The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Rugby union in Kenya
Rugby union in Kenya is a popular sport, in particular due to the success of the Kenya national rugby sevens team in the rugby sevens format, tournaments such as the Safari Sevens, growing yearly, now includes numerous international teams. The sport is governed by the Kenya Rugby Union; the Rugby Football Union of Kenya was formed in 1923. RFU-K was incorporated into the Rugby Football Union of East Africa in 1956. Kenya Rugby Football Union was formed in 1970 to govern the game in Kenya. At the 2008 Kenyan Sports Personality of the Year awards KRFU won the federation of the year category. Rugby has a long history in Kenya; the first recorded game in Kenya took place in 1909, when a team composed of predominantly British "Officials" took on Afrikaaner "Settlers" in Mombasa. The Rugby Football Union of Kenya was formed in 1923, the same year when Nairobi District team split to form Harlequins RFC and Nondescripts RFC. Impala RFC, another traditional club was founded in the 1930s. For a number of years, the Nondescripts and the Harlequins were two of the best sides in the country and dominated Kenyan rugby.
When the British Isles went to South Africa for their 1955 tour and their 1962 tour, they played East Africa sides in Nairobi, on the return leg of their journey. The Lions won both of 39-12 and 50-0 respectively; the East Africa team played some of the best sides in the world, including the British Lions in 1955, South Africa in 1961, Wales in 1964. The political struggle in Kenya took a heavy toll on rugby. Not only had the white population failed to promote the game properly amongst the black African and Asian population in Kenya, but when employment restrictions were introduced by the newly independent Kenyan state, they ensured that a number of the white British and South Africans, the mainstay of the game left the country; the large distances involved would cause big communication problems for Kenyan teams. For example, in 1974, when Nairobi was due to play Mombasa, the Mombasa team flew to Nairobi, while the Nairobi team drove to Mombasa, it was a 950-mile round trip, meaning that the two teams covered nearly 2,000 miles in a game that didn't happen.
Until the mid-1970s the sport in Kenya was played by expatriates. This changed once Mean Machine RFC and Mwamba RFC were formed. Today, rugby in Kenya is played exclusively by indigenous players. Rugby in Kenya is played in Nairobi, only a handful of teams come from outside the capital; the struggle to make Kenyan rugby multiracial, to make it popular was tackled frantically by the KRFU in the post-independence period, with success only coming under its president George Kariuki in the 1980s and 1990s. The former Gloucester player Dave Protherough helped out the KRFU, before his death in the mid-1990s, helped the game to thrive once more. Kenya is a founder member of the Confederation of African Rugby, launched in January 1986, in Tunis. Rugby officials from Morocco, Ivory Coast, the Seychelles and Madagascar attended. Kenya plays host to the annual Bamburi Rugby Super Series which teams from other East African countries attend. In 2009, it hosted the IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy, the second tier of the under-20 world championship structure established in 2008 by the sport's governing body, the International Rugby Board.
Safari Sevens is an international Rugby sevens tournament played annually in Nairobi and is the most popular rugby competition in Kenya. Kenya dominated the local'international' rugby scene but when combined with Tanzania and Uganda they formed the East Africa rugby union team; this consisted of white settlers from Kenya, the games tended to be hosted in Nairobi. Nicknamed The Tuskers, a name, taken from a local beer, the first overseas touring East Africa XV played in the Copperbelt of what was Northern Rhodesia, now Zambia, in September 1954 when they won six out of seven matches; the British Isles played games against an East African side, on their 1955 tour, 1962 tours. The national team played its first international in 1955, is yet to qualify for the Rugby World Cup. However, the country's sevens team has had far more international success. Kenya was ranked 39th in the world by the IRB as of 6 April 2009. However, in 2010, Kenya rose in the ranking to 32nd in the world and ranked 31st in 2013 after beating Zimbabwe 29-17 in a tournament that doubled up as the qualifying stage for the 2015 World Cup.
The national sevens team are one of the 12 "core teams" in the IRB Sevens World Series, advancing at least to the semi-finals of three events in the 2008–09 season, reached the semi-finals of the 2009 Rugby World Cup Sevens. They managed to win the 2016 IRB Sevens World Series cup in Dubai; the popularity of Kenyan rugby has increased over the last few years and the country now has over 40 clubs, 40,000 players of which nearly 30,000 are teenagers and 3000 are women. The KRFU oversees Kenyan schools rugby, including the Prescott Cup for the most elite teams, the Damu Pevu shield for the second level of teams. In 1990, Rugby 15s was admitted as formal sport in secondary schools around the country and in 2008 it was admitted as a primary school sport. Rugby Sevens was admitted as a formal sport in secondary schools in 2004. A major part of competition at the junior level is the St Mary's Blackrock Festival, used to scout for Kenya's top players for the last 26 years. Biko Adema, a current Kenya sevens player, was once the most valuable player in the tournament.
The Kenya Cup is the highest level
Rugby union in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Rugby union in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a minor sport. They are ranked sixty-eight in the International Rugby Board's world rankings, despite the lack of recognition as an official sport by the government. Rugby union was a moderately popular sport in Yugoslavia; the Rugby Championship of Yugoslavia ran from 1957-1991. Rugby union in Bosnia and Herzegovina has not been popular but due to its recent international successes, it is gaining more recognition; as of December 2008, more than half of the eight hundred registered players were pre-teens or teenagers. In addition, there are eleven domestic clubs that compete against each other on various levels. In the early 1990s, former Italian cap, Dr Giancarlo Tizanini was a major driving force in Austrian rugby. Before his death in 1994, he tried hard to establish a Central European equivalent of the Six Nations between Austria, Croatia and Bosnia; the national team has been competing since the early 1990s. Bosnia and Herzegovina national rugby union team Bosnia and Herzegovina women's national rugby union team Rugby union in Yugoslavia IRB Bosnia Page
Rugby Africa, is the administrative body for rugby union within the continent of Africa under the authority of World Rugby, the world governing body of rugby union. As of 2018, Rugby Africa has 37 member nations and runs several rugby tournaments for national teams, including the Africa Cup, the main 15-a-side competition for African national teams. Rugby Africa was founded in 1986 as the Confederation of African Rugby to promote, develop and administer the game of rugby in Africa, it was renamed Rugby Africa in December 2014. The President of Rugby Africa is the Tunisian Khaled Babbou; the main Official Partner of Rugby Africa, is the leading media relations' consulting firm in Africa and the Middle East, APO Group. The Confederation of African Rugby was launched in January 1986 in Tunis; the inaugural members at the meeting were Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Senegal, the Seychelles and Tunisia. A meeting was held in July 1992 in Casablanca with the view of integrating the SARFU into the confederation.
South Africa had been denied entry until this time because of the government policy of apartheid. In March 1992 these were formally combined to form the South African Rugby Football Union; the Confederation now has 37 member nations. The African Rugby Charter was signed by the President of CAR, Abdelaziz Bougja, the President of the South African Rugby Union Brian van Rooyen, in the presence of former South African president Nelson Mandela, the South African Minister of Sport, Makhenkesi Stofile. We, the undersigned, hereby confirm our commitment to realising the potential of African rugby... THAT, on this day, the creation of the African Leopards, Rugby Union in Africa will develop its own heroes and heroines. Tournaments run by Rugby Africa include: Africa Cup, for national men's fifteen-a-side teams played annually in several divisions: Gold Cup: the highest tier contested by the top six national teams. Silver Cup: second tier, split into North and South divisions of three teams each. Bronze Cup: third tier contested by four teams.
Regional Challenge: fourth tier, split in two divisions of up to ten teams each. Africa Men's Sevens – annual continental tournament for national seven-a-side teams Africa Women's Sevens - annual continental tournament for national seven-a-side teams The CAR formed agreements in 2014 which allowed member unions from Anglophone and Francophone nations in Africa to access training programs within the sports academies and administrative headquarters of the South African Rugby Union and French Rugby Federation, respectively; these agreements, designed to foster rugby development across the continent, were signed in January 2015, followed earlier arrangements with the SARU and French club Castres Olympique which were made in 2006. The following unions are members of World Rugby: In addition, the following unions are not members of World Rugby, but are either full or affiliate members of Rugby Africa, or non-member countries working with the governing body: Notes: The African Leopards are a representative team from Africa which aims to promote the sport throughout the whole of Africa.
The Leopards played their first match in July 2005 at Ellis Park as a curtain raiser between Springboks and Australia. Rugbyafrique.com Rugby Africa official website Archived website, Confederation of African Rugby, archived from the original on 2014
Mahamasina Municipal Stadium
Stade Municipal de Mahamasina is a rugby union and football stadium used for concerts and athletics, in Antananarivo, Madagascar. It is used for rugby and football matches; the stadium has a 22,000 capacity for football and rugby matches. In 2005, the stadium was the site of a stampede that killed two people during a match between South African side Kaizer Chiefs and Madagascar's USJF Ravinala, it was the stadium of the 2007 Indian Ocean Games. On June 26, 2016, during a free concert, a bomb detonated in the stadium, killing two people and injuring around 80. On 8 September 2018 a stampede to enter the stadium killed one person and injured 37. Long queues had formed to see the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations qualification match against Senegal with some news sources stating that there had been lines kilometers long vying to enter the stadium from its only entrance. Photo at worldstadiums.com Photos at fussballtempel.net
The ring-tailed lemur is a large strepsirrhine primate and the most recognized lemur due to its long and white ringed tail. It belongs to Lemuridae, one of five lemur families, is the only member of the Lemur genus. Like all lemurs it is endemic to the island of Madagascar. Known locally in Malagasy as maky or hira, it inhabits gallery forests to spiny scrub in the southern regions of the island, it is the most terrestrial of extant lemurs. The animal is diurnal, being active in daylight hours; the ring-tailed lemur is social, living in groups of up to 30 individuals. It is female dominant, a trait common among lemurs. To keep warm and reaffirm social bonds, groups will huddle together; the ring-tailed lemur will sunbathe, sitting upright facing its underside, with its thinner white fur towards the sun. Like other lemurs, this species relies on its sense of smell and marks its territory with scent glands; the males perform a unique scent marking behavior called spur marking and will participate in stink fights by impregnating their tail with their scent and wafting it at opponents.
As one of the most vocal primates, the ring-tailed lemur uses numerous vocalizations including group cohesion and alarm calls. Experiments have shown that the ring-tailed lemur, despite the lack of a large brain, can organize sequences, understand basic arithmetic operations and preferentially select tools based on functional qualities. Despite reproducing in captivity and being the most populous lemur in zoos worldwide, numbering more than 2,000 individuals, the ring-tailed lemur is listed as endangered by the IUCN Red List due to habitat destruction and hunting for bush meat and the exotic pet trade; as of early 2017, the population in the wild is believed to have crashed as low as 2,000 individuals due to habitat loss and hunting, making them far more critically endangered. Although the term "lemur" was first intended for slender lorises, it was soon limited to the endemic Malagasy primates, which have been known as "lemurs" since; the name derives from the Latin term lemures, which refers to specters or ghosts that were exorcised during the Lemuria festival of ancient Rome.
According to Carl Linnaeus's own explanation, the name was selected because of the nocturnal activity and slow movements of the slender loris. Being familiar with the works of Virgil and Ovid and seeing an analogy that fit with his naming scheme, Linnaeus adapted the term "lemur" for these nocturnal primates. However, it has been and falsely assumed that Linnaeus was referring to the ghost-like appearance, reflective eyes, ghostly cries of lemurs, it has been speculated that Linnaeus may have known that some Malagasy people have held legends that lemurs are the souls of their ancestors, but this is unlikely given that the name was selected for slender lorises from India. The species name, refers to the ring-tailed lemur's cat-like appearance, its purring vocalization is similar to that of the domestic cat. Following Linnaeus's species description, the common name "ringtailed maucauco" was first penned in 1771 by Welsh naturalist Thomas Pennant, who made note of its characteristic long, striped tail.
The now universal English name "ring-tailed lemur" was first used by George Shaw in his illustrated scientific publication covering the Leverian collection published between 1792 and 1796. All mammalian fossils from Madagascar come from recent times. Thus, little is known about the evolution of the ring-tailed lemur, let alone the rest of the lemur clade, which comprises the entire endemic primate population of the island; however and molecular evidence suggest that lemurs are more related to each other than to other Strepsirrhine primates. For this to have happened, it is thought that a small ancestral population came to Madagascar via a single rafting event between 50 and 80 million years ago. Subsequent evolutionary radiation and speciation has created the diversity of Malagasy lemurs seen today. According to analysis of amino acid sequences, the branching of the family Lemuridae has been dated to 26.1 ±3.3 mya while rRNA sequences of mtDNA place the split at 24.9 ±3.6 mya. The ruffed lemurs are the first genus to split away in the family, a view, further supported by analysis of DNA sequences and karyotypes.
Additionally, Molecular data suggests a deep genetic divergence and sister group relationship between the true lemurs and the remaining three genera: Lemur and Prolemur. The ring-tailed lemur is thought to share closer affinities to the bamboo lemurs of the genera Hapalemur and Prolemur than to the other two genera in its family; this has been supported by comparisons in communication, chromosomes and several morphological traits, such as scent gland similarities. However, other data concerning immunology and other morphological traits fail to support this close relationship. For example and Prolemur have short snouts, while the ring-tailed lemur and the rest of Lemuridae have long snouts. However, differences in the relationship between the orbit and the muzzle suggest that the ring-tailed lemur and the true lemurs evolved their elongated faces independently; the relationship between the ring-tailed lemur and bamboo lemurs is the least understood. Molecular analysis suggests that either the bamboo lemurs diverged from the ring-tailed lemur, making the group monophyletic and supporting the current 3-genera taxonomy, or that the ring-tailed lemur is nested in with the bamboo lemurs.
The karyotype of the ring-tailed lemur has 56 chr