The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18.
The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls and squash.
Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one; the most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1900, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide and helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V; as part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events. Canada won the championships and was gifted a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inch high and weighed 340 oz, it was gifted by Lord Lonsdale. However, the 1911 championships were followed by the first world war which happened from 1914 to 1918; the organisers had lost hopes of hosting such sporting events for the empire athletes. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium; the participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first gold medal in the history of the Games; the 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester; the 1934 Games had been awarded to Johannesburg, but were giv
Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie
1998 Commonwealth Games
The 1998 Commonwealth Games known as the XVI Commonwealth Games, was a multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This edition is marked by several unprecedented facts in the history of the event; the 1998 games were the first held in an Asian country and the last Commonwealth Games of the 20th century. This was the first time the games took place in a nation with a head of state other than the Head of the Commonwealth, the first time the games were held in a country whose majority of the population did not have English as the first language. For the first time the games included team sports; the other bid from the 1998 games came from Adelaide in Australia. Malaysia was the eighth nation to host the Commonwealth Games after Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Wales and Scotland. Around 3638 athletes from 69 Commonwealth member nations participated at the games which featured 214 events in 15 sports with 34 of them collected medals. Kuala Lumpur was selected to stage the games at the General Assembly of the Commonwealth Games Federation in Barcelona, Spain during the 1992 Summer Olympics.
The 16th Commonwealth Games opening ceremony took place on 11 September 1998 at 20:00 MST. During the ceremony 4,840 Soka Gakkai volunteers displayed coloured flip cards which depicted sporting images, flags of the Commonwealth nations and messages that heralded the first games in Asia in the 68 years since their inception; the ceremony was preceded by a pre-show concert by Malaysian pop singers such as Norzila Binti Haji Aminuddin, Shahrul Anuar Zain, Siti Roziana Binti Zain, Shaheila binti Abdul Majid, Amy Mastura Binti Suhaimi, Ning Baizura binti Sheikh Hamzah and Siti Nurhaliza Binti Tarudin, performance by local comedian Harith Iskander and 16 paratroopers who descended down the stadium. The ceremony began with the arrival of dignitaries including the Chairman of Commonwealth Games Federation Mr Michael Fennel, Prince Edward, Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah, Prime Minister Dato Seri, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the Yang Dipertuan Agong and Malaysian minister of Youth and Sports Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin.
This was followed by the parade of nations — 69 participating nations, led by mascot Wira and previous games' mascots. The Singaporean delegation was jeered by the crowd during the parade of nations. Came a performance about a Malaysian rainforest by 2,000 school children who dressed as birds and flowers. After the performance, the Queen's message was delivered in the Queen's Baton, which arrived in the main stadium of Kuala Lumpur on elephant-back, was run in relay to the stadium while the athletes marched in. 1978 Commonwealth Games badminton gold medal winner Sylvia Ng took the last lap with the baton and handed it off to Koh Eng Tong, a weightlifter who won a gold medal in weightlifting for Malaya in the 1950 British Empire Games, to take the final few feet to Prince Edward. Contrary to tradition, the games were opened by the Malaysian head of state, Yang di Pertuan Agong Tuanku Jaafar by striking the gong three times. A burst of fireworks and blurring of the giant bunga raya and a 16-gun salute which represents 1998 Commonwealth Games being the 16th-edition games, signified the beginning of the games.
The Commonwealth Games flag was brought into the stadium raised to the theme song of the Games Forever As One written by local composer, Goh Boon Hoe. Malaysian bowler Shalin Zulkifli take the oath on behalf of the athletes; the ceremony concluded with a 40-minute performance, titled "Aur di Tebing" with the theme'Unity towards Progress', conveyed through dance and intricate human graphics. 2,000 performers swirled and danced carrying trays of bunga emas on their heads during a mass silat display. The show told the Malaysian history from ancient Malacca to the present development in Malaysia, its political and technological achievements as well as its people's vision of peace and unity and lifestyle; the logo of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an image of the national flower of Malaysia, the hibiscus, the first games logo to introduce the colour yellow. The red, blue and yellow colours represents the colours of the Malaysian national flag and Malaysia as a confident, dynamic nation; the yellow pollens represent the six regions of the world that includes the 68 Commonwealth member nations.
The official mascot of the 1998 Commonwealth Games is an orangutan named Wira. It is said that the orangutan is the largest and the most intelligent primate in Asia which lives in the tropical rainforests of Malaysia; the adoption of orangutan as a games' mascot is to represent the friendly personality of Malaysia as the games' host as well as the charm and sporting ability of the participating athletes. The host nation achieved its best-ever haul of ten gold medals which has since been surpassed by its achievement in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, where Malaysia won twelve gold medals; the 16th Commonwealth Games host newly introduced team sports of cricket, field hockey and rugby sevens and individuals sports of ten-pin bowling and squash, while of athletics, boxing, gymnastics, lawn bowls, shooting and weightlifting to make a total of 15 sports contested. In front of 20,000 fans at the Petaling Jaya Stadium, rugby sevens in particular were an enormous success with New Zealand collecting its 100th Commonwealth Games
2022 Commonwealth Games
The 2022 Commonwealth Games known as the XXII Commonwealth Games and known as Birmingham 2022, is an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth, scheduled to be held in Birmingham, England. This is due to be the third time; the Games are expected to take place between 27 July and 7 August 2022. The city was announced as the host at a press conference at the Arena Academy in Birmingham on 21 December 2017. Two cities launched bids for the games. Edmonton withdrew its bid in February 2015, leaving Durban as the only bid to go forward to CGF General Assembly in September 2015; the coastal South African city of Durban secured the right to host the games, as they were the sole bidder for the event. The city considered bidding for the 2020 or 2024 Summer Olympics, it was reported in February 2017 that Durban may be unable to host the games due to financial constraints. This was confirmed one month on 13 March 2017 when the Commonwealth Games Federation stripped Durban of their rights to host the games.
It would have marked the first time the games were held in Africa and the second time a Commonwealth republic would have hosted, following Delhi, India in 2010. The games were set to open on 18 July 2022, coinciding with the birthday of the late South African President, Nelson Mandela. A new bidding process was launched, where Liverpool and Birmingham expressed their interests in hosting the games. On 14 March 2017, who hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games, expressed their interest in hosting the games. In September 2017, Birmingham beat Liverpool for the recommended bid for England. With Birmingham being the sole bidder for the event they won the right to stage the Games. However, it was announced that the bid was not compliant, the bidding process was extended until 30 November 2017; the CGF had 170 questions regarding Birmingham's bid. On 21 December 2017, Birmingham was awarded for the 2022 Games as Durban's replacement host. Louise Martin, president of the Commonwealth Games Federation, made the official announcement at a press conference at the Arena Academy in Birmingham.
The Birmingham 2022 Organising Committee is responsible for the planning and operational delivery of the Games. This includes sport and competition management, ticket sales, all ceremonies and the Queen’s Baton Relay. In summer 2018, Prime Minister Theresa May appointed John Crabtree OBE as Chair of the Organising Committee. Crabtree is joined by board members: Ian Ward Ian Metcalfe Simon Ball Dame Louise Martin David Grevemberg CBE Helen Judge Dame Julie Moore Jonathan Browning Zara Hyde Peters OBE Ellie Simmonds OBE Lyndsey Jackson Nick Timothy – Derrick Anderson – In January 2019, Ian Reid was announced as Chief Executive Officer. Reid was Chief Financial Officer for the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games. Birmingham has a wealth of existing sports venues and conference halls that are ideal for hosting sport during the Games. 95% of the competition venues are in place for the 2022 games. Alexander Stadium, scheduled to host the ceremonies and athletics is planned to be renovated and the capacity increased to 50,000 seats.
A new 400 metre warm up track is planned. This would leave the stadium well placed to become the home of UK Athletics, hosting all the major national and international competitions after the Games. On 22 December 2017, the BBC Reported that the organisers of the games were in talks with the International Cricket Council about the inclusion of women's cricket, it was reported that shooting is to be excluded from the games citing a lack of facilities around Birmingham, if this is true it will be the first time since 1970 where shooting has not been included in the games. The dropping of shooting from the games programme was confirmed by the CEO of the Commonwealth Games Federation, David Grevemberg, in January 2018. In November 2018,the ICC confirmed that they have submitted a bid to include women's cricket in Birmingham; the CGF are scheduled to make a decision on the inclusion of women's cricket in September 2019. Birmingham 2022
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci
2018 Commonwealth Games
The 2018 Commonwealth Games known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast, Australia, between 4 and 15 April 2018. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games and the first time a major multi-sport event achieved gender equality by having an equal number of events for males and female athletes. More than 4,400 athletes including 300 para-athletes from 71 Commonwealth Games Associations took part in the event; the Gambia which withdrew its membership from the Commonwealth of Nations and Commonwealth Games Federation in 2013, was readmitted on 31 March 2018 and participated in the event. With 275 sets of medals, the games featured 19 Commonwealth sports, including beach volleyball, para triathlon and women's rugby sevens; these sporting events took place at 14 venues in the host city, two venues in Brisbane and one venue each in Cairns and Townsville.
These were the first Commonwealth Games to take place under the Commonwealth Games Federation presidency of Louise Martin, CBE. The host city Gold Coast was announced at the CGF General Assembly in Basseterre, Saint Kitts, on 11 November 2011. Gold Coast became the seventh Oceanian city and the first regional city to host the Commonwealth Games; these were the eighth games to be held in the Southern Hemisphere. The host nation Australia topped the medal table for the fourth time in the past five Commonwealth Games, winning the most golds and most medals overall. England and India finished third respectively. Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, British Virgin Islands and Dominica each won their first Commonwealth Games medals. On 22 August 2008, the Premier of Queensland, Anna Bligh launched Gold Coast City's bid to host the Commonwealth Games in 2018. On 7 April 2009, the ABC reported a land exchange deal between Gold Coast City and State of Queensland for Carrara Stadium. According to Mayor Ron Clarke, the land would aid a potential bid for the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
The land exchanged would be used as the site of an aquatics centre. In the same article, Mayor Clarke raised the question of the Australian Federal Government's commitment to a 2018 Commonwealth Games bid in light of the Government's support for Australia's 2018 FIFA World Cup Finals bid. On 16 April 2009, Queensland Premier Anna Bligh told reporters that a successful Commonwealth Games bid by Gold Coast City could help the tourist strip win a role in hosting the World Cup."Some of the infrastructure that would be built for the Commonwealth Games will be useful for Gold Coast City to get a World Cup game out of the soccer World Cup if we're successful as a nation," she said. However the decision on the venues for the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups were made eleven months prior to the bid decision for the 2018 Commonwealth Games, so the potential World Cup venues had been chosen. On 3 June 2009, Gold Coast City was confirmed as Australia's exclusive bidder vying for the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
"Should a bid proceed, Gold Coast City will have the exclusive Australian rights to bid as host city for 2018," Bligh stated. "Recently I met with the president and CEO of the Australian Commonwealth Games Association and we agreed to commission a full and comprehensive feasibility study into the potential for the 2018 Commonwealth Games," she said. "Under the stewardship of Queensland Events new chair, Geoff Dixon, that study is now well advanced." On 15 March 2010, it was announced that the Queensland Government will provide initial funding of A$11 million for the 2018 Commonwealth Games bid. The Premier of Queensland has indicated the Government's support for the bid to the Australian Commonwealth Games Association. On 31 March 2010, the Australian Commonwealth Games Association launched the bid to host the 2018 Commonwealth Games. In October 2011, Gold Coast City Mayor Ron Clarke stated that the games would provide a strong legacy for the city after the games have ended. On 31 March 2010, a surprise bid was made for the 2018 Commonwealth Games by the Sri Lankan city of Hambantota.
Hambantota was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, is undergoing a major face lift. The first phase of the Port of Hambantota is nearing completion and it is funded by the government of China; the Mattala International Airport, the second international Airport of Sri Lanka is built close to Hambantota. A new Hambantota International Cricket Stadium had been built, which had hosted matches in the 2011 Cricket World Cup. On 10 November 2011, the Hambantota bidders claimed they had secured enough votes to win the hosting rights. However, on 11 November it was announced Gold Coast City had won the rights to host the games; the event was overseen by the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games Corporation. The GOLDOC was formed in 2012 by the Government of Queensland, its headquarters were located in a suburban region of Gold Coast. In February 2012, Mark Peters was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the GOLDOC; the Queensland Government Minister tasked with overseeing the Games was Kate Jones. Peter Beattie AC served as the Chairman of GOLDOC, appointed on 17 May 2016 to replace Nigel Chamier OAM.
One of the key technical aspects of Gold Coast City's successful bid was the fact that the city had 80 percent of the planned venues in place before the bidding deadline. The vast majority of venues were located within 20-minutes driving time of the Athletes Village in Parkwood. Carrara Stadium, located in the suburb of Carrara, was the main venue for Athletics, the opening ceremony and the closing ceremony; the seating capacity of the stadium was temporarily increased to 40,000 for the games by the insta
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate