Ceuta is an 18.5 km2 Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 km from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 km land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco. It lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa and, along with Melilla, one of two populated territories on mainland Africa, it was part of Cádiz province until 14 March 1995 when both Ceuta and Melilla's Statutes of Autonomy were passed, the latter having been part of Málaga province. Ceuta, like the Canary Islands, was a free port before Spain joined the European Union; as of 2011, it has a population of 82,376. Its population consists of Christians and small minorities of Sephardic Jews and ethnic Sindhi Hindus. Spanish is the official language, while Darija Arabic is spoken by 40–50% of the population, of Moroccan origin; the name Abyla has been said to have been a Punic name for Jebel Musa, the southern Pillar of Hercules.
In fact, it seems that the name of the mountain was Habenna or ʾAbin-ḥīq, in reference to the nearby Bay of Benzú. The name was hellenized variously as Ápini, Abýla, Abýlē, Ablýx, Abílē Stḗlē and in Latin as Mount Abyla or the Pillar of Abyla; the settlement below Jebel Musa was renamed for the seven hills around the site, collectively referred to as the "Seven Brothers". In particular, the Roman stronghold at the site took the name "Fort at the Seven Brothers"; this was shortened to Septem or Septum or Septa. These clipped forms continued as Berber Sebta and Arabic Sebtan or Sabtah, which themselves became Ceuta in Portuguese and Spanish. Controlling access between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar is an important military and commercial chokepoint; the Phoenicians realized the narrow isthmus joining the Peninsula of Almina to the African mainland makes Ceuta eminently defensible and established an outpost there in the early 1st millennium BC. The Greek geographers record it by variations of "Abyla", the ancient name of nearby Jebel Musa.
Beside Calpe, the other Pillar of Hercules now known as the Rock of Gibraltar, the Phoenicians established Kart at what is now San Roque, Spain. Other good anchorages nearby became Phoenician and Carthaginian ports at what are now Tangiers and Cadiz. After Carthage's destruction in the Punic Wars, most of northwest Africa was left to the Roman client states of Numidia and—around Abyla—Mauretania. Punic culture continued to thrive in what the Romans knew as "Septem". After Thapsus and his heirs began annexing north Africa directly as Roman provinces but, as late as Augustus, most of Septem's Berber residents continued to speak and write in Punic. Caligula assassinated the Mauretanian king Ptolemy in AD 40 and seized his kingdom, which Claudius organized in 42, placing Septem in the province of Tingitana and raising it to the level of a colony, it subsequently romanized and thrived into the late 3rd century, trading with Roman Spain and becoming well known for its salted fish. Roads connected it overland with Volubilis.
Under Theodosius I in the late 4th century, Septem still had 10,000 inhabitants, nearly all Christian citizens speaking Latin and African Romance. Vandals invited by Count Boniface as protection against the empress dowager, crossed the strait near Tingis around 425 and swiftly overran Roman North Africa, their king Gaiseric focused his attention on the rich lands around Carthage. When Justinian decided to reconquer the Vandal lands, his victorious general Belisarius continued along the coast, making Septem an outpost of the Byzantine Empire around 533. Unlike the Roman administration, the Byzantines did not push far into hinterland and made the more defensible Septem their regional capital in place of Tingis. Epidemics, less capable successors, overstretched supply lines forced a retrenchment and left Septem isolated, it is that its count was obliged to pay homage to the Visigoth Kingdom in Spain in the early 7th century. There are no reliable contemporary accounts of the end of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb around 710.
Instead, the rapid Muslim conquest of Spain produced romances concerning Count Julian of Septem and his betrayal of Christendom in revenge for the dishonor that befell his daughter at King Roderick's court. With Julian's encouragement and instructions, the Berber convert and freedman Tariq ibn Ziyad took his garrison from Tangiers across the strait and overran the Spanish so swiftly that both he and his master Musa bin Nusayr fell afoul of a jealous caliph, who stripped them of their wealth and titles. After the death of Julian, sometimes described as a king of the Ghomara Berbers, Berber converts to Islam took direct control of what they called Sebta, it was destroyed during their great revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate around 740. Sebta subsequently remained a small village of Muslims and Christians surrounded by ruins until its resettlement in the 9th century by Mâjakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived Banu Isam dy
Tag rugby, or flag rugby, is a non-contact team game in which each player wears a belt that has two velcro tags attached to it, or shorts with velcro patches. The mode of play is based on rugby league with many similarities to touch football, although tag rugby is deemed as a closer simulation of the full contact codes of rugby than touch. Attacking players attempt to dodge and pass a rugby ball while defenders attempt to prevent them scoring by "tagging" – pulling a velcro attached tag from the ball carrier, rather than a full contact tackle. Tag rugby is used in training by both rugby league and rugby union communities. Tag rugby comes in several forms with Mini Tag being some of the better known variations. Tag rugby has the highest participation levels in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. According to sportswriter Terry Godwin, writing in 1983, tag rugby was first developed in Gibraltar by the Gibraltar Rugby Union. Due to the lack of grass pitches, an alternative variant to rugby union was developed.
A 10-inch cord was tucked into the waistband, its removal by an opponent with a shout of "tag", was classed as a'tackle'. If the attacking team had failed to score by the fourth'tackle' the defending team were given possession of the ball; the codified version of tag rugby was created and pioneered by physical education teacher Nick Leonard in England in 1990 following an idea given to by a former serviceman called Barry Johns. He described to Nick how navy servicemen on board ship or whilst playing on hard grounds overseas played the Gibraltar variant of rugby. Leonard devised a set of rules suitable for children using belts and coloured ribbons attached by Velcro and organised the first schools Tag Rugby festival at UCP Marjons, Plymouth in 1991; this annual event celebrated its 20th festival in 2011. OzTag is a non-contact form of rugby league, is played by those who are too small for Rugby League. OzTag is a variation of British tag rugby. Cronulla Sharks & St George Dragons halfback Perry Haddock introduced the sport in Australia while coaching the 1992 St George Jersey Flegg side.
Together with Chris Parkes, the two took the sport to fields across Australia. Today, it is played by over 200,000 players in organised leagues across the country. Games are played over 20 minutes a half; the normal dimensions of the field are 70×50 metres. Eight players in each team are allowed on the field at a time; the attacking team has five plays or tags to try and score a try or take the ball down field as close to the line as possible. Like most versions of tag rugby, a tackle is made when one of two velcro stripes, known as tags, is removed from the ball carrier's shorts. Players can pass and kick the ball and tries are worth one point and there are no conversions. Kicking in general play is allowed but it must be below shoulder height of the referee and on zero count with no play-the-ball or after the 4th tag. For mixed gender games, there is a maximum of four male players per team on the field and a try scored by a female player is worth two points, compared to one point for male players.
The rules of under-7s Mini Tag possess some rugby union features, like an unlimited tackle count. It does not have an equivalent of the six tags law and instead tackled players must off-load the ball. Under-8s Mini Tag on the other hand, retains a six tag law which requires that on the 7th tag the referee will stop the game and give the ball to the other side; the restart is with a free pass. For the full set of rules of Mini Tag see the Mini Tag Rulebook. Mini Tag is the only form of rugby permitted by the English RFU for under-7 and under-8 age groups. Mini Tag does not allow scrums, line-outs or kicking. Since its beginnings in 1992, OzTag has grown in popularity across Australia in urban and rural areas. Twenty-eight teams participated in the first season in summer 1992–1993 playing in the Cronulla and St George areas of Sydney. Today, more than 80,000 players take part in OzTag competitions nationally. There are Oztag competitions running all over Australia, with the largest areas located in Sydney and Canberra.
Competing teams are in six divisions: women's open, men's open and men's over-30s, 35s, 40s. In 2003–04, the English Rugby Football Union introduced Mini Tag into its junior development program called The Three Stages of the Rugby Continuum, replacing touch rugby. Tag rugby developed via IMBRL where message boards representing clubs took part in tournaments and friendly matches; some developed into full-contact teams, others became tag others folded. In 2008, a Tag Merit League was established based on the RL Merit League format; the league was developed with the intention to encourage new clubs outside the older IMBRL circuit to play tag rugby league. The Merit League operates on normal rugby league laws with tags taking the place of tackles. In 2009 Try Tag Rugby began running adult tag rugby competitions throughout London using OzTag rules. By the summer of 2011, over 1,000 players were taking part in week night evening leagues across London at locations such as Finsbury Park, Gladstone Park, Wandsworth Town, Tooting Bec, Shoreditch and Southwark Park.
The number of competitions continues to expand with over 240 teams competing across venues in London and Reading in the summer of 2014. Try Tag Rugby host the annual London Tag Rugby Championships which attracts teams from across the UK and Europe. 42 teams registered for the event in 2013, playing 136 matches under 17 referees across nine pitches. In Septemb
Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil
Rugby union in Armenia
Rugby union in Armenia is a growing sport. The national team is unranked in the world rankings, which records only the top ninety-six countries; the governing body for Armenia is the Rugby Federation of Armenia. The governing body is the Rugby Federation of Armenia, it was founded in 2000 and joined the FIRA-AER as an associate member in 2002. Rugby Europe suspended the Rugby Federation of Armenia in November 2014 due to inactivity. Rugby union in Armenia has not been popular but the neighbouring Caucasian country, Georgia has a strong rugby culture in competition at international level including at the Rugby World Cup. Rugby was introduced to both Georgia and Armenia by Jacques Haspekian, an Armenian man from Marseilles, France; the first rugby games were played in the country in the 1960s, when Armenia was a republic within the Soviet Union. Rugby had been played in the Russian Empire as early as in 1908, the first Soviet Championship took place in the 1930s; the game was forbidden in the USSR in 1948, but rugby competitions were resumed in 1957.
The Soviet Championship was reinstated in 1966, with Armenian club, Yerevan Dinamo RC, joining the top division. Armenia had its own representative team within the USSR, although it was not considered to be a proper national side. Jacques Haspekian, part of the large Armenian diaspora in France, went to Armenia in the late 1950s; as a rugby enthusiast, he submitted a proposal to the Armenian Sports Committee to begin the development of rugby in the country. He did not gain approval as rugby was still regarded as a bourgeois sport by the regime, so he went to Georgia instead. Aspikian was to be one of the founders of rugby union in Georgia to become the strongest rugby region in the former USSR. In 1963, Aspikian returned to Armenia and staged an exhibition match at Yerevan between two Georgian teams; the game generated suitable interest in rugby and led to foundation of Yerevan's first rugby competition in 1965. Rugby teams were formed in Yerevan's main sporting clubs of Dinamo, Spartak and Burevestnik, the game was played by several universities.
In the 1966–67 season, the Yerevan Dinamo Rugby Club entered the top division of the Soviet Championship. The national team of Armenia was formed at this time, with players drawn from the Dinamo team; the Yerevan Spartak Rugby Club took Dinamo's place in the Soviet Championships in 1972. In a season, Spartak reached the quarter-final stages of the Soviet Cup. However, the rugby teams were disbanded by the early 1990s due to the effects of the Armenia-Azerbaijan War and economic difficulties in Armenia following the demise of the Soviet Union. Armenia gained its independence from the USSR in 1991, but rugby in went into hibernation in the country for a decade. Rugby was re-established in Armenia in the year 2000, with the founding of the Rugby Federation of Armenia. Gagik Panikian become the RFA president in 2002 and pledged to improve the popularity of the sport and the quality of players Armenia produced; the RFA joined FIRA-AER as an associate member in 2002. An Armenian 7s team and an Armenian national team were soon formed drawn from players of Armenian heritage in France.
The 15-man side played at the 2004 European Championships, defeating Israel. In 2014, Rugby Europe suspended the Rugby Federation of Armenia due to inactivity; as of 2012, there were three rugby clubs in Armenia: Ararat and Ureni. Armenia national rugby union team Alexander Grigoryants Sports in Armenia Official site: "Rugby Federation of Armenia". Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Rugby Federation of Armenia Other sites: Armenian Rugby Supporters website Archives du Rugby: Armenie
Rugby union in the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Rugby union in the Bailiwick of Guernsey is a popular sport. Outside the island of Guernsey itself, it is played in Alderney and Sark. Sark has its own rugby team, although it has to pick up "guest" players to make up its numbers, it has no national competitive side of its own, is not affiliated to the IRB in its own right. For this reason, it has no IRB ranking. Rugby is played in Guernsey under the auspices of the Rugby Football Union. Due to its proximity to the major rugby nations England and France, Guernsey rugby is among the oldest in the world, dating back to the mid 19th century. A number of schools play the sport the private ones, such as Elizabeth College. Guernsey RFC competes in the English leagues. There is only one other club in Guernsey, St Jacques RFC, founded in 1978. From the 2014/15 season St Jacques compete in the Hampshire Rugby Football Union Solent Merit league. St Jacques home ground is the King George V playing fields; the current coaches are Jon Bell, Rob Box and Peter Mcmachon, the current captain is Brett McFarlane.
St Jacques have a squad of around 40 players, with many being recent graduates of the Guernsey Rugby Academy. The Siam Cup is an annual Rugby Union competition held between Jersey Reds and Guernsey RFC, it was first contested in 1920. The trophy awarded. Development of the sport is limited due to the practicalities of small islands; the main sport is association football. Guernsey does have its own radio stations. British and French television can both be received in the islands, include extensive rugby coverage - such as the Rugby World Cup and Six Nations Championship. Rugby union in Sark Rugby union in Jersey Sark national rugby union team http://www.grufc.co.uk/ Guernsey Rugby Academy Guernsey Touch Guernsey vs Jersey http://www.ogier.com/AboutUs/Action/Sport/Pages/GuernseyRugbyAcademy.aspx http://www.thisisguernsey.com/2009/02/26/rugby-official-swore-but-was-not-disorderly/ BBC's Guernsey Sports page Sylvans RFC
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Rugby union in Cyprus
Rugby union in Cyprus is a minor but growing sport. The governing body is the Cyprus Rugby Federation It became affiliated to FIRA in 2006. Cypriot rugby goes back to at least the 1950s; the British military still contributes teams from the Dhekelia bases. During the 1970s, rugby union in Israel trying to break out of its isolation - both political and geographical - reached out to teams in Cyprus. Many of the teams Israelis played. In more recent times, it has been a game played by expatriates. There are several competitions including a league with teams from the British military bases and three local teams: Paphos Tigers - founded by British and South Africans. Limassol Crusaders - Founded by expats after England won in the rugby World Cup Nicosia Barbarians - The Barbarians are not playing, although the website is still up. Cypriot rugby's main ties are to European rugby; the situation in Northern Cyprus is somewhat different, with teams playing in the Turkish leagues. Rugby is not a major sport amongst Greek Cypriots, but it is less so amongst Turkish Cypriots.
Rugby Football was introduced formally in league format in the early 1980s by the British Military due to the mannerism of their structure. However the first Cypriot Club was formed in Paphos Tigers. Predominately made up of South African Cypriots they triumphed in the British Military Major Units League; the first game for Cyprus took place on 24 March 2007 at home against Greece. The Cypriot XV won 39-3. Cyprus continued their great start in international rugby by beating Azerbaijan 29-0 at the Pafiako Stadium in Paphos on 28 October 2007, they put in back-to-back victories against Monaco on 31 October 2007 and Slovakia on 3 November 2007. Having won the FIRA ENC Division 3D Tournament, they qualified for a promotion playoff against Israel; the game took place on 6 September 2008, Cyprus were defeated 23-14 and therefore remained in ENC 3D with Azerbaijan, Bosnia Herzegovina and Slovakia. Cyprus hold records over 3 nations in the division ENC 3D, by inflicting the worst defeats of Slovakia and Monaco respectively.
During the 2009 FIRA AER European Sevens Championship, Cyprus Sevens Team took part in two tournaments in Athens and Split. Their performances during these competitions led to them jumping 11 places in the FIRA rankings and are ranked 12th in Europe; the first international game of the Cyprus Rugby National Team took place on March 24, 2007 against Greece in Paphos. The Cypriot XV won the game by 39-3 in front of 2,500 fans. In October and November 2007, Cyprus beat Azerbaijan, Slovakia to win the FIRA 3D Tournament, a great achievement in their first year on the international scene. However, they lost the play-off game for promotion to level 3C on 6 September 2008 against Israel by a score of 23-14. Cyprus now play in the 2B level, after winning promotion consecutively from the 2008-2010 edition onwards. Cyprus national rugby union team FIRA-AER Cyprus page Cyprus Rugby Federation Cyprus Pumas RUFC Archives du Rugby: Chypre