Hong Kong national rugby sevens team
The Hong Kong national rugby sevens team is a regular participant in the Rugby World Cup Sevens. The team's greatest achievements include winning the Gold medal at the 2018 Asian Games in Jakarta and winning the Asian Sevens Series in 2012, 2014 and 2016, their current coach is Paul John. Dai Rees was the head coach; the Hong Kong Rugby Sevens team and the Women's sevens team was granted elite sport status by the Hong Kong Sports Institute on 1 April 2013, which means the HKRFU national sevens teams will receive an annual stipend to be distributed to qualified players from the target teams. In November 2013, former Wales sevens coach Gareth Baber took over as head of the men's rugby sevens programme at the Hong Kong Sports Institute. At the same time, Dai Rees was promoted to be the HKRFU's head of technical development and performance. Squad to 2018 Asian Games: Ben Rimene Lee Jones Michael Coverdale Max Woodward Liam Herbert Jamie Hood Hugo Stiles Alessandro Nardoni Max Denmark Eric Kwok Cado Lee Salom Yiu 2018 Asian Games Gold Medal 2014 Asian Games Silver Medal 2013 China National Games Silver Medal 2010 Asian Games Silver Medal 2009 East Asian Games Silver Medal 2013, 2015, 2017 Asian Sevens Series Runner-Up 2012, 2014, 2016 Asian Sevens Series Champions Hong Kong Sevens
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Guangzhou known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities. Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.
This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World". The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.
Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province, after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou and Fuzhou got their names; the character 廣 or 广—which appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty. Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city; the origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered, including that it may have referred to two local mountains. The city has sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh as Khanfu.
Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "穗", after its nickname "Rice City"; the city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation. The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story; the more recent City of Flowers is taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery. The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong". Although it and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was conflated with Guangdong by some authors, it was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region.
The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo" derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital. A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by 1100 BC; some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan, king of Zhou from 314–256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of mud. Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River in 214 BC to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years. Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established his own kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC, it remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia and Africa.
Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in
Palembang is the capital of South Sumatra province in Indonesia. The city proper covers 369.22 square kilometres of land on both banks of the lower Musi River on the eastern lowland of southern Sumatra, with an estimated population of 1,708,413 in 2014, making it the second most populous city on Sumatra, after Medan, the ninth most populous city in Indonesia and the nineteenth most populous city in Southeast Asia. The metropolitan area of Greater Palembang comprises part of regencies around the city such as Banyuasin, Ogan Ilir, Ogan Komering Ilir, with a total estimated population of more than 3.5 million in 2015. Palembang is the one of the oldest cities in the Indonesia Southeast Asia. Palembang was once the capital city of Srivijaya, a powerful Buddhist kingdom that ruled many parts of the western archipelago and controlled many maritime trade routes in the Strait of Malacca; the earliest evidence of the city's existence dates from the 7th century. The first inscription in which Srivijaya was mentioned, Kedukan Bukit Inscription, found in the city dates from the 7th century.
Palembang was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies in 1825 after the abolishment of the Palembang Sultanate. It was chartered as a city on 1 April 1906. Among many historical landmarks together with its rich culture and culinary, Palembang is known by many Indonesians for its main landmark, Ampera Bridge, its authentic food, pempek; the city is the host city of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games and 2018 Asian Games along with Jakarta. The first light rail system in Indonesia will be operated in Palembang in July 2018. Despite these, Palembang is still not among the most favorite tourist destinations in Indonesia; the city is not well known in the world and has poor number of foreign tourists as it attracted only 9,850 foreign tourists of the 2,011,417 tourists who visited Palembang in 2017. Traffic jams, slums and peatland fire are the most well known problems in Palembang; the etymology of the city's name is still under dispute. Some believe. By adding the prefix pe- which indicates a place or situation, the city's name means "a place to pan gold and diamond ores".
It is said that during antiquity, the ruler ordered gold and diamond miners to pan their ores in the city for security and surveillance reasons. Others claim. By adding the same prefix, the city's name means "a place where the water leaks", it means "a place, inundated by water". It refers to the geographical features of Palembang, a wetland; some say that the name was given by four brothers who survived a shipwreck near Musi River during the Majapahit reign. It is said that on their way to a new colony in eastern Sumatra, when their ship was wrecked, all belongings in the ship sunk into the sea except a broken wooden box which the survivor used as rafts; the rafts were wobbled by the waves until they drifted ashore to a land, named Palimbang by them. Palembang has a special Chinese character rendition like several cities in Indonesia. In Chinese, Palembang is written as 巨港, it refers to the city in the past, once a bustling major port in Southeast Asia. The Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 682 AD, is the oldest inscription found in Palembang.
The inscription tells of a king who acquires magical powers and leads a large military force over water and land, setting out from Tamvan delta, arriving at a place called "Matajap," and founding the polity of Srivijaya. The "Matajap" of the inscription is believed to be a district of Palembang. According to George Coedes, "in the second half of the 9th century Java and Sumatra were united under the rule of a Sailendra reigning in Java...its centre at Palembang."As the capital of the Srivijaya kingdom, this second oldest city in Southeast Asia has been an important trading centre in maritime Southeast Asia for more than a millennium. The kingdom flourished by controlling the international trade through the Strait of Malacca from the seventh to thirteenth century, establishing hegemony over polities in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Sanskrit inscriptions and Chinese travelogues report that the kingdom prospered as an intermediary in the international trade between China and India; because of the Monsoon, or biannual seasonal wind, after getting to Srivijaya, traders from China or India had to stay there for several months waiting the direction of the wind changes, or had to go back to China or India.
Thus, Srivijaya grew to be the biggest international trade centre, not only the market, but infrastructures for traders such as lodging and entertainment developed. It functioned as a cultural centre as well. Yijing, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who stayed in today’s Palembang and Jambi in 671, recorded that there were more than a thousand Buddhist monks and learned scholars, sponsored by the kingdom to study religion in Palembang, he recorded that there were many "states" under the kingdom called Srivijaya. In 990, an army from the Kingdom of Medang in Java attacked Srivijaya. Palembang was sacked and the palace was looted. Cudamani Warmadewa, requested protection from China. By 1006, the invasion was repelled. In retaliation, Srivijaya king sent his troops to assist King Wurawari of Luaram in his revolt against Medang. In subsequent battles, Medang Palace was destroyed and the royal family of Medang executed. In 1068, King Virarajendra Chola of the Chola
Chinese Taipei national rugby sevens team
The Chinese Taipei national rugby sevens team is a minor national sevens side. They have competed in the Hong Kong Sevens since the 1980s. In 1989, veteran rugby commentator Bill McLaren mentions them in an article on the Hong Kong Sevens, saying that their team had two Chi-Mings, a Yen-Ching, a Chijen-Shuen, that he was grateful that he did not have to broadcast all the names, as he had trouble remembering them. Group A matches - December 7 Group B matches - September 30 Group C December 10 McLaren, Bill A Visit to Hong Kong in Starmer-Smith, Nigel & Robertson, Ian The Whitbread Rugby World'90
Qatar the State of Qatar, is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed, its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby Bahrain. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Islam is the official religion of Qatar; the country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of high human development and is regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status.
Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with 98% in favour. In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, has been identified as a middle power. Qatar is the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border turning Qatar into an island. Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.
A century Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. The map referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula; the term'Catara' was used until the 18th century, after which'Katara' emerged as the most recognised spelling. After several variations -'Katr','Kattar' and'Guttur' - the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced. Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula. Mesopotamian artifacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Da'asa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain.
Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye industry which existed on the coast. In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf. Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. Under the Sasanid reign, many of the inhabitants in Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian Christians. Monasteries were constructed and further settlements were founded during this era. During the latter part of the Christian era, Qatar comprised a region known as'Beth Qatraye'; the region was not limited to Qatar. In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, accordingly, most of the Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam.
After the adoption of Islam, the Arabs led the Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire. Qatar was described as a famous camel breeding centre during the Umayyad period. In the 8th century, it started benefiting from its commercially strategic position in the Persian Gulf and went on to become a centre of pearl trading. Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from Basra to India and China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains from the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater wealth to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over 100 stone-built houses, two mosques, an Abbasid fort were constructed in Murwab during this period. However, when the caliphate's prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar. Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped wov
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with