Südfriedhof is, with an area of 82 hectares, the largest cemetery in Leipzig. It is located in the south of Leipzig in the immediate vicinity of the Völkerschlachtdenkmal; the Südfriedhof is, along with the Ohlsdorf Cemetery in Hamburg and the Südwestkirchfriedhof Stahnsdorf in Berlin, the largest park-like cemetery in Germany. The plans for the cemetery began in 1879, it was created on an area of 54 hectares. Responsible for this were the horticultural director of Leipzig, Otto Wittenberg and the architect Hugh Licht; the conduct of ways is in form of a linden leaf, which reflects the Slavic name of Leipzig "The Town of the Linden", fulfil the aims of Art Nouveau as a Gesamtkunstwerk. With the rapid development of the city during its industrialisation, incorporation of nearby settlements and the consequent steady population growth a new cemetery was needed. On 1 June 1886 the Südfriedhof was opened by Mayor Otto Robert Georgi after the Nordfriedhof was opened in 1881. Shortly after, the first burial was made and the grave is still preserved in the I.
Division. However, this burial ground was unpopular at first. Many citizens of Leipzig chose to be buried at the Neuer Johannisfriedhof but this changed when it began to fill up and the trees on the Südfriedhof became greater and the proposed park character was recognisable. Visitors to the nearby Völkerschlachtdenkmal notice at first the chapel with its 60 meter high bell tower, opened in 1910; the Neo-Romanesque building ensemble, was built on a filled-up plateau and under the direction of Leipzig's building director Otto Wilhelm Scharenberg. It had the Romanesque Maria Laach Abbey in the Eifel region as a model and is the largest cemetery monument in Germany; the symmetrical complex of chapel facilities and columbarium blends inconspicuously into the overall picture and is justified to the main north-south axis of the cemetery. Until 1924 the cemetery was enlarged to 63 hectares. During World War II the most recent cemetery extension was made to the present area of 82 hectares, they buried the 3474 victims of the World War II bombing of Leipzig in today's XXVIII.
Division. Noteworthy are the historical monuments, some of which were by artists such as Max Klinger, Fritz Behn, Max Lange or Carl Seffner created in various styles. Due to the park-like character of the cemetery you find several kinds of trees, such as sweetgum, Metasequoia, Kentucky coffeetree and several kinds of Tilia. Furthermore, you can find about 9,000 Rhododendrons. At the cemetery 60 nesting bird species are listed. There are numerous red squirrel and in the quiet morning and evening hours rabbits or foxes can be seen. Albrecht Alt, theologian Fritz Baedeker, publisher Julius Blüthner, piano maker, entrepreneur Max Bürger, medical doctor Franz Delitzsch and Hebraist Fred Delmare, actor Paul Flechsig, neuroanatomist and neuropathologist Christian Fürchtegott Gellert, poet Samuel Heinicke, originator in Germany of systematic education for the deaf Johannes Hertel, Indologist Arthur Hoffmann and resistance fighter Sigfrid Karg-Elert, composer Alfred Kästner and resistance fighter Oskar Kellner, agricultural scientist, animal psychologist Rudolf Kittel and editor of the Biblia Hebraica Hugo Licht, architect of numerous buildings in Leipzig Julius Lips, ethnologist Hans Meyer and first man on Mount Kilimanjaro Herrmann Julius Meyer, publisher Erwin Payr, surgeon Max Robitzsch, meteorological scientist and arctic researcher Renate and Roger Rössing, photographers Carl Seffner, Georg Schumann and resistance fighter Karl Sudhoff, historian on medicine Georg Thieme and founder of Thieme Medical Publishers Stanislaw Trabalski, politician Werner Tübke, painter Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch council communist accused of, executed for, setting fire to the German Reichstag building on February 27, 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire.
Wilhelm Wundt, medical doctor, physiologist, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology Erich Zeigner, politician Website Map with prominent graves on Südfriedhof Detailed essay on the history of the Südfriedhof
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Biblia Hebraica (Kittel)
Biblia Hebraica refers to the three editions of the Hebrew Bible edited by Rudolf Kittel. When referenced, Kittel's Biblia Hebraica is abbreviated BH, or BHK; when specific editions are referred to, BH1, BH2 and BH3 are used. Biblia Hebraica is a Latin phrase meaning Hebrew Bible, traditionally used as a title for printed editions of the Tanakh. Less Biblia Hebraica may refer to subsequent editions in the Biblia Hebraica series which build on the work of Kittel's editions; the Old Testament scholar Rudolf Kittel from Leipzig started in 1901 to develop a critical edition of the Hebrew Bible, which would become the first of its kind. His first edition Biblia Hebraica edidit Rudolf Kittel was published as a two-volume work in 1906 under the publisher J. C. Hinrichs in Leipzig; as a textual basis for his edition he reproduced the Hebrew text found in the Mikraot Gedolot, the rabbinic Bible from Jacob ben Hayyim ibn Adonijah printed by Daniel Bomberg in Venice in 1524/1525, accepted as the representative Hebrew text for centuries up to that point.
Kittel printed the text with the Hebrew consonants and Cantillation marks as found in the Bomberg Bible, although his editions did not include Masoretic notes, whereas the Bomberg edition did. In the bottom part of the page he added his critical apparatus where he listed textual variants from other ancient manuscripts and conjectural emendations; the second edition of Kittel's Biblia Hebraica appeared in 1913. It was reprinted several times. In 1921 the Bible Society Württemberg bought the rights for Kittel's Biblia Hebraica from J. C. Hinrichs and alongside further reprints of the existing edition, approaches for a third edition were planned from 1925 onwards; the third edition had a different Hebrew text and revised footnotes. For the first time, a Bible reproduced the text of the Leningrad Codex from the year 1008, since it was the oldest existing manuscript of the entire Hebrew Bible; the idea to use. The BH3 reproduces the Masoretic Text in the Codex without any editing; the critical apparatus was separated into two different categories, "mere variants and less important notifications" and "the actual textual changes and otherwise more considerable things" to inform the reader of the emphasis in the list of variants.
In its approach to reproduce the Leningrad Codex it featured for the first time the Masoretic notes found on the left and right margins of the Codex, the so-called Masora Parva, although without any explanations to it. These marginal notes were of great importance to the editors of the subsequent editions. BH3 appeared in installments, from 1929 to 1937, with the first one-volume edition in 1937; some of the references in the textual apparatus reference manuscripts that no longer exist due to the bombing of Leipzig during World War II. The third edition was superseded by the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia; the current project in this tradition is the Biblia Hebraica Quinta. List of Hebrew Bible manuscripts Biblia Hebraica on archive.org I II
Eningen is a municipality in the district of Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated near the big cities of Reutlingen and Stuttgart. Although it has a considerable population with around 10,800 inhabitants, its structure is considered to be more the one of a village; the most important annual events include the Dorffest, the village festivity, the Krämerfest, the Weihnachtsmarkt. Eningen is surrounded by free-standing hills of the Achalm and the Swabian Alps with landscape full of dark green forests and cliffs; this makes volksmarching and biking popular. The founding of Eningen is considered to be through the contract of Bempflingen. At that time, Eningen was only a little village and its destiny was connected with the interests of the church and nobility. Although the village had grown until the Thirty Years' War, to a stately municipality inhabited by at least 1,300 inhabitants, Eningen was completely destroyed as a result of this devastating war. After the war, the municipality started to recover itself, albeit slowly.
Over the years, Eningen developed into a major dealer community and has distinguished itself into this day therefore from all the other typical rural villages of the Swabian Alb. In 1843, Eningen had more than 5000 inhabitants and was considered to be "most beautiful and most populous village in the Kingdom of Württemberg". After the Second World War Eningen was considered a village and belonged to the city of Reutlingen but it could recover fast its traditional independence. Meanwhile, a lot has been done in this place: new roads and construction sites have been opened, it has got water supply from the Lake of Constance and different industries have established there. In 1970, Eningen was awarded with a “recreation and health locality recognition”. Today, Eningen counts with an area of 2316 ha. Administratively is Eningen a municipality of the county of Reutlingen, assigned to the district of Tübingen in Baden Württemberg. In addition, Eningen counts nowadays with 10 889 inhabitants. Being a municipality, Eningen has its own town hall and its own post and police offices.
Although Eningen is considered to have the structure of a village, it possesses a wide service infrastructure: two pharmacies, two banks, one public library, one festival hall, one public outdoor swimming pool and more of five parks where people can go to walk and enjoy the nature or children can go to play. Furthermore, Eningen’s educational infrastructure is represented by nine kindergartens, two primary schools, one music school and an adult education center. Regarding to transportation infrastructure, Eningen possesses two different bus connections to Reutlingen, as well as one bus connection to several villages of the Swabian Mountains and one connection to Metzingen. In matters of sport’s infrastructure, Eningen has three sports halls, one sports field, one complex with several tennis fields, one horseback riding field and a one mini golf course, it is home to many companies including formally Wandel & Goltermann. The artist Gudrun Krüger lived in Eningen for most of her working life.
Eningen is twinned with the town of Calne in Wiltshire, England
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became a major urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, the development of a modern transport infrastructure.
Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major center for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy".
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived in Leipzig; the name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.
More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library.
During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced; the city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden, it was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi