drive over the goal-line to score a try. In such cases, the defending team will seek to disrupt this tactic by driving in on the catcher, taking him to ground before a maul can form. Teams employ a line-out code, to ensure that all players on that team know what is planned, who the ball will be thrown to, what that player will do with it, what follow-up play is intended. One player from the throwing team is designated to shout the code, it is important that the thrower should know what the code is, so that he can execute the throw as intended. A quick throw-in may be taken without waiting for a line-out to be formed. For a quick throw-in to be legal, the ball can not have been touched by any other person, apart from the player taking the throw or the opponent who may have carried the ball into touch and it can only be taken between the point of the ball leaving the field and the thrower's own goal line.
If a line-out begins to form before the quick throw-in is taken the throw-in is not permitted. To prevent quick throw-ins, members of the opposing team will race to the point where the ball went into touch to ensure a line-out is forming. In a quick throw-in the player throwing the ball back into play cannot send the ball forward towards the opponent's goal line, though unlike a line-out the ball may be thrown back in the direction of the player's own goal line. Ball back Offside "What is a line-out?". BBC. Retrieved 11 July 2013. "A Beginner's Guide to Rugby Union". World Rugby. Retrieved 13 February 2016. "Set Pieces". Rugby Football Union. Retrieved 11 July 2013. Bolton, Paul. "American hero's rugby legacy". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 July 2013
Collingwood Football Club
The Collingwood Football Club, nicknamed the Magpies or colloquially the Pies, is a professional Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League. Formed in 1892 in the then-working class Melbourne suburb of Collingwood, the club played in the Victorian Football Association before joining seven other teams in 1896 to found the breakaway Victorian Football League. Based at Victoria Park, Collingwood now plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground with its training and administrative headquarters located at Olympic Park Oval and the Holden Centre. Collingwood has played in a record 44 VFL/AFL Grand Finals, winning 15, drawing two and losing 27. Collingwood won a record-breaking four premierships in a row between 1927 and 1930. Collingwood is regarded as one of Australia's most popular sports clubs, attracting the highest attendance figures and television ratings of any professional team in the nation. In 2013, it became the first AFL club to reach 80,000 members.
Collingwood's iconic home guernsey consists of black and white stripes, matching the colours of an Australian magpie. Throughout its history, the club has developed rivalries with cross-town Melbourne based clubs Carlton and Essendon. More the club developed a rivalry with the Brisbane Lions, based in Queensland. Collingwood fields a reserves team in the Victorian Football League and a women's side in the AFL Women's competition, it owns and operates a netball team in the National Netball League. The Collingwood Football Club was established on 12 February 1892. Collingwood played its first game in the Victorian Football Association against Carlton on 7 May 1892; the club won the VFA Premiership in 1896. In 1897, along with fellow VFA clubs Fitzroy, Melbourne, St Kilda, Essendon, South Melbourne and Geelong split from the VFA and formed the Victorian Football League. Collingwood won its first premiership in 1902. Collingwood was the most successful club of the 1920s and 1930s, appearing in 13 out of a possible 20 Grand Finals during the period.
Collingwood were premiers six times during this time, including four consecutive premierships between 1927 and 1930, a VFL/AFL record, two consecutive premierships in 1935 and 1936. The club's coach during this period was Jock McHale, who served as coach from 1912 to 1949. Collingwood had three Brownlow Medallists during the period, with Syd Coventry winning in 1927, Albert Collier in 1929 and Harry Collier in 1930 In the 1950s, rival club Melbourne enjoyed an era of unprecedented success, winning five premierships in six years. Collingwood lost two Grand Finals to Melbourne in this decade, but bounced back to win premierships in 1953 and 1958. Collingwood's 1958 premiership is much cherished by the club as it prevented Melbourne from equalling Collingwood's record four premierships in a row; the 1958 premiership was however to be Collingwood's last for 32 years, as the club was to suffer a string of Grand Final defeats in coming decades. A string of eight Grand Final losses by narrow margins, between 1960 and 1981 gave rise to a perception that the club was prone to "choking", a phenomenon wittily dubbed "Colliwobbles".
Whether this perception is accurate remains a subject of debate. Lou Richards ceremoniously buried the Colliwobbles at Victoria Park after the club's 1990 premiership; the 1990 premiership team, coached by Leigh Matthews and captained by Tony Shaw, had a one-sided grand final win against Essendon, the Magpies recording a 48-point victory and ending a 32-year premiership drought which included eight grand final losses and one draw. After this, the club lapsed into a state of decline; the club received a second wooden spoon in 1999. Within a few years, with a change of coach, playing list and club president, Collingwood reached and lost consecutive grand finals in 2002 and 2003, both to the Brisbane Lions. Following those Grand Final losses, Collingwood struggled for the next two years, finishing 13th in 2004 and second-last in 2005. Collingwood made a return to the finals in 2006, finishing fifth, but were defeated by the Western Bulldogs by 41 points in its elimination final. A loss to Essendon late in the season was to cost them the double chance.
The 2007 season saw them finish sixth on the ladder at season's conclusion, in the finals they knocked out the grand finalists of the past two years, Sydney, in the elimination final and West Coast in overtime at Subiaco Oval in the semi-final. Having earned a preliminary final against Geelong, Collingwood lost to the eventual premiers, by five points. Nathan Buckley would announce his retirement at season's end after playing just five games in 2007 due to injury. Collingwood finished eighth in 2008 and were assigned an away final against Adelaide at AAMI Stadium. After at one point trailing in the match, Collingwood went on to end Adelaide's season and earn a semi-final meeting against St Kilda. Having defeated the Saints in both their regular season meetings, Collingwood lost convincingly, ending their 2008 season; the 2009 season saw Collingwood finish inside the top-four for the first time since 2003, but in the qualifying final were beaten by minor premiers St Kilda convincingly. Having won a second chance, Collingwood struggled against Adelaide for the second year in a row before John Anthony kicked the match-winning goal with a minute left to send them into ano
Women's Australian rules football
Women's Australian rules football known as women's football or women's footy, is a form of Australian rules football played by women with some modification to the laws of the game. Women's football began to be organised in the early 20th century, but for several decades occurred in the form of scratch matches and one-off exhibition games. State-based leagues emerged in the 1980s, with the Victorian Women's Football League forming in Melbourne in 1981 and the West Australian Women's Football League forming in Perth in 1988; the AFL Women's National Championships were inaugurated in 1992. Women's football became professionalised in the 2010s, with a national league, AFL Women's, commencing its inaugural season in 2017 with teams formed by existing Australian Football League clubs. Codified in 1859, Australian football had been played by men for half a century before the first women's football matches were played. Contact sports such as football were considered unsuitable for women at the time, public attitudes prevented them from participating in organised matches.
Exceptions included charity matches, such as patriotic fundraisers, which featured women players. Women have nonetheless followed the Australian game passionately since the mid-19th century, comprising 50% of spectators at matches—a uniquely high figure among football codes. Both world wars were a great liberator for women. Records exist of a football side in Perth, Western Australia made up of department store staff playing as Foy & Gibson's as early as 1917. Matches played in Western Australia were recorded in 1918. In South Australia, an early example of Women's football was a Port Adelaide Women's team in 1918 where a game took place at Alberton Oval between Port Adelaide and another club representing Thebarton. Port Adelaide was captained by Eileen Rend. Following World War I, an exhibition match in Melbourne was held to show that women could play what had been seen to be a man's sport; the first women's match attracted a large interest. The umpire wore a dress. In 1929, as part of an annual charity day, a 30 minute match was played on Adelaide Oval between workers of the Charles Moore & Co. factory and the Mirror Shirt and Pyjama Factory.
Although the match was not a standalone event newspapers at the time did refer to it as the main attraction of the day. A moth biplane dropped the game ball to start the match. Archives show a charity women's match occurred on Bassendean Oval in Perth, Western Australia, 27 August 1944, it is unknown. Beyond this and occasional matches over the years, women's football was organised, until the formation of the Victorian Women's Football League in 1981 with four teams competing at open level. Women's Australian rules football began to grow in 2000, with the number of registered teams increasing by a phenomenal 450%. In women's Australian rules football in 2015, 163 new teams were formed and a total of 284,501 players took part in organised games; the first full international was held between the USA Freedom and Team Canada in Vancouver on Saturday 4 August 2007 in front of a crowd of 2,500. Some women's competitions, but not all, are played with modified rules; the main rule differences between the women's and men's versions of Australian football involves modified tackling rules.
Aggressive slinging of oppositions players in a tackle is not allowed. Like the men's game, head high contact is not allowed. Another main difference is the size of the ball. A smaller ball to the men's version is used to minimise hand injuries when the ball. Games of International rules football are played by many women's leagues against Gaelic Athletic Association clubs. Recreational football, a non-contact version of Australian rules football, is becoming popular amongst women in Australia and the United States. Many women's leagues fall into the emerging 9-a-side footy or Metro footy formats. A national competition backed by the AFL began in 2017. Bids for a licence to participate were submitted by 13 existing AFL teams, with eight teams awarded licences to participate in the inaugural season; the competition had been announced in 2008 and was slated to commence in 2013 with four to eight teams, but this was changed after it was found that the new teams from the Gold Coast and Greater Western Sydney would not have time to submit their bids in full.
A licence had granted to Fremantle under the umbrella of the Women's Football League in February 2010, but due to a review and the subsequent admission of the Gold Coast and Greater Western Sydney to the AFL, this licence was recalled: it was reissued for the AFLW in 2017. Women's Football Australia are responsible for the annual AFL National Women's Championships which began in 1992. In 2005, two teams from Victoria, a senior and an under-19s side and teams from the ACT, Northern Territory, New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, the Australian Defence Force and Queensland participated. There was a women's division at the 2008 Australian Football International Cup with Australia, US, Canada and Papua New Guinea competing. There is International Rules Football with a women's Australia women's international rules football team competing against the Ireland women's international rules football team; the 2006 tour helped to lift the profile of the sport in Australia. The first full international was held between the US "Freedom" and Team Canada in Vancouver on Saturday 4 August 2007