Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty
Buttonhole stitch and the related blanket stitch are hand-sewing stitches used in tailoring and needle lace-making. Buttonhole stitches catch a loop of the thread on the surface of the fabric and needle is returned to the back of the fabric at a right angle to the original start of the thread; the finished stitch in some ways resembles a letter "L" depending on the spacing of the stitches. For buttonholes the stitches are packed together and for blanket edges they are more spaced out; the properties of this stitch make it ideal for preventing raveling of woven fabric. Buttonhole stitches are structurally similar to featherstitches. In addition to reinforcing buttonholes and preventing cut fabric from raveling, buttonhole stitches are used to make stems in crewel embroidery, to make sewn eyelets, to attach applique to ground fabric, as couching stitches. Buttonhole stitch scallops raised or padded by rows of straight or chain stitches, were a popular edging in the 19th century. Buttonhole stitches are used in cutwork, including Broderie Anglaise, form the basis for many forms of needlelace.
Examples of buttonhole or blanket stitches include: Blanket stitch Buttonhole stitch Closed buttonhole stitch, in which the tops of the stitch touch to form triangles Embroidery stitch Virginia Churchill Bath, Needlework in America, Viking Press, 1979 ISBN 0-670-50575-7 S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Mrs. Archibald Christie. Samplers and Stitches, a handbook of the embroiderer's art, London 1920, 1989 facsimile: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-4796-6. Media related to Embroidery stitches at Wikimedia Commons
An overlock is a kind of stitch that sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming, or seaming. An overlock sewing machine will cut the edges of the cloth as they are fed through, though some are made without cutters; the inclusion of automated cutters allows overlock machines to create finished seams and quickly. An overlock sewing machine differs from a lockstitch sewing machine in that it uses loopers fed by multiple thread cones rather than a bobbin. Loopers serve to create thread loops that pass from the needle thread to the edges of the fabric so that the edges of the fabric are contained within the seam. Overlock sewing machines run at high speeds, from 1000 to over 9000 rpm, most are used in industry for edging and seaming a variety of fabrics and products. Overlock stitches are versatile, as they can be used for decoration, reinforcement, or construction. Overlocking is referred to as "overedging", "merrowing", or "serging". Though "serging” technically refers to overlocking with cutters, in practice the four terms are used interchangeably.
Overlock stitching was invented by the Merrow Machine Company in 1881. J. Makens Merrow and his son Joseph Merrow, who owned a knitting mill established in Connecticut in 1838, developed a number of technological advancements to be used in the mill’s operations. Merrow's first patent was a machine for crochet stitching, the Merrow Machine Company still produces crochet machines based on this original model; this technology was a starting point for the development of the overlock machine, patented by Joseph Merrow in 1889. Unlike standard lockstitching, which uses a bobbin, overlock sewing machines utilize loopers to create thread loops for the needle to pass through, in a manner similar to crocheting. Merrow's original three-thread overedge sewing machine is the forerunner of contemporary overlocking machines. Over time, the Merrow Machine Company pioneered the design of new machines to create a variety of overlock stitches, such as two- and four-thread machines, the one-thread butted seam, the cutterless emblem edger.
A landmark lawsuit between Willcox & Gibbs and the Merrow Machine Company in 1905 established the ownership and rights to the early mechanical development of overlocking to the Merrow Machine Company. Throughout the early 20th Century, the areas of Connecticut, USA and New York, USA were the centers of textile manufacturing and machine production. Many overlock machine companies established themselves in the Northeastern United States. In 1964 several engineers and managers at one Japanese manufacturer redesigned the industrial serger they were manufacturing as a smaller, lighter model intended for home use, they presented their concept to their employer, after it was rejected they quit and formed the Juki Corporation. Nick Tacony, founder of Tacony Corporation, introduced machinery for producing the overlock stich to the United States market; this allowed sewing enthusiasts to produce clothing with finishing seams like those made by industrial garment manufacturers. In the United States, the term "overlocker" has been replaced by "serger".
However, in other parts of the world such as Australia and the UK, the term "overlocker" is still in use. Overlock stitches are classified in a number of ways; the most basic classification is by the number of threads used in the stitch. Industrial overlock machines are made in 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 thread formations; each of these formations has unique uses and benefits: 1-thread: End-to-end seaming or "butt-seaming" of piece goods for textile finishing. 2-thread: Edging and seaming on knits and wovens, finishing seam edges, stitching flatlock seams, stitching elastic and lace to lingerie, hemming. This is the most common type of overlock stitch. 3-thread: Sewing pintucks, creating narrow rolled hems, finishing fabric edges, decorative edging, seaming knit or woven fabrics. 4-thread: Decorative edging and finishing, seaming high-stress areas, mock safety stitches which create extra strength while retaining flexibility. 5-thread: In apparel manufacturing, safety stitches utilizing two needles create a strong seam.
Two- and three-thread formations are known as "merrowing" after the Merrow Machine Company. Additional variables in the types of overlock stitches are the stitch eccentric, the stitch width; the stitch eccentric indicates how many stitches per inch there are, adjustable and can vary within one machine. Different stitch eccentrics create more or less solid-looking edges; the stitch width indicates. Lightweight fabrics require a wider stitch to prevent pulling. Adding extra variation in stitch types is the differential feed feature, which allows feed to be adjusted; some merrowing machines contain parts to roll the fabric edge into the stitch for added durability. When the needle enters the fabric, a loop is formed in the thread at the back of the needle; as the needle continues its downward motion into the fabric, the lower looper begins its movement from left to right. The tip of the lower looper passes behind the needle and through the loop of thread that has formed behind the needle; the lower looper continues along its path moving toward the right of the serger.
As it moves, the lower thread is carried through the needle thread. While the lower looper is moving from left to right, the upper looper advances from right to left; the tip of the upper looper passes behind the lower looper and picks up the lower looper thread and needle thread. The lower looper now begins its move back into the far lef
A zigzag stitch is variant geometry of the lockstitch. It is a back-and-forth stitch used where a straight stitch will not suffice, such as in reinforcing buttonholes, in stitching stretchable fabrics, in temporarily joining two work pieces edge-to-edge; when creating a zigzag stitch, the side to side motion of the sewing machine's needle is controlled by a cam. As the cam rotates, a fingerlike follower, connected to the needle bar, rides along the cam and tracks its indentations; as the follower moves in and out, the needle bar is moved from side to side. Sewing machines made before the mid-1950s lack this hardware and so cannot natively produce a zigzag stitch; however there are shank-driven attachments available which enable them to achieve a similar effect by moving the fabric from side to side instead of the needle bar. The first dedicated zigzag machine for the consumer market was the Singer 206K, introduced in 1936. Older sewing machines designed to sew only a straight stitch can be adapted to sew a zigzag by means of an attachment.
The attachment replaces the machine's presser foot with its own, draws mechanical power from the machine's needle clamp. It creates a zigzag by mechanically moving the fabric side to side; the zigzagger's foot has longitudinal grooves on its underside, facing the material, which confer traction only sideways. This allows the zigzagger to move the material side to side while the machine's feed dogs are moving the material forward or backward in the usual manner. Singer produced a variety of "Singer Automatic Zigzagger" attachments over the years, including part numbers 160985 and 161102; these zigzaggers are equipped with pop-in cams for making four different zigzag stitches, as well as a bight control for choosing the zigzag width. Four cams are included. There are sets of additional different cams, four cams per set, sold as "Singer Stitch Patterns for Automatic Zigzagger". All cam sets are Singer part number 161008, contain the following cams: * The #2 red set is included with the 160985 and 161102 zigzaggers.
** Older #2 white sets have red-colored cams. "YS Star" is a brand of Japanese sewing accessories that once included a zigzagger, model YS-7. Like the Singer zigzagger, it fits any low-shank sewing machine and draws mechanical power via an arm connected to the machine's needle clamp, its stitch pattern is controlled by small flat rectangular metal templates, seven of which are included. Two versions were made: The White Sewing Machine Company produced a zigzag attachment like the others, it was called the "White Zigzag Attachment", part number 1640. Rather than using cams or templates, it is much simpler, offering just a single control for adjusting the bight. A blind stitch is a variant geometry of the zigzag stitch, it is called a "blind hem". It is composed the same way as a zigzag, except that the individual zig-zag pairs are each separated by several straight stitches, its purpose is to create a nearly invisible hem: because only the zigzags penetrate to the visible side of the material, minimizing their number minimizes their visibility
Sashiko is a form of decorative reinforcement stitching from Japan that started out of practical need during the Edo era. Traditionally used to reinforce points of wear or to repair worn places or tears with patches, making the darned piece stronger and warmer, this running stitch technique is used for purely decorative purposes in quilting and embroidery; the white cotton thread on the traditional indigo blue cloth gives sashiko its distinctive appearance, though decorative items sometimes use red thread. Sashiko embroidery was used to strengthen the homespun clothes of olden times. Worn out clothes were pieced together to make new garments by using simple running stitches; these clothes increased their strength with this durable embroidery. By the Meiji era sashiko had been established enough that it had evolved into winter work in northern farming communities, when it was too cold to work outside. Geometric patterns are used to make this work. There are two main styles: moyōzashi, in which patterns are created with long lines of running stitches.
Common motifs used are waves, bamboo, key fret, double cypress fence, arrow feathers, seven treasures, pampas grass, overlapping diamonds, linked diamonds, linked hexagons and persimmon flower. The embroidery uses needle. Modern day sashiko stitching is not restricted to the traditional indigo coloured fabric but uses a variety of colour combinations, it is considered a beautiful surface embellishment for fabrics. Many sashiko patterns were derived from Chinese designs, but just as many were developed by the japanese embroiderers; the artist Katsushika Hokusai published New Forms for Design in 1824, these designs have inspired many sashiko patterns. Tate-Jima — Vertical stripes Yoko-Jima — Horizontal stripes Kōshi — Checks Nakamura Kōshi — Plaid of Nakamura family Hishi-moyō — Diamonds Yarai — Bamboo Fence Hishi-Igeta / Tasuki — Parallel diamonds / crossed cords Kagome — Woven Bamboo Uroko — Fish Scales Tate-Waku — Rising steam Fundō — Counterweights Shippō — Seven Treasures of Buddha Amime — Fishing nets Toridasuki — Interlaced circle of two birds Chidori — Plover Kasumi — Haze Asa no Ha — Hemp leaf Mitsuba — Trefoil Hirayama-Michi — Passes in the mountains Kaki no Hana — Persimmon flower Kaminari — Thunderbolts Inazuma — Flash of Lightning Sayagata — Key pattern Matsukawa-Bishi — Pine Bark Yabane — Fletching and many more Information with designs at quilt.com Introduction to Sashiko at designbyaika.com Sashiko Embroidery designs and tutorial
The blanket stitch is a stitch used to reinforce the edge of thick materials. Depending on circumstances, it may be called a "cable stitch" or a "crochet stitch", it is "a decorative stitch used to finish an unhemmed blanket. The stitch can be seen on both sides of the blanket." This stitch has long been both an application as a machine sewn stitch. When done by hand, it is sometimes considered a crochet stitch, used to join pieces together to make a blanket or other larger item, it is used in sewing leather pieces together, as traditionally done by indigenous American cultures, for weaving basket rims. The whipstitch is a type of surgical suturing stitch; when done by machine, it may be called a whip stitch or, sometimes, a Merrow Crochet Stitch, after the first sewing machine, used to sew a blanket stitch. This machine was produced and patented by the Merrow Machine Company in 1877; the defining characteristic of the crochet machine is its ability to sew with yarn and stitch thick goods with a consistent overlock edge.
From 1877 to 1925 the machine evolved and so did the capacity of manufacturers to produce goods with the whip stitch. The blanket stitch is used as a decorative stitch on an array of garments. Besides blankets, it is used on sweaters, swimsuits, home furnishings and much more. There are many styles of production blanket stitching, including rolled, with elastic, traditional. Additionally, the term "blanket stitch" has become a verb, describing the application of the stitch