Homer L. Shantz
Homer LeRoy Shantz was an American botanist and former president of the University of Arizona. Born in Michigan, Dr. Shantz grew up in Colorado Springs and received his doctoral degree in botany from the University of Nebraska in 1905, he traveled with an emphasis on the American West and Africa, made documentary photographs wherever he went. Among Dr. Shantz's research interests was the photographic documentation of vegetation change, he served as the President of the University of Arizona from 1928 to 1936, where he focused his attention on Arizona and the Sonoran Desert. During this period, he worked with John E. Harrison Jr. in the acquisition of land for the creation of what is now called the Saguaro National Park In 1936, he resigned after disagreements with the legislature and the Board of Regents. From 1936, he served as Chief of the Division of Wildlife Management of the U. S. Forest Service until he retired in 1944, he worked with the Geography Branch of the Office of Naval Research to re-photograph many of the sites he had documented earlier in his career.
Shantz Photographic Collection at The University of Arizona Institutional Repository Shantz biography Shantz, Homer Leroy USDA Bureau of Plant Industry - Bulletin 201 Natural Vegetation as an Indicator of the Capabilities of Land for Crop Production in the Great Plains Area by H. L. Shantz, issued March 16, 1911
A. E. Douglass
A. E. Douglass was an American astronomer, he discovered a correlation between tree rings and the sunspot cycle, founded the discipline of dendrochronology, a method of dating wood by analyzing the growth ring pattern. He started his discoveries in this field in 1894. During this time he was an assistant to Percival Lowell, but fell out with him when his experiments made him doubt the existence of artificial "canals" on Mars and visible cusps on Venus. Craters on the Moon and Mars are named in his honor. After a 5-year hiatus from astronomy, Douglass left Flagstaff, Arizona in 1906 and accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Physics and Geography at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. Upon his arrival in Tucson, Douglass re-established his astronomical research programs using an 8-inch refracting telescope on loan from the Harvard College Observatory and began to pursue funding to construct a large research-class telescope in Tucson. Over the next 10 years Douglass was unable to secure funding from the University and the Arizona Territorial Legislatures.
During this period Douglass served the University of Arizona as Head of the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Interim President, Dean of the College of Letters, Arts, & Sciences. On October 18, 1916, University President Rufus von KleinSmid announced that an anonymous donor had given the University US$60,000 "... to be used to buy a telescope of huge size". Douglass made plans to use the Steward gift to construct a 36-inch Newtonian reflecting telescope; the Warner & Swayze Company of Cleveland, Ohio was contracted to build the telescope, but the United States entry into World War I delayed the contract since Warner & Swayze had war contracts that took priority. Until this time expertise in large telescope mirror making was in Europe, but the war made it impossible to contract with a European company, so Douglass had to find an American glass company willing to develop this expertise. After a couple of failed castings, the Spencer Lens Co. of Buffalo, New York produced the mirror for the Steward Telescope.
The telescope was installed in the observatory building in July 1922, the Steward Observatory was dedicated on April 23, 1923. In his dedication address, Douglass recounted the trials and tribulations of establishing the observatory gave the following eloquent justification for the scientific endeavor: This installation is to be devoted to scientific research. Scientific research is business foresight on a large scale, it is knowledge obtained. Knowledge is power, but we cannot tell which fact in the domain of knowledge is the one, going to give the power, we therefore develop the idea of knowledge for its own sake, confident that some one fact or training will pay for all the effort; this I believe is the essence of education wherever such education is not vocational. The student has much training, he can only dimly see which fact and which training will be of eminent use to him, but some special part of his education will take root in him and grow and pay for all of the effort which he and his friends have put into it.
So it is with the research institutions. In this Observatory I sincerely hope and expect that the boundaries of human knowledge will be advanced along astronomical lines. Astronomy was the first science developed by our primitive ancestors thousands of years ago because it measured time. Performing that same function, it has played a vast part in human history, today it is telling us facts, forever wonderful, about the size of our universe. In 1909 Clark Wissler of the American Museum of Natural History organized the Archer M. Huntington Survey. One objective of this survey was to determine temporal arrangement of the American Southwest's prehistoric ruins. Wissler, who had read about Douglass's work concerning the relationship between precipitation and tree growth contacted Douglass saying: Your work suggests to me a possible help in the archaeological investigation of the Southwest…We do not know how old these ruins are, but I should be glad to have an opinion from you as to whether it might be possible to connect up with your modern and dated trees specimens from these ruins by correlating the curves of growth.
On June 19, 1914, the curator of the American Museum of Natural History wrote a letter to Douglass expressing his desire to begin archaeological analysis as early as possible. In 1916 Douglass began obtaining and analyzing archaeological samples first collected during an expedition to northwest New Mexico by the University of Colorado and the American Museum of Natural History. In April 1918 Wissler asked Douglass whether or not it would be possible to assign relative dates to samples that could not be dated absolutely. Although this information would not associate particular sites with exact years, it would reveal whether or not ruins were constructed within the same time period. On May 22, 1919, Douglass informed Wissler that six specimens from Aztec Ruin, New Mexico were cut down within a two-year period, estimated that samples from Pueblo Bonito in New Mexico were 25 years older than those collected at Aztec Ruin. Upon receiving this news, Wissler was certain that Douglass would make a crucial contribution to archaeology.
Douglass continued compa
USC School of International Relations
The University of Southern California School of International Relations is the third-oldest school of international relations in the world. A subdivision within the USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters and Sciences, the school is known for teaching, hiring faculty who concentrate in a variety of worldviews; the school traces its origins to the early 1920s and then-University of Southern California president Rufus B. von KleinSmid who held a strong interest in developing the study of international relations. In 1922, USC hosted the Pan-American Conference on Education that brought together university officials from 22 countries to discuss the importance of international education and cooperation. In 1924, the Los Angeles University of International Relations was founded, to be renamed the USC School of International Relations; the founding occurred during the liberal-internationalist reaction to World War I. According to the school's website, its founding mission was "to furnish opportunities for the training of statesmen for consular and diplomatic service, of businessmen for commerce and business administration, of teachers in departments related to world affairs in colleges and universities".
The school continued to grow during the Cold War. It was one of the first schools of international relations in the country to offer a PhD, became a charter member of The Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, helped to found the International Studies Association. For majors entering the school in 2013 or before, concentrations in the following courses were offered, of which international relations majors had to choose two: International Politics and Security Studies International Political Economy Foreign Policy Analysis Culture and Global Society Regional concentrations: European Union Post-Soviet and Eastern Europe Latin America The Middle East The Pacific Rim AfricaFor majors entering after 2013, there is no concentration requirement, though they can still choose to pursue one of the above concentrations if they wish. Since 2016, the Director of SIR has been Wayne Sandholtz. Sandholtz earned his MA from UC Berkeley; the preceding directors are Robert English, John Odell, Laurie Brand, Steven Lamy, Jonathan Aronson, Robert Friedheim, Thomas J. Biersteker, Gerald Bender, Michael Fry, Jay Savage, James N. Rosenau, Ross Berkes, Claude A. Buss, Rufus B. von KleinSmid.
There are 24 permanent members of the faculty at the school. All have terminal degrees in their field, have published numerous working papers and books. In order to further the study of international relations, the school has created number of affiliates: Center for International Studies - CIS was established by the School of International Relations to promote advanced research and sustained discussion of theoretical and policy issues in international political and economic affairs. Center for Active Learning in International Studies - CALIS is a K-12 outreach program sponsored by the East Asian Studies Center and the School of International Relations Teaching International Relations Program - TIRP is a community outreach program operated by the School of International Relations USC Center on Public Diplomacy - The University of Southern California Center on Public Diplomacy is a joint academic research and training Center created and run jointly by the USC Annenberg School for Communication and the USC College of Letters and Sciences School of International Relations Official website USC Center on Public Diplomacy
Sandwich is a city in DeKalb, LaSalle counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. The population was 7,421 at the 2010 census; the town is inexorably tied to politician "Long John" Wentworth and his efforts to move the State of Illinois border with Wisconsin from being with the bottom of Lake Michigan to its present location. If those efforts had not been successful, the State Line would reside along the LaSalle-DeKalb County border, splitting parts of Sandwich from the main areas of the incorporated community; the community was established when Almon Gage sought a railroad stop on the Chicago and Quincy Railroad that ran through town. Naming it Newark Station he and Wentworth worked extensively to create the community and to get the railroad stop created. In honor of his efforts, Wentworth was given the opportunity to name the town, he named it after his home of New Hampshire. The city's Wentworth Apartments and Wentworth Street are named after Mr. Wentworth. Sandwich is the home of the Sandwich Fair, which first started as an annual livestock show in DeKalb County.
Held yearly, the Wednesday-Sunday after Labor Day since 1888, it is one of the oldest continuing county fairs in the state of Illinois, drawing daily crowds of more than 100,000, with the top attendance days reaching more than 200,000 fair-goers. Sandwich is located at 41°39′00″N 88°37′02″W, at an elevation of 669 feet. According to the 2010 census, Sandwich has a total area of 4.706 square miles, of which 4.69 square miles is land and 0.016 square miles is water. Within the city limit of Sandwich, there are a network of creeks, which either connect to Somonauk Creek, Little Rock Creek, or to the Fox River. Lake Davis, which stretched from Veterans Memorial Park to what is now Gletty Road, was drained early in the 19th Century to open up additional farmland; the Sandwich town site was built on a natural gradation due to a geological fault line known as the Sandwich Fault, so the city stands on a hillside. The southeast corner of the city is the lowest spot near the Harvey Creek Preserve, as well as near Little Rock Creek.
The last earthquake along the Sandwich Fault was on February 10, 2010, with a previous tremor being reported in January 2007. In the immediate area of Sandwich, there are numerous communities. Sandwich and Somonauk are split by the LaSalle-DeKalb County Line, while the unincorporated community of Welland is split along the border of LaSalle and Lee counties further West. Sandwich's climate typified by large seasonal temperature variances, with warm to hot summers and cold winters; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfa".. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,005 households in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 90.9% White, 0.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.6% of the population. As of the 2010 census, the population density was 1,582.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,876 housing units at an average density of 613.2 per square mile. The average household size was 2.52.
The median value of owner-occupied housing units was $197,000. In the city, the population was spread out with 6.5% under the age of 5, 25.7% under the age of 18, 13.5% who were 65 years of age and over. 50% of the population was female. The median income for a household in the city was $57,610; the per capita income for the city was $26,703. About 5.5% of the population was below the poverty line. The community is served by Sandwich Community Unit School District 430, which operates three elementary Schools, an intermediate school, a junior high, a high school; the schools are: Prairie View Elementary, Lynn G. Haskin Elementary, W. W. Woodbury Elementary, Herman E. Dummer School, Sandwich Middle School, Sandwich High School. Although in past years, CUSD #430 would place some students in out of district schools; the mascot is the Indian, the school colors are Orange and Black. Sandwich High School is an active member of the Interstate Eight Conference, competes in IHSA regulated sports competitions.
The high school has a competitive wrestling team, in the 2010, 2011, 2012 high school football seasons, the teams made it to state playoffs. Sandwich takes advantage of being in the Waubonsee Community College tax district. Sandwich is home to the Sahara-Pak heat-of-compression air dryer, a design patented in 1974 by Henderson Engineering, considered by many industry observers to be the most significant development made in the design of equipment for drying compressed air. Sandwich has a strong manufacturing history, evident by the presence of a factory for the Plano Molding Company, which makes molded plastic furniture, tackle boxes, organization equipment, other things. Although many factories in the area have been closed down or relocated, the community will continue to be a site of manufacturing for some time to come. Hugh Brannum, arranger and actor, who played the role of "Mr. Green Jeans" on the children's television show, Captain Kangaroo Latham Castle and Illinois Attorney General Garrett Gilkey, NFL offensive guard, attended school in Sandwich, native of Lemont Paul Harvey, film and TV actor Rufus B. von KleinSmid, former Chancellor and President of the University of Southern Cali
Northwestern University is a private research university based in Evanston, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida. C.. Along with its undergraduate programs, Northwestern is known for its Kellogg School of Management, Pritzker School of Law, Feinberg School of Medicine, Bienen School of Music, Medill School of Journalism, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science. Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program, attracting over $700 million in sponsored research each year. Northwestern has the ninth-largest university endowment in the United States, valued at $11.014 billion as of August 2018. The University's former and present faculty and alumni include 19 Nobel Prize laureates, 38 Pulitzer Prize winners, six MacArthur Genius Fellows, 16 Rhodes Scholars, 65 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and two Supreme Court Justices. Northwestern's School of Communication is a leading producer of Academy Award, Emmy Award and Tony Award–winning actors, playwrights and directors.
Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the city of Evanston is named, eight other lawyers and Methodist leaders. Its founding purpose was to serve the Old Northwest Territory, an area that includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855 and women were admitted in 1869. Today, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago; the university's law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicago's Streeterville neighborhood. In 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism and marketing programs. The University is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference; the Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I Big Ten Conference.
The foundation of Northwestern University can be traced to a meeting on May 31, 1850, of nine prominent Chicago businessmen, Methodist leaders, attorneys who had formed the idea of establishing a university to serve what had been known from 1787 to 1803 as the Northwest Territory. On January 28, 1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois; the school's nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer and worship before launching their first organizational meeting. Although they affiliated the university with the Methodist Episcopal Church, they favored a non-sectarian admissions policy, believing that Northwestern should serve all people in the newly developing territory by bettering the economy in Evanston. John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois.
The first building, Old College, opened on November 5, 1855. To raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 "perpetual scholarships" entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition. Another building, University Hall, was built in 1869 of the same Joliet limestone as the Chicago Water Tower built in 1869, one of the few buildings in the heart of Chicago to survive the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In 1873 the Evanston College for Ladies merged with Northwestern, Frances Willard, who gained fame as a suffragette and as one of the founders of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, became the school's first dean of women. Northwestern admitted its first female students in 1869, the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882 becoming a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with existing schools of law and dentistry in Chicago. Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago.
As the university increased in wealth and distinction, enrollments grew, these professional schools were integrated with the undergraduate college in Evanston. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917. Under Walter Dill Scott's presidency from 1920 to 1939, Northwestern began construction of an integrated campus in Chicago designed by James Gamble Rogers to house the professional schools. In 1933 a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago rejected. Northwestern became one of the first six universities in the United States to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s. Northwestern played host to the first-ever NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship game in 1939 in the original Patten Gymnasium, demolished and relocated farther north along with the Dearborn Observatory to make room for the Technological Institute. After the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern h
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC