Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow was a German physician, pathologist, biologist, writer and politician. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" and as the founder of social medicine, to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine", he received the Copley Medal in 1892. He was a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences, but he declined to be ennobled as "von Virchow". Virchow studied medicine at the Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute under Johannes Peter Müller, he worked at the Charité hospital under Robert Froriep. His investigation of the 1847–1848 typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia laid the foundation for public health in Germany, paved his political and social careers. From it, he coined a well known aphorism: "Medicine is a social science, politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale", he participated in the Revolution of 1848. He published a newspaper Die medicinische Reform, he took the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy at the University of Würzburg in 1849.
After five years, Charité reinstated him to its new Institute for Pathology. He cofounded the political party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, was elected to the Prussian House of Representatives and won a seat in the Reichstag, his opposition to Otto von Bismarck's financial policy resulted in an anecdotal "Sausage Duel", although he supported Bismarck in his anti-Catholic campaigns, which he named Kulturkampf. A prolific writer, his scientific writings alone exceeded 2,000. Cellular Pathology, regarded as the root of modern pathology, introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula, he was a co-founder of Physikalisch-Medizinische Gesselschaft in 1849 and Deutsche Pathologische Gesellschaft in 1897. He founded journals such as Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie; the latter is published by German Anthropological Association and the Berlin Society for Anthropology and Prehistory, the societies which he founded.
Virchow was the first to describe and christen diseases such as leukemia, ochronosis and thrombosis. He coined biological terms such as "chromatin", "neuroglia", "agenesis", "parenchyma", "osteoid", "amyloid degeneration", "spina bifida", his description of the life cycle of a roundworm Trichinella spiralis influenced the practice of meat inspection. He developed the first systematic method of autopsy, introduced hair analysis in forensic investigation, he was critical of. As an anti-evolutionist, he called Charles Darwin an "ignoramus" and his own student Ernst Haeckel a "fool", he described the original specimen of Neanderthal man as nothing but that of a deformed human. Virchow was born in Schievelbein in Prussia, he was the only child of Johanna Maria née Hesse. His father was the city treasurer. Academically brilliant, he always topped in his classes and was fluent in German, Greek, English, French and Dutch, he progressed to the gymnasium in Köslin in 1835 with the goal to become a pastor. He graduated in 1839 upon a thesis titled A Life Full of Work and Toil is not a Burden but a Benediction.
However, he chose medicine because he considered his voice too weak for preaching. In 1839, he received a military fellowship for studying medicine at Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute in Berlin, he was most influenced by his doctoral advisor. He defended his thesis titled de rheumate praesertim corneae for medical degree on 21 October 1843. On graduation, he became subordinate physician to Müller, but shortly after, he joined the Charité Hospital in Berlin for internship. In 1844, he was appointed as medical assistant to the prosector Robert Froriep, from whom he learned microscopy which interested him in pathology. Froriep was the editor of an abstract journal that specialised in foreign work, which inspired Virchow for scientific ideas of France and England. Virchow published his first scientific paper in 1845 in which he wrote the earliest known pathological descriptions of leukemia, he qualified the medical licensure examination in 1846, succeeded Froriep as hospital prosector at the Charité. In 1847, he was appointed to his first academic position with the rank of privatdozent.
Because his writings did not receive favourable attention from German editors, he founded Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin with a colleague Benno Reinhardt in 1847. He edited alone after Reinhardt's death in 1852 till his own; this journal published critical articles based on the criterion that no papers would be published which contained outdated, dogmatic or speculative ideas. Unlike his German peers, Virchow had great faith in clinical observation, animal experimentation and pathological anatomy at the microscopic le
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The field of social medicine seeks to implement social care through understanding how social and economic conditions impact health and the practice of medicine and fostering conditions in which this understanding can lead to a healthier society. Social medicine as a scientific field began in the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution and the subsequent increase in poverty and disease among workers raised concerns about the effect of social processes on the health of the poor; the field of social medicine is most addressed today by public health efforts to understand what are known as social determinants of health. The major emphasis on biomedical science in medical education, health care, medical research has resulted into a gap with our understanding and acknowledgement of far more important social determinants of public health and individual disease: social-economic inequalities, illiteracy, detrimental life-styles, discrimination because of race and religion. Farmer et al. gave the following explanation for this gap:'The holy grail of modern medicine remains the search for a molecular basis of disease.
While the practical yield of such circumscribed inquiry has been enormous, exclusive focus on molecular-level phenomena has contributed to the increasing "desocialization" of scientific inquiry: a tendency to ask only biological questions about what are in fact biosocial phenomena.' They further concluded that'Biosocial understandings of medical phenomena are urgently needed'. Social care traditionally takes a different look at issues of impairment and disability by adopting a holistic perspective on health; the social model was developed as a direct response to the medical model, the social model sees barriers not just as a biomedical issue, but as caused in part by the society we live in – as a product of the physical and social worlds that lead to discrimination. Social care advocates equality of opportunities for vulnerable sections of society. German physician Rudolf Virchow laid foundations for this model. Other prominent figures in the history of social medicine, beginning from the 20th century, include Salvador Allende, Henry E. Sigerist, Thomas McKeown, Victor W. Sidel, Howard Waitzkin, more Paul Farmer and Jim Yong Kim.
In The Second Sickness, Howard Waitzkin traces the history of social medicine from Engels, through Virchow, through Allende. Waitzkin has sought to educate North Americans about the contributions of Latin American Social Medicine. In 1976, the British public health scientist and health care critic, Thomas McKeown, MD, published The role of medicine: Dream, mirage or nemesis?, wherein he summarized facts and arguments that supported what became known as the McKeown's thesis, i.e. that the growth of population can be attributed to a decline in mortality from infectious diseases thanks to better nutrition also to better hygiene, only marginally and late to medical interventions such as antibiotics and vaccines. McKeown was criticized for his controversial ideas, but is nowadays remembered as'the founder of social medicine'. BibliographySocial Medicine: http://journals.sfu.ca/socialmedicine/index.php/socialmedicine/index Social Medicine Portal: http://www.socialmedicine.org/ Porter D. "How Did Social Medicine Evolve, Where Is It Heading?".
PLoS Med. 3: e399. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030399. PMC 1621092. PMID 17076552. Matthew R. Anderson, Lanny Smith, Victor W. Sidel. What is Social Medicine? Monthly Review: 56. Http://www.monthlyreview.org/0105anderson.htm King NMP, Strauss RP, Churchill LR, Estroff SE, Henderson GE, et al. editors Patients and illness. Volume I: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Henderson GE, Estroff SE, Churchill LR, King NMP, Oberlander J, et al. editors Social and cultural contributions to health and inequality. Volume II: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Oberlander J, Churchill LR, Estroff SE, Henderson GE, King NMP, et al. editors Health policy and medicine. Volume III: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Porter D, Porter R. "What was social medicine? An historiographical essay". J Hist Sociol. 1: 90–106. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-6443.1988.tb00005.x. PMID 11617341. Stonington S, Holmes SM. "Social medicine in the twenty-first century".
PLoS Med. 3: e445. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030445. PMC 1621097. Introduction to the journal: Social Medicine What is social medicine
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
Similar organizations in
Sarah Horton is a fictional character from Days of Our Lives, an American soap opera on the NBC network. Created by Pat Falken Smith, introduced by Betty Corday and Al Rabin, Sarah is the daughter of Neil Curtis and Maggie Horton. In 2018, under head writer Ron Carlivati, the character was reintroduced with actress Linsey Godfrey in the role. In July 2018, it was announced. Godfrey made her first episodic appearance during the final minutes of the episode broadcast on October 26, 2018, she was born to Maggie Horton. She was conceived through artificial insemination and was believed to be the daughter of Evan Whyland, it was. To Sarah, Mickey Horton will always be her daddy. Mickey loved Sarah as if she were his own blood. Evan gave up his legal rights when she was an infant. Sarah left town with Melissa, they settled in Nashville. Melissa has made a few return visits to town but, Sarah has not been seen since they left. In 2018, Sarah returned to Salem engaged to Rex Brady, only to break up with him after Mimi Lockhart comes to town with his baby.
Rex admits to sleeping with Sarah's sister Noelle and a furious Sarah seeks revenge by looking to Rex's brother Eric Brady for comfort, but feels rejected when he turns her down, she leaves and sleeps with Xander Kiriakis. She once again becomes engaged to Rex. Sarah Horton at Soap Central Sarah Horton at Soaps.com
Egyptians are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian identity is tied to geography; the population of Egypt is concentrated in the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity; the daily language of the Egyptians is the local variety of Arabic, known as Egyptian Arabic or Masri. Additionally, a sizable minority of Egyptians living in Upper Egypt speak Sa'idi Arabic. Egyptians are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam with a Shia minority and a significant proportion who follow native Sufi orders. A considerable percentage of Egyptians are Coptic Christians who belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose liturgical language, Coptic, is the most recent stage of the ancient Egyptian language and is still used in prayers along with Egyptian Arabic.
Egyptians receive or have received several names: Egyptians, from Greek Αἰγύπτιοι, from Αἴγυπτος, Aiguptos "Egypt". The Greek name is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah, meaning "home of the ka of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Αἴγυπτος had evolved as a compound from Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως Aegaeou huptiōs, meaning "below the Aegean". In English, the noun "Egyptians" appears in the 14th century, in Wycliff's Bible, as Egipcions. Copts a derivative of the Greek word Αἰγύπτιος, that appeared under Muslim rule that overtooked the Roman rule in Egypt, to refer to the Egyptian locals and to separate them from the Arabs rulers. Coptic was the language of the state and people but got replaced by Arabic after the Muslim conquest, Islam became the dominant religion centuries after the Muslim conquest in Egypt due to centuries of conversion from Christianity to Islam due to the higher rate of tax on Christians despite a tax all Egyptians had to pay, the modern term became associated with Egyptian Christianity and Coptic Christians who are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church or Coptic Catholic Church, though references to native Muslims as Copts are attested until the Mamluk period.
Masryeen, the modern Egyptian name, which comes from the ancient Semitic name for Egypt and connoted "civilization" or "metropolis". Classical Arabic Miṣr is directly cognate with the Biblical Hebrew Mitsráyīm, meaning "the two straits", a reference to the predynastic separation of Upper and Lower Egypt. Edward William Lane writing in the 1820s, said that Egyptians called themselves El-Maṣreyyīn'the Egyptians', Ewlad Maṣr'the Children of Egypt' and Ahl Maṣr'the People of Egypt', he added that the Turks "stigmatized" the Egyptians with the name Ahl-Far'ūn or the'People of the Pharaoh'. / rmṯ n Km.t, the native Egyptian name of the people of the Nile Valley, literally'People of Kemet'. In antiquity, it was shortened to Rmṯ or "the people"; the name is vocalized as rem/en/kī/mi ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ in the Coptic stage of the language, meaning "Egyptian". There are an estimated 92.1 million Egyptians. Most are native to Egypt. 84–90% of the population of Egypt are Muslim adherents and 10–15% are Christian adherents according to estimates.
The majority live near the banks of the Nile River. Close to half of the Egyptian people today are urban. A large influx of fellahin into urban cities, rapid urbanization of many rural areas since the early 20th century, have shifted the balance between the number of urban and rural citizens. Egyptians form smaller minorities in neighboring countries, North America and Australia. Egyptians tend to be provincial, meaning their attachment extends not only to Egypt but to the specific provinces and villages from which they hail. Therefore, return migrants, such as temporary workers abroad, come back to their region of origin in Egypt. According to the International Organization for Migration, an estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad and contribute to the development of their country through remittances, circulation of human and social capital, as well as investment. 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries and the remaining 30% are living in Europe and North America. Their characteristic rootedness as Egyptians explained as the result of centuries as a farming people clinging to the banks of the Nile, is reflected in sights and atmosphere that are meaningful to all Egyptians.
Dominating the intangible pull of Egypt is the present Nile, more than a constant backdrop. Its varying colors and changing water levels signal the coming and going of the Nile flood that sets the rhythm of farming in a rainless country and holds the attention of all Egyptians. No Egyptian is far from his river and, except for t