William Wirt (Attorney General)
William Wirt was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. He was the longest serving Attorney General in U. S. history, Wirt County, West Virginia, is named in his honor. William Wirt was born in Bladensburg, Maryland, to a German mother, both parents died before he was eight years old and Jasper Wirt, his uncle, became his guardian. For two years he boarded with Hunt, in whose library he spent much of his time, reading with a keen, in his fifteenth year the school was disbanded, and his inheritance nearly exhausted. Wirt accepted the offer and stayed twenty months, pursuing his own classical and historical studies, Wirt was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1792, and he began practice at Culpeper Courthouse. Wirt had the advantages of a constitution and a good carriage, but the drawbacks of meager legal equipment, constitutional shyness. In 1795, he married Mildred, daughter of Dr. George Gilmer, and moved to Pen Park, there he made the acquaintance of many persons of eminence, including Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe.
In 1799 his wife died, and he moved to Richmond, in 1802, he married Elizabeth Washington Gamble, the daughter of Colonel Robert Gamble of Richmond. In the winter of 1803/04, Wirt moved to Norfolk, but in 1806, wishing for a field of practice. In 1807, President Thomas Jefferson asked him to be the prosecutor in Aaron Burrs trial for treason and his principal speech, four hours in length, was characterized by eloquent appeal, polished wit, and logical reasoning. Wirt was nicknamed the Whip Syllabub Genius by his enemies for the frothy, in 1808, Wirt was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates. In 1816 he was appointed U. S. William Wirt has the record for the longest tenure in history of any U. S. attorney general, in 1824, Attorney General Wirt argued for the United States against Daniel Webster in Gibbons v. Although the Gibbons Court declined to decide the question,140 years the Supreme Court confirmed Wirts view in Sears, Roebuck & Co. v. Stiffel Co. In June 1830, a delegation of Cherokee led by Chief John Ross selected Wirt on the urging of Senators Webster and Frelinghuysen to defend Cherokee rights before the U. S.
Supreme Court. Wirt argued, in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, that the Cherokee Nation was a nation in the sense of our constitution. Although the Court determined that it did not have jurisdiction in this case. Wirt therefore waited for a test case to resolve the constitutionality of the laws of Georgia. On March 1,1831, Georgia passed a law aimed at evicting missionaries, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, an interdenominational missionary organization, hired Wirt to challenge the new law
Joseph Hodges Choate
Joseph Hodges Choate was an American lawyer and diplomat. In the public sphere, he was influential in the founding of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Choate was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on January 24,1832. He was the son of Margaret Manning and physician George Choate, and his fathers first cousin was Rufus Choate. His success in his profession was immediate, and in 1860 he became partner in the firm of Evarts, Southmayd & Choate. On October 16,1861, he married Caroline Dutcher Sterling, during these busy years, Choate was associated with many of the most famous litigations in American legal history, including the Tilden, A. T. Stewart, and Stanford will cases, the Kansas prohibition cases, the Chinese exclusion cases, the Maynard election returns case, and the Income Tax Suit. In 1871 be became a member of the Committee of Seventy in New York City, which was instrumental in breaking up the Tweed Ring and he served as president of the American Bar Association, the New York State Bar Association, and the New York City Bar Association.
In the retrial of the General Fitz-John Porter case he obtained a reversal of the decision of the original court-martial and his greatest reputation was won perhaps in cross-examination. In politics he allied himself with the Republican Party on its organization, being a frequent speaker in presidential campaigns, beginning with that of 1856. He never held office, although he was a candidate for the Republican U. S. senatorial nomination for New York against Senator Thomas C. Platt in 1897. In 1894 he was president of the New York state constitutional convention and he was appointed, by President McKinley, U. S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom to succeed John Hay in 1899, and remained in this position until the spring of 1905. In England he won great popularity, and accomplished much in fostering the good relations of the two great English-speaking powers. He was one of the representatives of the United States at the second Peace Congress at the Hague in 1907, upon the outbreak of the World War I, he ardently supported the cause of the Allies.
He severely criticized President Wilsons hesitation to recommend Americas immediate cooperation and he was chairman of the mayors committee in New York for entertaining the British and French commissions in 1917. His death was hastened by the strain of his constant activities in this connection. Choate died on May 14,1917, in Manhattan, in 1919, two years after his death, members of the Harvard Club of New York City established the Joseph Hodges Choate Memorial Fellowship at Harvard University to commemorate his life and legacy. It is awarded each year to a student from the University of Cambridge on the recommendation of the Cambridge Vice-Chancellor for study in any Department of Harvard University. The Fellow resides in the Choate Suite in John Winthrop House, several of Choates notable public addresses have been published
The Pilgrim's Progress
The Pilgrims Progress from This World, to That Which Is to Come is a 1678 Christian allegory written by John Bunyan. It is regarded as one of the most significant works of religious English literature, has translated into more than 200 languages. It has cited as the first novel written in English. The English text comprises 108,260 words and is divided into two parts, each reading as a narrative with no chapter divisions. The first part was completed in 1677 and entered into the Stationers Register on 22 December 1677 and it was licensed and entered in the Term Catalogue on 18 February 1678, which is looked upon as the date of first publication. After the first edition of the first part in 1678, an expanded edition, the Second Part appeared in 1684. The entire book is presented as a dream sequence narrated by an omniscient narrator, the allegorys protagonist, Christian, is an everyman character, and the plot centres on his journey from his hometown, the City of Destruction, to the Celestial City atop Mount Zion.
Christian is weighed down by a great knowledge of his sin—which he believed came from his reading the book in his hand. This burden, which would cause him to sink into Hell, is so unbearable that Christian must seek deliverance and he meets Evangelist as he is walking out in the fields, who directs him to the Wicket Gate for deliverance. Since Christian cannot see the Wicket Gate in the distance, Evangelist directs him to go to a shining light, Christian leaves his home, his wife, and children to save himself, he cannot persuade them to accompany him. Obstinate and Pliable go after Christian to bring him back, obstinate returns disgusted, but Pliable is persuaded to go with Christian, hoping to take advantage of the Paradise that Christian claims lies at the end of his journey. It is there in that bog where Pliable abandons Christian after getting himself out, Evangelist meets the wayward Christian as he stops before Mount Sinai on the way to Mr. Legalitys home. It hangs over the road and threatens to crush any who would pass it, in the Second Part, Goodwill is shown to be Jesus himself.
To Christians query about relief from his burden, Goodwill directs him forward to the place of deliverance, Christian makes his way from there to the House of the Interpreter, where he is shown pictures and tableaux that portray or dramatize aspects of the Christian faith and life. From the House of the Interpreter, Christian finally reaches the place of deliverance, where the straps that bound Christians burden to him break and this event happens relatively early in the narrative, the immediate need of Christian at the beginning of the story being quickly remedied. After Christian is relieved of his burden, he is greeted by three angels, who give him the greeting of peace, new garments, and a scroll as a passport into the Celestial City. Encouraged by all this, Christian happily continues his journey until he comes upon three men named Simple and Presumption, Christian tries to help them, but they disregard his advice. Christian falls asleep at the arbor above the hill and loses his scroll, forcing him to go back, near the top of the Hill of Difficulty, he meets two weak pilgrims named Mistrust and Timorous who tell him of the great lions of the Palace Beautiful
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, Dartmouth is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution, with a total student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is highly competitive, with a rate of 10. 4% for the Class of 2021. Dartmouths 269-acre campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England, the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its focus, strong Greek culture. Its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I, Dartmouth is consistently included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings. According to a Forbes study, despite its small size. In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouths graduates were shown to be among the most sought-after and valued in the world.
Dartmouth has produced prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate. Cabinet officials,3 Nobel Prize laureates,2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, and Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, wheelocks ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became a minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747. Wheelock founded Moors Indian Charity School in 1755, the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue schools operations, and Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches, with these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock. The head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, in seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire.
The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources, the reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity Schools unspent trust funds. The College granted its first degrees in 1771, given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his new college as one primarily for whites. An institution called Dartmouth University occupied the buildings and began operating in Hanover in 1817
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, legally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The municipality had a population of 403,131 in 2016, the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996, Dartmouth and the Municipality of Halifax County. Halifax is an economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource found in the rural areas of the municipality. Additionally, Halifax has consistently placed in the top 10 for business friendliness of North and South American cities, the first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula. The establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, the establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutres War. The war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports, by unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mikmaq, which were signed after Father Rales War.
Cornwallis brought along 1,176 settlers and their families, St. Margarets Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing approximately 2,000 people, the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston, strengthening the bond between the two coastal cities, the municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has officially been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, on April 15,2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials simply as Halifax, mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating, Im a Westphal guy, Im a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax.
Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, metropolitan Halifax is a term used to describe the urban concentration surrounding Halifax Harbour, including the Halifax Peninsula, the core of Dartmouth, and the Bedford-Sackville areas. It is the Statistics Canada population centre of Halifax, the dense urban core is centred on the Halifax Peninsula and the area of Dartmouth inside of the Circumferential Highway. The suburban area stretches into areas known as Mainland Halifax to the west, Cole Harbour to the east and this urban area is the most populous on Canadas Atlantic coast, and the second largest coastal population centre in the country after Vancouver, British Columbia. Halifax currently accounts for 40% of Nova Scotias population, and 15% of that of Atlantic Canada, Halifaxs urban core is home to a number of regional landmark buildings and retains significant historic buildings and districts. The downtowns office towers are overlooked by the fortress of Citadel Hill with its iconic Halifax Town Clock, Dalhousie Universitys campus is often featured in films and documentaries.
Dartmouth has its share of historic neighbourhoods and this has resulted in some modern high rises being built at unusual angles or locations
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
Massachusetts's 2nd congressional district
Massachusettss 2nd congressional district is located in central Massachusetts. It contains the cities of Worcester, which is the second-largest city in New England after Boston and it is represented by Democrat Jim McGovern. The shape of the district was changed for the elections of 2012, the new district covers central Massachusetts, including much of Worcester County, and is largely the successor to the old 3rd District. Most of the old 2nd district, including Springfield, has moved into the new 1st district. In Franklin County, Erving, Greenfield, Montague, New Salem, Orange, Sunderland, Warwick and Whately. In Hampden County, Precinct 1A in Palmer In Hampshire County, Belchertown, Hatfield, Pelham, known as the 2nd Western District. Known as the Essex North district, known as the Essex South district. During this decade, the contained the following municipalities, In Franklin County, Leverett, New Salem, Orange, Sunderland, Warwick. In Hampshire County, Belchertown, Enfield, Hadley, Pelham, South Hadley, and Ware.
In Hampden County, Chicopee, East Longmeadow, Holland, Ludlow, Palmer, Springfield and Wilbraham. In Worcester County, Barre, Dana, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Petersham, Royalston and West Brookfield. In Hampshire County, Belchertown, Enfield, Hadley, Northampton, South Hadley, Ware, in Hampden County, Chicopee, East Longmeadow, Longmeadow, Springfield, West Springfield, and Wilbraham. In Hampshire County, Northampton, South Hadley, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing