The Berlin S-Bahn is a rapid transit railway system in and around Berlin, the capital city of Germany. It has been in operation under this name since December 1930, having been called the special tariff area Berliner Stadt-, Ring- und Vorortbahnen, it complements the Berlin U-Bahn and is the link to many outer-Berlin areas, such as Berlin Schönefeld Airport. In its first decades of operation, the trains were steam-drawn. Today, the term S-Bahn is used in Berlin only for those lines and trains with third-rail electrical power transmission and the special Berlin S-Bahn loading gauge; the third unique technical feature of the Berlin S-Bahn, the automated mechanical train control, is being phased out and replaced by a communications-based train control system specific to the Berlin S-Bahn. In other parts of Germany and other German-speaking countries, other trains are designated S-Bahn without those Berlin specific features; the Hamburg S-Bahn is the only other system using third-rail electrification.
Today, the Berlin S-Bahn is no longer defined as this special tariff area of the national railway company, but is instead just one specific means of transportation, defined by its special technical characteristics, in an area-wide tariff administered by a public transport authority. The Berlin S-Bahn is now an integral part of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg, the regional tariff zone for all kinds of public transit in and around Berlin and the federal state of Brandenburg; the brand name "S-Bahn" chosen in 1930 mirrored U-Bahn, which had become the official brand name for the Berlin city-owned rapid transit lines begun under the name of Berliner Hoch- und Untergrundbahnen, where the word of mouth had abbreviated "Untergrundbahn" to "U-Bahn", in parallel to "U-Boot" formed from "Unterseeboot". Services on the Berlin S-Bahn have been provided by the Prussian or German national railway company of the respective time, which means the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft after the First World War, the Deutsche Reichsbahn of the GDR until 1993 and Deutsche Bahn after its incorporation in 1994.
The Berlin S-Bahn consists today of 15 lines serving 166 stations, runs over a total route length of 332 kilometres. The S-Bahn carried 395 million passengers in 2012, it is integrated with the underground U-Bahn to form the backbone of Berlin's rapid transport system. Unlike the U-Bahn, the S-Bahn crosses Berlin city limits into the surrounding state of Brandenburg, e.g. to Potsdam. Although the S- and U-Bahn are part of a unified fare system, they have different operators; the S-Bahn is operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn, whereas the U-Bahn is run by Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe, the main public transit company for the city of Berlin. The S-Bahn routes all feed into one of three core lines: a central, elevated east-west line, a central underground north-south line, a circular line. Outside the Ringbahn, suburban routes radiate in all directions. Lines S1, S2, S25, S26 are north-south lines that use the North-South tunnel as their midsection, they were distributed into Oranienburg and Hennigsdorf in the north, Teltow Stadt and Wannsee.
Lines S3, S5, S7, S9, S75 are east-west lines using the Stadtbahn cross-city railway. The western termini are located at Potsdam and Spandau, although the S5 only runs as far as Westkreuz and the S75 to Ostkreuz; the eastern termini are Erkner, Strausberg Nord and Wartenberg. The S9 uses a connector curve at Ostkreuz to change from Stadtbahn to the South-eastern leg of the Ringbahn. Another curve, the Nordkurve to the North-eastern Ringbahn, was served by the S86 line, but it was demolished in preparation of the rebuilding of Ostkreuz station and was not rebuilt afterwards. Both connector curves were used in the time of the Berlin Wall, as trains coming from the North-Eastern routes couldn't use the West Berlin North-South route and the Southern leg of the pre- and post-Wall Ringbahn was in West Berlin. Lines S41 and S42 continuously circle around the Ringbahn, the former clockwise, the latter anti-clockwise. Lines S45, S46, S47 link destinations in the southeast with the southern section of the Ringbahn via the tangential link from the Görlitzer Bahn to the Ring via Köllnische Heide.
Lines S8 and S85 are north-south lines using the eastern section of the Ringbahn between Bornholmer Straße and Treptower Park via Ostkreuz, using the Görlitzer Bahn in the South. Speaking, the first digit of a route number denotes the main route or a group of routes. Thus, S25 is a branch of S2, while S41, S42, S45, S46, S47 are all Ringbahn routes that share some of the same route. So S41, S42, S45, S46, S47 are together S4. However, the S4 does not exist as an independent entity. Since 9 January 1984, all the West Berlin S-Bahn routes are labelled with an "S" followed by a number; this system had been in use with other West German S-Bahn systems for years. On 2 June 1991 this was extended to the East Berlin lines as well. Internally, the Berlin S-Bahn uses Zuggruppen which run every twenty minutes; some lines, e.g. the S85, are made up of only one Zuggruppe, while others, like S5, are multiple Zuggruppen combined. Some Zuggruppen do not terminate at intermediate stops. Zuggrupp
Wittenbergplatz (Berlin U-Bahn)
Wittenbergplatz is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 1, the U 2, U 3 lines. The station is located on Wittenbergplatz square in Berlin's City West area, in the northwestern corner of Schöneberg neighbourhood, it is the only U-Bahn station in the city with five adjacent tracks on three platforms. The station building, erected in 1911–1913 according to plans designed by Alfred Grenander, is listed as an architectural monument. Wittenbergplatz is one of the oldest U-Bahn stations in Berlin, opened on 11 March 1902 with the first Stammstrecke line running under the eponymous square and adjacent Tauentzienstraße, today one of the major shopping streets in Berlin. A common underground station with two tracks on two side platforms, it was refurbished as an interchange from 1910 onwards; the new station serving three U-Bahn lines opened on 1 December 1912 with two island platforms and one side platform, serving five tracks at one below ground level and under a single roof. The remarkable entrance hall in the centre of Wittenbergplatz square, designed in an Art Nouveau style by Alfred Grenander, was finished in 1913.
The station building was badly damaged during the bombing of Berlin in World War II and reconstructed afterwards. Wittenbergplatz became one of the most frequented stations of the West Berlin urban traffic network, though after the building of the Berlin Wall the present-day U2 line to Nollendorfplatz was closed in 1972 and not re-opened until 1993. From 1980 to 1983 the station was renovated in line with the precepts of monument perception by architect Borchardt, he won the prize of the Ministry of Architecture in 1986. Platform No. 1 features a sign donated by the London Transport Executive in 1952 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Berlin U-Bahn. It features the station's name in the distinctive red-and-blue roundel used on the London Underground
Schlesisches Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
Schlesisches Tor is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 1 and U 3 lines. It is located in eastern Kreuzberg, near Oberbaumbrücke, in the Bohemian quarter known as SO36; the station is named after one of the former city gates of Berlin built in the early 18th century. The exceptionally richly designed station opened on 18 February 1902, on the first Berlin U-Bahn line erected by the Siemens & Halske company. On 11/12 March 1945, this station was directly hit, the track area was damaged. During the division of Berlin after 13 August 1961, the station was the eastern terminus of the U1, as the final station, Warschauer Straße, was in East Berlin; the link was reopened in 1995. An intermediate station at the Spree river, Stralauer Tor, had been destroyed in 1945 and never reopened. Schlesisches Tor was an atmospheric location in the 1966 espionage film The Quiller Memorandum starring George Segal and Alec Guinness
Möckernbrücke (Berlin U-Bahn)
Möckernbrücke is a station of the Berlin U-Bahn network in the western Kreuzberg district, named after a nearby bridge crossing the Landwehrkanal. It is in the vicinity of Potsdamer Platz; the station located on a viaduct at the northern shore of the Landwehrkanal is part of the first Stammstrecke route of the Berlin U-Bahn opened on 15 February 1902. As the station served the nearby Anhalter Bahnhof the original building was soon getting too small to cope with the rising number of passengers, it therefore was demolished and replaced by the current station opened on 25 March 1937. Damaged by air raids it was closed on 30 January 1944 and not reopened until 16 June 1947. In the course of the extension of the U7 line from Mehringdamm to the west a twin underground station was built at the southern shore of the Landwehrkanal; the U7 platform opened on 28 February 1966 Möckernbrücke became the line's western terminus until the second continuation to Fehrbelliner Platz on 29 January 1971. The U1/U3 and U7 platforms are connected by a glazed bridge over the Landwehr Canal.
U 1U 3: The next station is Hallesches Tor or Gleisdreieck.
The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe is the main public transport company of Berlin, the capital city of Germany. It manages the city's U-Bahn underground railway, bus, replacement services and ferry networks, but not the S-Bahn urban rail system; the used abbreviation, BVG, has been retained from the company's original name, Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft. Subsequently, the company was renamed Berliner Verkehrs-Betriebe. During the division of Berlin, the BVG was split between BVG and BVB. After reunification, the current formal name was adopted; the Berliner Verkehrs Aktiengesellschaft was formed in 1928, by the merger of the Allgemeine Berliner Omnibus AG, the Gesellschaft für Elektrische Hoch- und Untergrundbahnen and the Berliner Straßenbahn-Betriebs-GmbH. On 1 January 1938, the company was renamed Berliner Verkehrs-Betriebe, but the acronym BVG was retained. From 1 August 1949, the BVG networks in East Berlin were operated separately; the two operators were known as BVG and BVG, but from 1 January 1969 the eastern operator was renamed as the Kombinat Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe or BVB.
After the reunification of Berlin, the two operators were recombined into the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe on 1 January 1992. Prior to the division of Berlin, tram lines existed throughout the city, but BVG abandoned all the tram lines in its part of the city, replacing them all by buses by 1967; however BVG retained its tram lines, on the reunification of Berlin the BVG inherited a considerable network of routes in the eastern half of Berlin. On 9 January 1984, BVG took over the responsibility for operation of the S-Bahn services in West Berlin; this urban rail network had been operated in both halves of Berlin by the Deutsche Reichsbahn, the state rail operator of East Germany, but had been subject to a boycott in the west after the building of the Berlin Wall. With the reunification of Berlin, responsibility for the S-Bahn reverted to Deutsche Bahn AG, the state rail operator of Germany; the S-Bahn is managed by the S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary company of DBAG. BVG took part in the Berlin M-Bahn project, an urban maglev system, in the period between 1984 and 1992.
The project used a section of the U-Bahn right of way, out of service due to the building of the Berlin Wall, was dropped with the fall of that wall. The BVG launched the MetroNetz on 12 December 2004 which remodeled the tram and bus network to create 24 tram and bus lines covering parts of the city that weren't served by S-Bahn or U-Bahn. BVG operates an urban rapid transit rail system; the U-Bahn now comprises a total length of 147 kilometres. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening and on Sunday. U-Bahn service is provided by 1266 carriages, of which 500 are used on the earlier small-profile lines and 766 are used on the large-profile lines; these cars travel 132 million km, carrying 400 million passengers, over the year. BVG operates a tram network comprising 22 tram lines with 377 stops and measuring 293.78 km in length. Of these, nine are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provide a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn.
These MetroTram tram lines are recognisable by an M prefix to their route number, are the only tram routes to operate 24 hours a day. Tram service is provided by 391 carriages, of which 154 are modern low floor carriages and 237 are older carriages. All of the remaining network is within the confines of the former East Berlin, as all the routes in the former West Berlin were abandoned during the period of the city's partition. However, there have been some extensions of routes across the former border since reunification, most remarkably to the city’s new main railway station Berlin Hauptbahnhof. BVG operates a network of 149 daytime bus routes serving 2634 stops and a total route length of 1,675 kilometres, together with a night bus network of 63 bus routes serving 1508 stops and a total route length of 795 kilometres. Seventeen of BVG's bus routes are designated as part of the MetroNetz, which provides a high frequency service in areas poorly served by the U-Bahn and S-Bahn. Like the MetroTram tram routes, these MetroBus routes can be recognised by an M prefix to their route number.
A further 13 BVG-operated bus routes are express routes with an X prefix to their route number. BVG bus service is provided by a fleet of 1349 buses, of which no fewer than 407 are double-decker buses. Whilst such buses are common in Ireland and the United Kingdom, their use elsewhere in Europe is uncommon. Route 218 is operated by ex-BVG vintage vehicles now in preservation but used in revenue-earning service; the services depart from Theodor-Heuss Platz every two hours from 11:15 to 19:15 and return from Pfaueninsel from 10:00 to 20:00. Berlin has an extensive network of waterways within its city boundaries, including the Havel and Dahme rivers, many linked lakes and canals; these are crossed by six passenger ferry routes that are operated by the BVG. The BVG is a member of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg, the transport association run by public transport providers in the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg; this body
Kottbusser Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
Kottbusser Tor is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 1, U 3 and U 8. Many Berliners use the affectionate term Kotti, it is located in central Kreuzberg. The area has a bad reputation for the high drug-related crime rate, instances of which have become quite rare in most other parts of the district; the original Kottbusser Tor was a southern city gate of Berlin. The station on the first Berlin U-Bahn line from Potsdamer Platz to Stralauer Tor was opened on 18 February 1902 on a viaduct above Skalitzer Straße; when in 1926 the U8 was built, a new two-level station was constructed 100 metres westwards to allow both lines to meet in one location, the original station was demolished. It was directly hit on 26 February 1945
Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station
Berlin Zoologischer Garten Station is a railway station in Berlin, Germany. It is located on the Berlin Stadtbahn railway line in the Charlottenburg district, adjacent to the Berlin Zoo. During the division of the city, the station was the central transport facility of West Berlin, thereafter for the western central area of reunified Berlin until the opening of Berlin Hauptbahnhof in 2006, it is an interchange with the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn, which uses the Stadtbahn viaduct along with RegionalExpress and RegionalBahn trains. The station building overlooks the Hardenbergplatz square, named after Prussian prime minister Karl August von Hardenberg, Berlin's largest city bus terminal and night bus service centre, it is used by long-distance buses/coaches, however the "ZOB", Berlin's central intercity bus terminal, is located on Messedamm in Westend, not far from the Funkturm. Zoologischer Garten is a Berlin U-Bahn station and S-Bahn station located at the Berlin Zoologischer Garten terminal, serving the U-Bahn lines U 2 and U 9, as well as by the S-Bahn lines S 3, S 5, S 7, S 9.
The original station, served by Berlin Stadtbahn commuter trains, opened on 7 February 1882. On 11 March 1902, today the U2, was opened under ground. With a view to the 1936 Summer Olympics, the station was rebuilt and expanded between 1934 and 1940. On the night of 23 and 24 November 1943, the track area was directly hit by bombs, further damage accumulated during the Battle of Berlin. After the final closure of the Anhalter Bahnhof in 1952, Bahnhof Zoo remained the only long-distance railway station operated by the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany within West Berlin. On 28 August 1961, two weeks after the erection of the Berlin Wall, the new U-Bahn Line 9 was opened below the U2, connecting the station with the transport network in the north-south direction; the fact that, with only two platforms and four tracks for long-distance trains, the station was still the most important in West Berlin, was another unnatural phenomenon of the divided city. After reunification, despite the outcry from nearby Kurfürstendamm retailers and local politicians, the station lost its importance following the launching of the new Berlin Hauptbahnhof on 28 May 2006, because long-distance services began passing through the station without stopping.
An exception was the famous Sibirjak, which departed from Bahnhof Zoo for the Novosibirsk Trans-Siberian railway station until 2013. The station is served by the following services: Regional services IRE 1 Hamburg – Uelzen – Stendal – Berlin Regional services RE 1 Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Potsdam – Berlin – Fürstenwalde – Frankfurt Regional services RE 2 Wismar – Schwerin – Wittenberge – Nauen – Berlin – Königs Wusterhausen – Lübben – Cottbus Regional services RE 7 Dessau – Bad Belzig – Michendorf – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Wünsdorf-Waldstadt Local services RB 14 Nauen – Falkensee – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport Local services RB 21 Wustermark – Golm – Potsdam – Berlin Local services RB 22 Königs Wusterhausen – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Saarmund – Golm – Potsdam – Berlin Berlin S-Bahn services S 3 Spandau - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Karlshorst – Köpenick – Erkner Berlin S-Bahn services S 5 Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Lichtenberg - Strausberg Nord Berlin S-Bahn services S 7 Potsdam - Wannsee - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Lichtenberg - Ahrensfelde Berlin S-Bahn services S 9 Spandau - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Schöneweide - Flughafen Schönefeld The station is well known as the setting of the 1978 book Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo, written by the Stern journalists Kai Hermann and Horst Rieck according to the interviews with Christiane Felscherinow.
It became a bestseller in Germany, dramatising the period in the late 1970s when the rear of the station facing Jebensstraße was a meeting point for rent-boys, teen runaways, drug addicts. The film Christiane F. – We Children from Bahnhof Zoo directed by Uli Edel was released in 1981. The 1991 U2 song "Zoo Station" was inspired by the station, written while the band was recording Achtung Baby at the Hansa Tonstudio in Berlin, which in turn inspired their Zoo TV Tour and the album Zooropa. Although the U-Bahn line U2 today passes through the station, it was numbered U1 at the time; the song "Auf'm Bahnhof Zoo" by Nina Hagen released on the 1978 album Nina Hagen Band refers to the station. The song "Zootime" by Mystery Jets ends with the line Wir sind die Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo. "Bahnhof Zoo" is a track on the 2005 album Randy the Band by the Swedish band Randy. The song "Big in Japan" by Alphaville refers to the Zoo station in the line "Should I stay here at the Zoo"; the song "Bahnhof Zoo" by port-royal takes its name from the station.
The song "Slept" by The Sisters of Mercy was inspired by this station. The book "Zoo Station: Adventures in East and West Berlin" by Ian Walker was published in 1987 by the Atlantic Monthly Press, it recounts the author's experiences in 1980s Berlin, his encounters with the young people on both sides of the wall, their separation and occasional commingling. The book "Zoo Station" by David Downing published by Soho Press in 2007, it is the first in a series of World War II spy thrillers set in Berlin. Zoo Bahnhof was one of the murder scenes in The Pale Criminal, a historical detective novel by Philip Kerr. Media related to Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station at Wikimedia Commons