Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are done by writers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern and North African societies. In Said's analysis, the West essentializes these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied and reproduced. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational and superior. Orientalism refers in reference and opposition to the Occident; the word Orient entered the English language as the Middle French orient.
The root word oriēns, from the Latin Oriēns, has synonymous denotations: The eastern part of the world. In the "Monk's Tale", Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: "That they conquered many regnes grete / In the orient, with many a fair citee." The term "orient" refers to countries east of the Mediterranean Southern Europe. In Place of Fear, Aneurin Bevan used an expanded denotation of the Orient that comprehended East Asia: "the awakening of the Orient under the impact of Western ideas". Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but in the present." In art history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. In that time and scholars were described as Orientalists in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary. Despite such social disdain for a style of representational art, the French Society of Orientalist Painters was founded in 1893, with Jean-Léon Gérôme as the honorary president.
The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement. As an art movement, Orientalist painting is treated as one of the many branches of 19th-century academic art. Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without leaving the studio. French painters such as Eugène Delacroix and Jean-Léon Gérôme are regarded as the leading luminaries of the Orientalist movement. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term Orientalist identified a scholar who specialized in the languages and literatures of the Eastern world. Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company, who said that the Arab culture, the culture of India, the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe. Among such scholars is the philologist William Jones, whose studies of Indo-European languages established modern philology.
British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the 1820s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. Additionally and Jewish studies gained popularity among British and German scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries; the academic field of Oriental studies, which comprehended the cultures of the Near East and the Far East, became the fields of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies. In the book Orientalism, the cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries; the thesis of Orientalism develops Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, Michel Foucault's theorisation of discourse to criticise the scholarly tradition of Oriental studies.
Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo-Islamic cultures Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. The analyses are of Orientalism in European literature French literature, do not analyse visual art and Orientalist painting. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results". In the academy, the book Orientalism became a foundational text of post-colonial cultural studies. Moreover, in relation to the cultural institution of citizenship, Orientalism has rendered the concept of citizenship as a problem of epistemology, because citizenship originated as a social institution of the Western world. Furthermore, Said said that Orientalism, as an "idea of representation is a theoretical one: The Orient is a stage on which the whole East is confined" in order to make the Eastern world "les
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
A golden jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary. It variously is applied to people and nations. Emperor Wu of Han dynasty Kangxi Emperor of Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor of Qing dynasty Yeongjo of Joseon In Japan, golden jubilee refers to a 50th anniversary and is called Go-Zai-i gojūnen kinen. Emperor Hirohito, celebrated his golden jubilee on 10 November 1976. Showa Memorial Park was established as part of a project to commemorate his golden jubilee. For the year 2015, the "Singapore50" initiative launched in Singapore to celebrate 50 years of independence from Malaysia, with a logo that spells "SG50"; the term SG50 has since been used to refer to the celebrations as a whole. National Day Parade ceremonies; the golden jubilee is a royal ceremony to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the accession of the king. The Thai word is kanchanaphisek; the first Golden Jubilee of Thailand was the celebration of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. King Rama IX celebrated his golden jubilee on 9 June 1996, having acceded to the throne in 1946.
He was Thailand's longest-reigning monarch. The 545.65 carat Golden Jubilee Diamond was purchased by Thai businessmen as a gift for the king on the 50th anniversary of his coronation. The diamond is held in the Royal Palace as part of Thailand's crown jewels. In 1996, Prime Minister Banharn Silpa-archa and the Thai people celebrated the king with a multi-day celebration; the symbol of the golden jubilee of King Bhumibol Adulyadej was designed by Wiyada Charoensuk, winner of a design contest. There are three elements to the design: The king's throne is a sign of the Jakkree dynasty White tiered umbrellas of kingship, representing the constitution of Thailand Two elephants, representing the Thai peopleThe Fine Arts Department wanted this design to: Celebrate the king Help Thai people remember Thailand's traditions Show that Thais are proud to be subjects of the king Show that Thais have a long history as a nation In the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, a golden jubilee celebration is held in the 50th year of a monarch's reign.
The golden jubilee of George III of the United Kingdom was celebrated on 25 October 1809, prior to the actual 50th anniversary in 1810. Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her golden jubilee in 2002, having ascended the throne in 1952. In 1887 the United Kingdom and the British Empire celebrated Queen Victoria's golden jubilee. Victoria marked 20 June 1887—the fiftieth anniversary of her accession—with a banquet, to which fifty European kings and princes were invited. Although she could not have been aware of it, there was a plan by Irish Republicans to blow up Westminster Abbey while the Queen attended a service of thanksgiving; this assassination attempt, when it was discovered, became known as the Jubilee Plot. At the time, Victoria was an popular monarch. Brunei, Abdul Jalilul Akbar celebrated his golden jubilee in 1648. Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin I celebrated his golden jubilee in 1790. Bavaria, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria celebrated his golden jubilee as Elector Palatine in 1792. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Grand Duke Karl August celebrated his golden jubilee in 1826, dating from when he reached his majority.
Austria-Hungary, Emperor Franz Josef celebrated his golden jubilee in 1898. Baden, Grand Duke Frederick I celebrated his golden jubilee in 1906, dated from when he became regent to his brother before succeeding to the throne. Liechtenstein, Prince Johann II celebrated his golden jubilee in 1908. Greece, King George I was assassinated mere weeks before his golden jubilee was due to be celebrated in 1913. Montenegro, Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš celebrated his golden jubilee in 1914. Norway, King Haakon VII celebrated his golden jubilee in 1955. Burundi, King Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng celebrated his golden jubilee in 1965. Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie celebrated his golden jubilee, dating from when he became regent, in 1966. Iran, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar was assassinated and killed while visiting a holy place around Tehran as a religious ceremony and preparing to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his monarchy. Iran, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi celebrated the 50th anniversary of Pahlavi Dynasty in 1976.
Japan, Emperor Showa celebrated his golden jubilee in 1976. Monaco, Prince Rainier III celebrated his golden jubilee in 1999, his Highness the Aga Khan IV celebrated his Golden Jubilee from July 11, 2007 to December 13, 2008. Malaysia, Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah celebrated his golden jubilee on 15 July 2008 after 50 years reigning the state of Kedah. Egypt, the Egyptian Television celebrated its golden jubilee on 22 July 2010 after 50 years from airing for the first time. Kenya, the Nation Media Group's Daily Nation and Sunday Nation celebrated their golden jubilee in the year 2010 after 50 years from being published for the first time. In New Zealand, Kingseat Hospital celebrated 50 years of operation in 1982. and Maeroa Intermediate in 2004. Detroit, Michigan in the United States, the 1946 Automotive Golden Jubilee was a citywide celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the American automotive industry. Alhaji Ado Bayero The Emir of Kano, Nigeria celebrated his Golden Jubilee on June 2013.
Brunei, Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah celebrated his Golden Jubilee on 5 October 2017 after 50 years of his accession to the throne. Silver jubilee Ruby jubilee Diamond jubilee Sapphire jubilee Platinum jubilee Buckingham Palace Gardens Wedding anniversary#Celebration and gifts Hierarchy of precious substances
Josefine Swoboda was an Austrian portrait painter. She was one of the most active Vienna portraitists. Josefine Swoboda came from a Vienna family of artists, she was the daughter of the portrait painter Eduard Swoboda and his second wife Josefine, sister of the painter Rudolf Swoboda the younger, her uncles were the landscape and animal painter Rudolf Swoboda the elder and the orientalist Leopold Carl Müller. After her first painting lessons with her father she studied from 1878 to 1886 as a listener at the k.k. Kunstgewerbeschule, associated with the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, among others under Ferdinand Laufberger and Julius Victor Berger. Constantin von Wurzbach wrote in his Biographical Encyclopedia of the Empire of Austria in 1880 about her: "Her excellent work find rapid sale and the only 19-year-old artist entitled to the most beautiful hopes."Josefine Swoboda's works were watercolors portraits and genre scenes and still life. From 1886 she was represented in the Vienna Künstlerhaus and participated in exhibitions in Hamburg and Berlin.
Pictures of her were exhibited at the 1893 Chicago World Exposition. On the recommendation of her brother and Heinrich von Angeli, who worked for the British royal house as a painter, she received the title of court painter of Queen Victoria in 1890. With interruptions and only during the summertime she was in England until 1899, portraying the royal family and persons of the court in numerous watercolors, her paintings are still today in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle. Josefine Swoboda received numerous orders from the Austrian imperial house around Franz Joseph I and other noble houses, which made her to one of the most active Vienna portraitists. From 1902 she was represented in the "Salon Pisko" by the "Gruppe der 8 Künstlerinnen" in their exhibitions "Acht Künstlerinnen und ihre Gäste"; some of her works are in the Vienna Museum as well as in the graphic collection of the Albertina in Vienna. From 1886 she became a member of the "Künstlerhaus", the "Austrian Artists' Society". Zemen, Herbert: Die Porträtmalerin Josefine Swoboda.
1861–1924. Leben und Werk. Vienna. Ulrich Thieme, Felix Becker at all. Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Vol. 32. E. A. Seemann, Leipzig. P. 355. Ch. Gruber: "Swoboda, Josefine". In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950. Vol. 14, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1957–2005, p. 87 f. Constantin von Wurzbach. Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. Theil. 41. Kaiserlich-königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien. p. 84. Some pictures at the Royal Collection: A search at the Royal Collection Trust, retrieved 20 October 2016; some Works of Josefine Swoboda at Artnet