James Clark Ross
Sir James Clark Ross was a British Royal Navy explorer known for his exploration of the Arctic with Sir William Parry and Sir John Ross, his uncle, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica. Ross was born in London, the nephew of Sir John Ross, under whom he entered the navy in 1812, accompanying him on Sir John's first Arctic voyage in search of a Northwest Passage in 1818. Between 1819 and 1827, Ross took part in four Arctic expeditions under Sir William Parry, in 1829 to 1833, again served under his uncle on Sir John's second Arctic voyage, it was during this trip that a small party led by James Ross located the position of the North Magnetic Pole on 1 June 1831 on the Boothia Peninsula in the far north of Canada. It was on this trip, that Ross charted the Beaufort Islands renamed Clarence Islands by his uncle. In 1834, Ross was promoted to captain. In December 1835, he offered his services to the Admiralty to resupply 11 whaling ships which had become trapped in Baffin Bay, they accepted his offer, he set sail in HMS Cove in January 1836.
The crossing was difficult, by the time he had reached the last known position of the whalers in June, all but one had managed to return home. Ross found no trace of this last vessel, William Torr, crushed in the ice in December 1835, he returned to Hull in September 1836 with all his crew in good health. From 1835–1839, except for his voyage with Cove, he conducted a magnetic survey of Great Britain with Sir Edward Sabine. Between 1839 and 1843, Ross commanded HMS Erebus on his own Antarctic expedition and charted much of the continent's coastline. Captain Francis Crozier was second-in-command of commanding HMS Terror. Support for the expedition had been arranged by Francis Beaufort, hydrographer of the Navy and a member of several scientific societies. On the expedition was Joseph Dalton Hooker, invited along as assistant ship's surgeon. Erebus and Terror were bomb vessels—an unusual type of warship named after the mortar bombs they were designed to fire and constructed with strong hulls, to withstand the recoil of the mortars, which were to prove of great value in thick ice.
In 1841, James Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expedition's vessels. They sailed for 250 nautical miles along the edge of the low, flat-topped ice shelf they called variously the Barrier or the Great Ice Barrier named the Ross Ice Shelf in his honour; the following year, he attempted to penetrate south at about 55° W, explored the eastern side of what is now known as James Ross Island and naming Snow Hill Island and Seymour Island. Ross reported that Admiralty Sound appeared to him to have been blocked by glaciers at its southern end. Ross's ships arrived back in England on 4 September 1843, he was awarded the Grande Médaille d'Or des Explorations in 1843, knighted in 1844, elected to the Royal Society in 1848. In 1848, Ross was sent on one of three expeditions to find Sir John Franklin; the others were the Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition and the expedition aboard HMS Plover and HMS Herald through the Bering Strait.
He was given command of HMS Enterprise, accompanied by HMS Investigator, Because of heavy ice in Baffin Bay he only reached the northeast tip of Somerset Island where he was frozen in at Port Leopold. In the spring he and Sir Francis McClintock explored the west coast of the island by sledge, he thought it too ice-choked for Franklin to have used it. The next summer he was blocked by ice and returned to England, he was married to Lady Ann Coulman. He died at Aylesbury five years after his wife. A blue plaque marks Ross's home in Eliot Place, London, his closest friend was Francis Crozier. He lived in the ancient House of the Abbots of St. Albans in Buckinghamshire, he is buried with his wife in Aston Abbotts. In the gardens of the Abbey there is a lake with two islands, named after the ships Terror and Erebus. Ross, played by British actor Richard Sutton, is a secondary character in the 2018 AMC television series The Terror, portrayed in a fictionalized version of his 1848 search for Franklin's lost expedition, as well as in the 2007 Dan Simmons novel on which the series is based.
The Ross seal, one of the four Antarctic phocids, first described during the Ross expedition The James Ross Strait, Ross Bay, Ross Point, Rossoya in the Arctic are all named after him. RRS James Clark Ross is a British Antarctic Survey research ship; the crater Ross on the Moon is named after him. Ross's gull, a small gull, the only species in its genus, that breeds in the high arctic of northernmost North America and northeast Siberia Ross Dependency, Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in the Antarctic are all named after him. European and American voyages of scientific exploration E. C. Coleman, The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration From Frobisher to Ross. ISBN 0752436600. Ray Edinger, Fury Beach: The Four-Year Odyssey of Captain John Ross and the Victory. ISBN 0425188450. "Ross, John". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Media related to James Clark Ross at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about James Clark Ross at Internet Archive
Fram is a ship, used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. It was designed and built by the Scottish-Norwegian shipwright Colin Archer for Fridtjof Nansen's 1893 Arctic expedition in which the plan was to freeze Fram into the Arctic ice sheet and float with it over the North Pole. Fram is said to have sailed farther south than any other wooden ship. Fram is preserved at the Fram Museum in Norway. Nansen's ambition was to explore the Arctic farther north than anyone else. To do that, he would have to deal with a problem that many sailing on the polar ocean had encountered before him: the freezing ice could crush a ship. Nansen's idea was to build a ship that could survive the pressure, not by pure strength, but because it would be of a shape designed to let the ice push the ship up, so it would "float" on top of the ice. Fram is a three-masted schooner with width of 11 meters.
The ship is both unusually wide and unusually shallow in order to better withstand the forces of pressing ice. Nansen commissioned the shipwright Colin Archer from Larvik to construct a vessel with these characteristics. Fram was built with an outer layer of greenheart wood to withstand the ice and with no keel to handle the shallow waters Nansen expected to encounter; the rudder and propeller were designed to be retracted. The ship was carefully insulated to allow the crew to live on board for up to five years; the ship included a windmill, which ran a generator to provide electric power for lighting by electric arc lamps. Fram was fitted with a steam engine. Prior to Amundsen's expedition to the South Pole in 1910, the engine was replaced with a diesel engine, a first for polar exploration vessels. Fram was used in several expeditions: Wreckage found at Greenland from USS Jeannette, lost off Siberia, driftwood found in the regions of Svalbard and Greenland, suggested that an ocean current flowed beneath the Arctic ice sheet from east to west, bringing driftwood from the Siberian region to Svalbard and further west.
Nansen had Fram built in order to explore this theory. He undertook an expedition; when Nansen realised that Fram would not reach the North Pole directly by the force of the current, he and Hjalmar Johansen set out to reach it on skis. After reaching 86° 14' north, he had to turn back to spend the winter at Franz Joseph Land. Nansen and Johansen survived on blubber. Meeting British explorers, the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition, they arrived back in Norway only days before the Fram returned there; the ship had spent nearly three years trapped in the ice, reaching 85° 57' N. In 1898, Otto Sverdrup, who had brought Fram back on the first Arctic voyage, led a scientific expedition to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Fram was modified for this journey, its freeboard being increased. Fram left harbour on 24 June 1898, with 17 men on board, their aim was to chart the lands of the Arctic Islands, to sample the geology and fauna. The expeditions lasted till 1902, leading to charts covering 260,000 km2, more than any other Arctic expedition.
Fram was used by Roald Amundsen in his southern polar expedition from 1910 to 1912, the first to reach the South Pole, during which Fram reached 78° 41' S. The ship was left to decay in storage from 1912 until the late 1920s, when Lars Christensen, Otto Sverdrup and Oscar Wisting initiated efforts to preserve her. In 1935, the ship was installed in the Fram Museum. Fram Island, an island close to the Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, Laptev Sea Framheim, Amundsen's Base at the Bay of Whales in Antarctica during his quest for the South Pole Fram Rupes, an escarpment on Mercury Fram crater, a small crater on Mars, visited by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in 2004 Fram Basin, the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean Fram Strait, a passage from the Arctic Ocean to the Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea, between Greenland and Spitsbergen. Fram, a play by Tony Harrison, premièred at the National Theatre London, 2008 In Arthur Ransome's children's book, Winter Holiday, the children use the name Fram for their Uncle Jim's houseboat, trapped in the ice on the lake which becomes the inspiration for some of their adventures.
Fram, the polar bear, a children's book written by the Romanian author Cezar Petrescu, made into a TV series in Romania. Harald V, the King of Norway, has had a number of sailboats for regatta use named Fram, he became world champion in sailing with Fram X in 1987 and is racing in Fram XVI. A passenger vessel built in 2007 for Hurtigruten Group was named MS Fram after the original Fram, it operates for cruises around Antarctica. Notes Bibliography
Albert Hastings Markham
Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham was a French- born, British explorer and officer in the Royal Navy. In 1903 he was invested as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, he died in London, England at the age of 76. He is remembered for designing the flag of New Zealand. Albert Markham was the fifth son of Captain John Markham, who had retired from the navy because of ill health with the rank of lieutenant. John Markham's grandfather, William Markham, had been Archbishop of York. Albert was born in Bagnères-de-Bigorre in the Hautes-Pyrénées department of France, where the family lived before moving to a farm on Guernsey. At age thirteen Albert was sent to London to live with his aunt, the wife of his uncle David Markham, at 4 Onslow Square. Neighbours included novelist William Thackeray, he was educated at Eastman's Royal Naval Academy. Markham's father was short of money for his education and had for some time tried to find a naval officer willing to sponsor Albert for admission to the navy.
He only succeeded in doing so after Albert had passed the normal entry age of fourteen, but by good luck the admiralty at that time had decided to experiment with accepting older cadets. His aunt's son Clements Markham, eleven years older than Albert, had joined the navy before leaving to become a geographer and explorer, he exerted a considerable influence on his career. When away from Clements and his wife Minna, who for much of his life he regarded as his only family, Albert was moody and defensive, he had a strong sense of duty as a naval officer, which compelled him to serve with a strict adherence to rules and established practices, strong religious convictions. He did not smoke, allowing that a gentleman might have an occasional cigar, but believing that cigarettes were for effeminate weaklings and that a black pipe ruined mind and body, he disapproved of those who did. He found it difficult to socialise with other officers, he disliked the peacetime navy, with its endless social engagements and ritual displays.
Markham's family emigrated to the United States and John Markham bought a farm at La Crosse in Wisconsin. Albert visited them twice and he was unimpressed, he found the trains slow, the hotels disreputable, travelling companions murderous. He was impressed by the wild grandeur and wildlife of the Mississippi Valley and was invited to hunt with General Mackenzie in Indian territory. Throughout his life he enjoyed hunting all manner of beasts; the only killing at which he showed disgust was the drawn-out deaths of whales, which he saw on Arctic voyages. He married Theodora Gervers in 1894, with. Markham had no great conviction for a naval career, but accepted the constraints it placed upon him in return for the opportunities it presented to further his other interests, he followed the advice he had been given to join and stick with the navy, although he suffered from seasickness and disliked the customary cruelty of service punishments. However, his austere upbringing had better suited him to the rigours of navy life than had his cousin's.
Markham joined the Royal Navy in 1856 at the age of 15 and spent the first eight years of his career on the China Station, travelling out in HMS Camilla and serving on Niger, HMS Retribution, Imperieuse, HMS Coromandel and HMS Centaur. His brother John was in Hong Kong, where he was suffering food poisoning from arsenic added to flour by local Chinese. Chinese pirates were the chief preoccupation of the navy as they would make raids on the harbour. On one occasion aged fifteen Markham led a party of two marines against a pirate junk; the pirates abandoned ship and those captured were taken ashore and beheaded. On another occasion he commanded a lorcha armed with a 12-pounder howitzer against a pirate ship holding two British captives. After a three-hour fight he boarded the ship with five men while outnumbered and took eleven prisoners; the British prisoners were found to have been crucified, so the pirates were executed. He became acquainted with a British Consulate official who encouraged an interest in ornithology and shooting snipe.
In 1862, Markham received a promotion to lieutenant. In 1864, he returned to Britain where he took naval exams and stayed with Clements and his wife Minna, at what was to be his only permanent home in England for 30 years. In November he was appointed to the last three-decker constructed for the Royal Navy, Victoria, in the Mediterranean. Life sailing in the Levant was less dangerous, only required the arrival of a British ship to settle a dispute. There was plenty of time for leave and Markham visited Turkey, the Holy Land and the Aegean islands. Appointment to the fleet patrolling the eastern end of the Mediterranean was considered by many as less desirable than the western patrol which visited France and Italy, but the historical sites in the east suited Markham's interests, he kept a journal describing the places he visited. One of his greatest delights was to meet Minna and Clements ashore and to accompany them on archaeological expedition in the region. In 1868, Markham was appointed first lieutenant of Blanche on the Australia Station where he helped suppress "blackbirding", the illegal trading of slaves between Queensland and the South Sea Islands.
This included time spent as an acting commander on Rosario. The issue was not straightforward, because the Queensland government was ambivalent towards the trade, which provided workers for its plantations; some of the native workers were pleased to be trave
The Polaris expedition of 1871–1873 was an American expedition, one of the first serious attempts to reach the North Pole, after that of British naval officer Sir William Edward Parry, who reached 82° 45′N in 1827. The expedition's notable achievement was reaching 82 ° 29 ′ N by a record at the time; the expedition was commanded by the experienced and self-taught Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall, who had lived among the Inuit in the Arctic region while on his obesessive quest to determine the fate of Franklin's lost expedition of 1845. Hall possessed the necessary survival skills, but lacked an academic background, had no experience leading men and commanding a ship, he had managed to secure the position of expedition commander based on his authority on the subject of the Arctic. Polaris departed from New York in June 1871. Underway, the expedition found itself hampered by poor leadership. Insubordination loomed at the instigation of chief scientist Emil Bessels and meteorologist Frederick Meyer—both German—who looked down on what they perceived to be their unqualified commander.
Bessels and Meyer were supported by the German half of the crew, further increasing tensions among a crew, divided by nationality. By October, the men were wintering in Thank God Harbor, on the shore of northern Greenland, making preparations for the trip to the Pole. Hall returned to the ship from an exploratory sledging journey to a fjord he named Newman Bay, promptly fell ill. Before he died, he accused members of the crew of orchestrating his murder, an accusation directed at Bessels. On the way southward, 19 members of the expedition became separated from the ship and drifted on an ice floe for six months and 1,800 miles, before being rescued; the damaged Polaris was run aground and wrecked near Etah in October 1872. The remaining men were rescued the following summer. A naval board of inquiry investigated Hall's death, but no charges were laid. However, an exhumation of his body in 1968 revealed he had ingested a large quantity of arsenic in the last two weeks of his life. Coupled with recently-discovered affectionate letters written by both Hall and Bessels to Vinnie Ream, a young sculptor they met in New York while waiting for Polaris to be outfitted, suggests Bessels had a motive, besides the means, to kill Hall.
In 1827, Sir William Edward Parry led a British Royal Navy expedition with the aim to be the first men to reach the North Pole. In the next five decades following Parry's attempt, the Americans would mount three such expeditions: Elisha Kent Kane in 1853–1855, Isaac Israel Hayes in 1860–1861, Charles Francis Hall with the Polaris in 1871–1873. Hall was a Cincinnati businessman with no notable academic sailing experience, he worked as a blacksmith and for a couple of years he published his own newspaper – the Cincinnati Occasional. Energetic and enterprising, he enthusiastically wrote about the latest technological innovations, he was a voracious reader captivated by the Arctic. His focus was directed towards the region around 1857, after it had dawned on society that Franklin's Arctic expedition of 1845, in all likelihood, would never be coming home, he spent the next few years studying the reports of previous explorers and trying to raise money for an expedition. As a result of his charisma and personality, he was able to launch two solo expeditions in search of Franklin and his crew.
These experiences established him as a seasoned Arctic explorer, gave him valuable contacts among the Inuit people. The renown he gained allowed him to convince the U. S. Government to finance a third expedition. In 1870, the U. S. Senate introduced a bill in Congress to fund an expedition to the North Pole. Hall, aided by Navy Secretary George M. Robeson lobbied for, received, a $50,000 grant to command the expedition, he began recruiting personnel in late 1870. He secured a 387-ton screw-propelled steamer. At the Washington Navy Yard, the ship was fitted as a fore-topsail schooner, renamed Polaris, she was prepared for Arctic service by the addition of solid oak timber all over her hull, the bow was sheathed in iron. A new engine was added, one of the boilers was retrofitted to burn seal or whale oil; the ship was outfitted with four whaleboats, 20-foot-long and four-foot-wide, a flat-bottomed scow. During his previous Arctic expeditions, Hall came to admire the Inuit umiak—a type of open boat made of driftwood and walrus- or seal skins—and brought a constructed collapsible boat which could hold 20 people.
Food packed on board consisted of tinned ham, salted beef and sailor's biscuit. They intended to prevent scurvy by supplementing their diet with fresh muskox and polar bear meat. In July 1870, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant designated Hall as the expedition's overall commander, he was to be referred to as captain. Although Hall had abundant Arctic experience, he had no sailing experience, the title was purely honorary. In selecting officers and seamen, Hall relied on whalers with experience in the Arctic waters; this was markedly different from the polar expeditions of the British Admiralty, who tended to use naval officers and disciplined crews. For his selection of sailing master, Hall first turned to Sidney O. Budington to George E. Tyson. Both declined due to prior whaling commitments; when those commitments fell through, Hall named Budington as sai
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen was a Norwegian polar explorer. He participated on the third Fram expeditions, he shipped out with the Fridtjof Nansen expedition in 1893–1896, accompanied Nansen to notch a new Farthest North record near the North Pole. Johansen participated in the expedition of Roald Amundsen to the South Pole in 1910–1912. Born at Skien in Telemark county, Norway, he was the son of Maren Pedersdatter. He was the second eldest son in a family of five children, he attended Royal Frederick University to study law in Christiania. However, he performed poorly at law school, due to a low attendance of lectures. At the age of 21, Johansen's father died. After dropping out of school, Hjalmar worked in an office job at Bratsberg. However, by that time he had made his mark as an athlete. In gymnastics he became Norwegian champion in 1885 in Fredrikshald and world champion in 1889 in Paris. Johansen joined Nansen's polar expedition with Fram in 1893. After Fram froze fast, he became an assistant to Sigurd Scott-Hansen with his meteorologic studies.
Johansen was an expert dog driver. Using skis and sled dogs, Johansen accompanied Nansen on their joint closest approach to the North Pole, 86 degrees 14 minutes north, in 1895. On their way home and Nansen were forced to spend the winter on Franz Josef Land because of severe damage to their kayaks when crossing open channels in the ice. During the expedition, Johansen once fell through the ice and was saved by Nansen, received a blow on his head by a polar bear. On the return of the Nansen parties to Norway and other members of the crew of the Fram were celebrated as heroes. Johansen was promoted to captain in the Norwegian infantry at the garrison in Tromsø; however he drank and in 1907 he was asked to resign his position in the army. Between the years 1907 to 1909, Johansen participated in four expeditions to Svalbard. In 1910 he was one of Amundsen's men in Antarctica. Amundsen and his men, racing for the South Pole with Robert Falcon Scott, started out for the South Pole too early in the season and had to return to base camp at the Bay of Whales.
Johansen had disagreed with the early start and had to rescue a less experienced member of the party, Kristian Prestrud, from freezing to death on the return journey. Amundsen had taken the best dogsled and sped off towards the camp without regard for his men as a storm approached; as a result and Johansen had no tent or cooking equipment to melt snow and had no choice but to press on for the camp in a blizzard with extreme windchill and a dangerous descent towards the base camp. Johansen carried him to the base camp. However, the mishap enraged Amundsen. Upon their return to the Bay of Whales, Johansen quarrelled with Amundsen in front of the other men, he further disciplined Johansen by ordering him to subordinate himself to Prestrud, ordering the two men to embark on a minor expedition towards King Edward VII Land while the other members of the main expedition resumed their trek towards the Pole. The Amundsen party reached the South Pole and reunited with the subsidiary party. On the expedition's landfall in Tasmania Amundsen dismissed Johansen from the Fram, paid him off, ordered him to return separately to Norway.
Once Johansen had left Amundsen's party, the triumphant leader made the entire remaining crew sign a paper that stated that they were to keep quiet about the whole expedition. Amundsen was to have the sole right of writing about it in his soon-to-be-published book. After returning separately to Norway, Johansen found that he was never to be credited by Amundsen for any contribution to the expedition, including his heroic rescue of Prestrud. Johansen was awarded the South Pole Medal, the Royal Norwegian award instituted by King Haakon VII in 1912 to reward participants in Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition. However, Johansen had resumed drinking alcohol, became clinically depressed and in 1913 committed suicide, his wife Hilda Øvrum and their four children survived him. After his death, Johansen's reputation drifted into obscurity. In 1997, biographer Ragnar Kvam, Jr. published a biography of the forgotten explorer, Den tredje mann: Beretningen om Hjalmar Johansen. As a result of this and other work, Johansen's place in the story of Norwegian polar exploration is being rehabilitated.
In 2005, the International Hydrographic Organization approved the proposal by an American arctic scientist to name Hjalmar Johansen Seamount, a newly discovered volcanic edifice on the floor of the Arctic Ocean northwest of Spitzbergen. The location is 82 degrees, 57 minutes N, 3 degrees, 40 minutes W; the top of the undersea mountain lies at a water depth of 4800 meters. Hjalmar Johansen With Nansen in the North Ragnar Kvam Den tredje mann: Beretningen om Hjalmar Johansen ISBN 978-8205248847
The North Pole known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole, it defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south. Along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is east and clockwise is west; the North Pole is at the center of the Northern Hemisphere. While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are permanently covered with shifting sea ice; this makes it impractical to construct a permanent station at the North Pole. However, the Soviet Union, Russia, constructed a number of manned drifting stations on a annual basis since 1937, some of which have passed over or close to the Pole. Since 2002, the Russians have annually established a base, close to the Pole.
This operates for a few weeks during early spring. Studies in the 2000s predicted that the North Pole may become seasonally ice-free because of Arctic ice shrinkage, with timescales varying from 2016 to the late 21st century or later; the sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 m by the Russian Mir submersible in 2007 and at 4,087 m by USS Nautilus in 1958. The nearest land is said to be Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of Greenland about 700 km away, though some semi-permanent gravel banks lie closer; the nearest permanently inhabited place is Alert in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Canada, located 817 km from the Pole. The Earth's axis of rotation – and hence the position of the North Pole – was believed to be fixed until, in the 18th century, the mathematician Leonhard Euler predicted that the axis might "wobble" slightly. Around the beginning of the 20th century astronomers noticed a small apparent "variation of latitude," as determined for a fixed point on Earth from the observation of stars.
Part of this variation could be attributed to a wandering of the Pole across the Earth's surface, by a range of a few metres. The wandering has an irregular component; the component with a period of about 435 days is identified with the eight-month wandering predicted by Euler and is now called the Chandler wobble after its discoverer. The exact point of intersection of the Earth's axis and the Earth's surface, at any given moment, is called the "instantaneous pole", but because of the "wobble" this cannot be used as a definition of a fixed North Pole when metre-scale precision is required, it is desirable to tie the system of Earth coordinates to fixed landforms. Of course, given plate tectonics and isostasy, there is no system in which all geographic features are fixed, yet the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service and the International Astronomical Union have defined a framework called the International Terrestrial Reference System. As early as the 16th century, many prominent people believed that the North Pole was in a sea, which in the 19th century was called the Polynya or Open Polar Sea.
It was therefore hoped. Several expeditions set out to find the way with whaling ships commonly used in the cold northern latitudes. One of the earliest expeditions to set out with the explicit intention of reaching the North Pole was that of British naval officer William Edward Parry, who in 1827 reached latitude 82°45′ North. In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster. Another British Royal Navy attempt on the pole, part of the British Arctic Expedition, by Commander Albert H. Markham reached a then-record 83°20'26" North in May 1876 before turning back. An 1879–1881 expedition commanded by US naval officer George W. DeLong ended tragically when their ship, the USS Jeanette, was crushed by ice. Over half the crew, including DeLong, were lost. In April 1895 the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen struck out for the Pole on skis after leaving Nansen's icebound ship Fram; the pair reached latitude 86°14′ North before they abandoned the attempt and turned southwards reaching Franz Josef Land.
In 1897 Swedish engineer Salomon August Andrée and two companions tried to reach the North Pole in the hydrogen balloon Örnen, but came down 300 km north of Kvitøya, the northeasternmost part of the Svalbard archipelago. They died there three months later. In 1930 the remains of this expedition were found by the Norwegian Bratvaag Expedition; the Italian explorer Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi and Captain Umberto Cagni of the Italian Royal Navy sailed the converted whaler Stella Polare from Norway in 1899. On 11 March 1900 Cagni led a party over the ice and reached latitude 86° 34’ on 25 April, setting a new record by beating Nansen's result of 1895 by 35 to 40 km. Cagni managed to return to the camp, remaining there until 23 June. On 16 August the Stella Polare left Rudolf Island heading south and the expedition returned to Norway; the US explorer Frederick Cook claimed to have reached the North Pole on 21 April 1908 with two Inuit men and Etukishook, but he was unable to produce convincing proof and his c