A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those travelling using tiny wheels such as roller skates and scooters, as well as wheelchair users are included as pedestrians. In modern times, the term refers to someone walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically; the meaning of pedestrian is displayed with the morphemes ped- and -ian. This word was first used during the 18th century, it was used, can still be used today, as an adjective meaning plain or dull. However, in this article it refers to someone who walks; the word pedestrian may have been used in middle french in the Recueil des Croniques et Anchiennes Istories de la Grant Bretaigne, à présent nommé Engleterre. Walking has always been the primary means of human locomotion; the first humans to migrate from Africa, about 60,000 years ago, walked. They walked along the coast of India to reach Australia, they walked across Asia to reach the Americas, from Central Asia into Europe.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, pedestrianism was a popular spectator sport just as equestrianism still is in places such as the United Kingdom and the United States. One of the most famous pedestrians of that period was Captain Robert Barclay Allardice, known as "The Celebrated Pedestrian", of Stonehaven in Scotland, his most impressive feat was to walk 1 mile every hour for 1000 hours, which he achieved between 1 June and 12 July 1809. This feat captured many people's imagination, around 10,000 people came to watch over the course of the event. During the rest of the 19th century, many people tried to repeat this feat, including Ada Anderson who developed it further and walked a half-mile each quarter-hour over the 1,000 hours. Since the 20th century, interest in walking as a sport has dropped. Racewalking fails to catch public attention as it did; however major walking feats are still performed, such as the Land's End to John o' Groats walk in the United Kingdom, the traversal of North America from coast to coast.
The first person to walk around the world was Dave Kunst who started his walk travelling east from Waseca, Minnesota on 20 June 1970 and completed his journey on 5 October 1974, when he re-entered the town from the west. These feats are tied to charitable fundraising and are undertaken by celebrities such as Sir Jimmy Savile and Ian Botham as well as by others. Regular walking is important both for the natural environment. Frequent exercise such as walking tends to reduce the chance of obesity and related medical problems. In contrast, using a car for short trips tends to contribute both to obesity and via vehicle emissions to climate change: internal combustion engines are more inefficient and polluting during their first minutes of operation. General availability of public transportation encourages walking, as it will not, in most cases, take one directly to one's destination. Safety is an important issue; because pedestrians are not protected by their vehicle while car occupants are, pedestrians are classified in the vulnerable road user category in Canada.
Pedestrian fatalities are much more common in accident situations in the European Union than in the USA. In the European Union countries, more than 200,000 pedestrians and cyclists are injured annually; each year, more than 270 000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world’s roads. At a global level pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, but might be two thirds in some countries. Pedestrian fatalities, in 2016, are 2.6 per million population in the Netherlands, 4.3 in Sweden, 4.5 per million population in Wales, 5.3 in New Zealand, 6.0 in Germany. While both the pedestrian and the driver should be aware of road traffic condition to avoid such an accident, crash might occur with factors such as vehicle speed, pedestrian unseen by the driver by night, distraction, or misunderstanding and drugs and alcohol. Drivers and pedestrians share some responsibility for improving safety of road users. Road traffic crashes, are not inevitable. Key risks for pedestrians are well known. Among the well documented factors are: driver behaviour,.
Most of pedestrian are injured at crossing a street/road. Most of pedestrian crash occur by night. Most of pedestrians are killed by a frontal impact. In such a situation, a pedestrian is struck by a car front; the head hits the windscreen with the velocity of the striking car. The victim falls to the ground; some special interest groups consider pedestrian fatalities on American roads a carnage. Five state, California, Florida and Texas produce 46% of all pedestrians deaths in the country. Speculation of the causes for the increase in the USA include population growth, driver distraction with mobile phone, popularity
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
1st arrondissement of Paris
The 1st arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is colloquially referred to as premier. Known as Louvre, the arrondissement is situated principally on the right bank of the River Seine, it includes the west end of the Île de la Cité. The arrondissement is one of the oldest in Paris, the Île de la Cité having been the heart of the city of Lutetia, conquered by the Romans in 52 BC, while some parts on the right bank date back to the early Middle Ages, it is the least populated of the city's arrondissements and one of the smallest by area, a significant part of, occupied by the Louvre Museum and the Tuileries Gardens. The Forum des Halles is the largest shopping mall in Paris. Much of the remainder of the arrondissement is dedicated to administration; the 1st arrondissement is small, with a land area of only 1.83 km2. The area now occupied by the first arrondissement attained its peak population in the period preceding the re-organization of Paris in 1860.
In 1999, the population was 16,888, while the arrondissement hosted 63,056 jobs, making it one of the most active for business after the 2nd, 8th, 9th. ¹The peak of population occurred before 1861, but thearrondissement was created in 1860, so there are no figures before 1861. Each of the 20 Paris arrondissements is divided into four quarters; the table below lists the four quarters of the 1st arrondissement: figures from 1999 French census Korean Air's France office is in the 1st arrondissement. At one time Air Inter's head office was located in the first arrondissement; when Minerve, an airline, its head office was in the first arrondissement. In terms of state-operated schools, the first arrondissement has two nursery schools, two primary schools, one école polyvalente, one high school, one sixth form college; the state-operated nursery schools are École Maternelle Sourdiere. The state-operated primary schools are École Élémentaire Arbre Sec and École Élémentaire D'Argenteuil; the arrondissement has École Polyvalente Cambon.
Collège Jean-Baptiste Poquelin is the sole state-operated high school in the arrondissement. Lycée Professionnel Commercial Pierre Lescot is the sole state-operated sixth form college in the first arrondissement. Private primary and secondary institutions in the arrondissement include École Élémentaire Privée Notre-Dame-Saint-Roch, École du 2nd Degré Professionnel Privée Pigier, École Technologique Privée de Dessin Technique et Artistique Sornas. Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, at the eastern end of the Axe historique Banque de France headquarters Comédie-Française Crédit Foncier de France historical headquarters The Louvre Galerie Véro-Dodat Les Halles Musée des Arts Décoratifs Musée de la Mode et du Textile Musée de la Publicité Musée du Barreau de Paris Musée Grévin - Forum des Halles Musée des Lunettes et Lorgnettes Pierre Marly Palais Royal Hôtel de Rambouillet Hôtel Ritz Paris La Sainte-Chapelle La Samaritaine Tuileries Garden Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume Musée de l'Orangerie Pont Neuf Pont des Arts Avenue de l'Opéra Rue de Rivoli Place Vendôme and the Vendôme Column Street Names of Paris, 1er arrondissement 1st arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage