Pécs is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the economic centre of Baranya County. Pécs is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs; the city Sopianae was founded by Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century, in an area peopled by Celts and Pannoni tribes. By the 4th century, it became the capital of Valeria province and a significant early Christian center; the early Christian necropolis is from this era which became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in December 2000. Its episcopate was founded in 1009 by Stephen I, the first university in Hungary was founded in Pécs in 1367 by Louis I the Great.. Pécs was formed into one of the cultural and arts center of the country by bishop Janus Pannonius, great humanist poet. Pécs has a rich heritage from the age of a 150-year-long Ottoman occupation, like the mosque of Pasha Qasim the Victorious on Széchenyi square. Pécs was a multi-ethnic city where many cultural layers were encrusted melting different values of the history of two thousand years.
In 1998 Pécs was given the UNESCO prize Cities for peace for maintaining the cultures of the minorities, for its tolerant and helping attitude toward refugees of the Yugoslav Wars. In 2007 Pécs was third, in 2008 it was second Livable city in the category of cities between 75,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. In 2010, Pécs was selected to be the European Capital of Culture sharing the title together with Essen and Istanbul; the city's motto is: "The Borderless City". After receiving the title major renewal started in the city. Renewed public places, streets and neighbourhoods, new cultural centers, a concert hall, a new library and center and a cultural quarter were designed; the earliest name for the territory was its Roman name of Sopianæ. The name comes from the plural of the Celtic sop meaning "marsh". Contrary to the popular belief, the name did not signify a single city, there are no traces of an encircling wall from the early Roman era, only from the 4th century; the medieval city was first mentioned in 871 under the name Quinque Basilicae The name refers to the fact that when constructing the churches of the city, the builders used material from five old Christian chapels.
In Latin documents the city was mentioned as Quinque Ecclesiae The name Pécs appears in documents in 1235 in the word Pechyut. In Turkish "beş" means 5; the name is first recorded after the Mongol invasion of Europe. In other languages: in Latin, Quinque Ecclesiae. Pécs is located in Central Europe, in the Carpathian Basin, in a southern Hungarian county, center of Baranya, it is bordered by Mecsek from the north, a plain from the south. Pécs has a significant mining past. Mecsek dolomitic water is famous for its high density of minerals at constant poise; the city of Pécs is located near to the border of Croatia. Its southern part is rather plain, it has a favorable climate by the border of a still flourishing woody area. During the hot summer nights a cooling air streams down from Mecsek to clean the air of the city. Pécs is open from the south. Mecsek lifts up to 400–600 meters from the Pécsi plain of about 120–130 meters. Jakab-hill, located in western Mecsek, is 592m high, straight above Pécs, is 612 m, Misina is 535 m.
Higher parts of the city climb up to 200–250 m Pécsbánya, Szabolcsfalu and Somogy. Graveyards pulled back to a small area. Woody areas start from about 300 m height. Mecsek is divided by several valleys which have key role in ameliorating the climate of the city without lakes and rivers. Waters coming down from Mecsek are collected by Pécsi water under the east-west rail road leading them to the Danube; the area has been inhabited since ancient times, with the oldest archaeological findings being 6,000 years old. Before the Roman era the place was inhabited by Celts; when Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire, the Romans founded several wine-producing colonies under the collective name of Sopianae where Pécs now stands, in the early 2nd century. The centre of Sopianae was; some parts of the Roman aqueduct are still visible. When Pannonia province was divided into four administrative divisions, Sopianae was the capital of the division named Valeria. In the first half of the 4th century, Sopianae became an important Christian city.
The first Christian cemeteries, dating back to this age, are inscribed on the World Heritage List. By the end of the century, Roman rule weakened in the area due to attacks by Barbarians and Huns; when Charlemagne arrived in the area, it was ruled by Avars. Charlemagne, after conquering the area, annexed it to the Holy Roman Empire, it belonged to the Diocese of Salzburg. A document written in Salzburg in 871 is the first document mentioning the early medieval city under the name Quinque Basilicae. During the 9th century, the city was inhabited by Slavic and Avar peoples and was part of the Balaton Principality, a Frankish vassal state. According to György Györffy's theory from
Unna is a city of around 59,000 people in North Rhine-Westphalia, the seat of the Unna district. Unna is situated on the Westphalian Hellweg. Trade on this route and during the period of the Hanseatic League came from as far as London; the city is located at the eastern extremity of the Ruhr district, about 15 kilometres east of the centre of Dortmund. Unna consists of the following districts: Unna Afferde Massen Billmerich Hemmerde Kessebüren Königsborn Mühlhausen and Uelzen Lünern and StockumMassen and Königsborn are former industrial and mining areas; the history of human settlement in what is now the city of Unna can be traced back to the Neolithic Era. In the Middle Ages, Unna gained significance as a way station on the Hellweg, it is first recorded by name in an ecclesiastical document of 1032. Around 1200, Count Friedrich von Altena-Isenberg was invested with the fiefdom of Unna, among other estates, by the archbishop-electorate of Cologne. Over the next few hundred years the town was fought over, burned down several times.
In the 14th century the town became wealthy: a mint was established and regional trade blossomed. This is documented by the discovery of around 70 gold coins during excavation works in 1952; the coins originated from various countries and are thought to have been buried around 1375. From the mid-15th century on, the town was a notable trade centre and member of the Hanseatic League. In 1597 more than half the population died of the Bubonic plague. In the early 17th century, the town changed hands several times in religious wars, in 1666 fell under the control of Prussia. In the early 19th century, the primary character of the town started to change from agricultural to industrial, with improved communications by road and waterways. Coal mining started in 1870, together with industries dependent on it; the population rose from around 2,500 at the start of the 19th century to 15,000 in 1900. At the beginning of the 19th century, the city district Königsborn gained prominence as a health resort with mineral springs.
The cityscape of Königsborn still shows many historic buildings from that era, the former spa gardens still serve as a recreation place for locals and tourists. In 2013, a geological survey showed that the mineral springs could still be used for health purposes. During the Second World War, in 1943-45 there were major air attacks directed at the significant barracks and other military installations in the city. In the older part of the city, there are many half-timbered buildings built between the 16th and 19th centuries. Unna's economy was based on agriculture until the 19th century, when it became industrialised. After World War II, the artisan district which had survived bombing was torn down to make way for modern development. Unna is seat of the world's only art museum dedicated to the collection and presentation of Light art, the Centre for International Light Art, it is located in the former Linden brewery, a red brick industrial building complex dating from the 19th century close to the heart of the city.
Its landmark is an installation of Fibonacci numbers by Italian artist Mario Merz on the brewery's chimney. The light art installations are integrated into the industrial structures of the brewery's former cellar vaults; the former brewery buildings are home to the town library, the adult education centre, the tourist information centre. The city's Hellweg Museum, a regional history museum, is located in the medieval Unna castle. Many historic buildings as well as parts of the town wall, including towers near the artisan quarter, remain intact and in good condition. Unna holds the largest Italian festival north of Italy every two years, when buildings are decorated with light installations by artists from Bari in Italy. An annual Christmas market and a city festival are located in the Old Market Square, stretching from there through the pedestrian area to the city hall. Unna is home to a large community of artists. In the Old Market Square, e.g. there is a statue by painter and sculptor Josef Baron, depicting a man pulling a stubborn donkey, the town mascot.
A common part of traditional German drinking culture, numerous breweries once formed part of the cityscape, of which the largest and most well known was the Lindenbrauerei. It marketed its products under Lindenpils. Most of the brewerys have since closed down, but the Lindenbrauerei started a small-scale production again at the beginning of the 21st century. In common with other German towns, Unna produces its own traditional herbal liquor,'Herting Pörter', named after the town's Herting gate or'port'; the liquor is produced near where the gate used to be, is sold locally. The newly refurbished Unna station has trains to all major cities in North Rhine Westphalia including Dortmund, Cologne, Münster, Hamm, Düsseldorf and Wuppertal. There is the Regional-Express 7 which runs from Rheine via Cologne to Krefeld; the recreational district of Sauerland is nearby. The River Ruhr runs just south of Unna through Fröndenberg, before heading through the main part of the Ruhr district. Local dialects of German include Ruhrpott.
Until the mid-nineteenth century the focus of Unna's economy was on the region's agriculture. Industrialisation followed. In contrast with the switch to service sector employment in some of the industrial towns further west in the Ruhr area, most of the jobs in Unna are still in heavy indu
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
West Berlin was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War. There was no specific date on which the sectors of Berlin occupied by the Western Allies became "West Berlin", but 1949 is accepted as the year in which the name was adopted. West Berlin aligned itself politically with the Federal Republic of Germany and was directly or indirectly represented in its federal institutions. West Berlin was formally controlled by the Western Allies and was surrounded by the Soviet-controlled East Berlin and East Germany. West Berlin had great symbolic significance during the Cold War, as it was considered by westerners as an "island of freedom", it was subsidised by West Germany as a "showcase of the West". A wealthy city, West Berlin was noted for its distinctly cosmopolitan character, as a centre of education and culture. With about two million inhabitants, West Berlin had the largest population of any city in Germany during the Cold War era. West Berlin was 100 miles east and north of the Inner German border and only accessible by land from West Germany by narrow rail and highway corridors.
It consisted of the American and French occupation sectors established in 1945. The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, physically separated West Berlin from its East Berlin and East German surroundings until it fell in 1989; the Potsdam Agreement established the legal framework for the occupation of Germany in the wake of World War II. According to this agreement, Germany would be formally under the administration of four Allies until a German government "acceptable to all parties" could be established; the territory of Germany, as it existed in 1937, would be reduced by most of Eastern Germany thus creating the former eastern territories of Germany. The remaining territory would be divided into four zones, each administered by one of the four allied countries. Berlin, surrounded by the Soviet zone of occupation—newly established in most of Middle Germany—would be divided, with the Western Allies occupying an enclave consisting of the western parts of the city. According to the agreement, the occupation of Berlin could end only as a result of a quadripartite agreement.
The Western Allies were guaranteed three air corridors to their sectors of Berlin, the Soviets informally allowed road and rail access between West Berlin and the western parts of Germany. At first, this arrangement was intended to be of a temporary administrative nature, with all parties declaring that Germany and Berlin would soon be reunited. However, as the relations between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union soured and the Cold War began, the joint administration of Germany and Berlin broke down. Soon, Soviet-occupied Berlin and western-occupied Berlin had separate city administrations. In 1948, the Soviets tried to force the Western Allies out of Berlin by imposing a land blockade on the western sectors—the Berlin Blockade; the West responded by using its air corridors for supplying their part of the city with food and other goods through the Berlin Airlift. In May 1949, the Soviets lifted the blockade, West Berlin as a separate city with its own jurisdiction was maintained. Following the Berlin Blockade, normal contacts between East and West Berlin resumed.
This was temporary. In 1952, the East German government began further isolating West Berlin; as a direct result, electrical grids were separated and phone lines were cut. The Volkspolizei and Soviet military personnel continued the process of blocking all the roads leading away from the city, resulting in several armed standoffs and at least one skirmish with the French Gendarmerie and the Bundesgrenzschutz that June. However, the culmination of the schism did not occur until 1961 with the construction of the Berlin Wall. From the legal theory followed by the Western Allies, the occupation of most of Germany ended in 1949 with the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany and of the German Democratic Republic. Under Article 127 of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic, provision was made for federal laws to be extended to Greater Berlin as well as Baden, Rhineland-Palatinate and Württemberg-Hohenzollern within one year of its promulgation. However, because the occupation of Berlin could only be ended by a quadripartite agreement, Berlin remained an occupied territory under the formal sovereignty of the allies.
Hence, the Basic Law was not applicable to West Berlin. On 4 August 1950 the House of Representatives passed a new constitution, declaring Berlin to be a state of the Federal Republic and the provisions of the Basic Law as binding law superior to Berlin state law. However, this became statutory law only on 1 September and only with the inclusion of the western Allied provision according to which Art. 1, clauses 2 and 3, were deferred for the time being. It stated that: Article 87 is interpreted as meaning that during the transitional period Berlin shall possess none of the attributes of a twelfth Land; the provision of this Article concerning the Basic Law will only apply to the extent necessary to prevent a conflict between this Law and the Berlin Constitution... Thus civic liberties and personal rights guaranteed by the Basic Law were valid in West Berlin. In addition, West German federal statutes could
Castrop-Rauxel is a former mining city in the eastern part of the Ruhr Area in Germany. Castrop-Rauxel is between Dortmund to the east, Herne, to the north, Recklinghausen and Waltrop; the urban area of Castrop-Rauxel has a total expanse of 51.66 km2. The Halde Schwerin is marked as the highest point of the city with 147 m over NN, the lowest point is the Pöppinghauser street beside house number 264 with 50.2 m over NN. The city is divided into 15 districts, listed in order from north to south: Becklem, Ickern, Habinghorst, Pöppinghausen, Rauxel, Behringhausen, Dingen, Obercastrop and Merklinde; the total area of the city divided into different uses: Population figures for the individual districts: First mentioned in 834 as "Villa Castorpe", the city of Castrop was founded in 1902 by merging the municipalities Castrop and Behringhausen. On April 1, 1926 Castrop-Rauxel was formed. During World War II, a plant at Castrop-Rauxel used the Bergius process to produce synthetic oil products. In 1975, the village of Henrichenburg was annexed and Castrop-Rauxel became part of the Recklinghausen.
In 1984 the last of 7 coal mines at Castrop-Rauxel closed. Lord Mayors 1926–1933: Mende, Centre Party 1933–1945: Richard Anton, NSDAP 1945–1946: Arnold Boerboom 1946–1948: Hubert Krehe, CDU 1948–1971: Wilhelm Kauermann, SPD 1971–1975: Hugo Paulikat, SPDMayors 1975–1989: Hugo Paulikat, SPD 1989–1999: Hans Ettrich, SPD 1999–2004: Nils Kruse, CDU 2004–2015: Johannes Beisenherz, SPD since 2015: Rajko Kravanja, SPD Castrop-Rauxel has access to three major highways, the Emscherschnellweg A 42,the Sauerlandlinie A 45 and the A 2. There are 3 railway stations within the city; the central station on the Cologne-Minden Railway is located in the suburb of Rauxel. Connecting Castrop-Rauxel to the western Ruhr cities like Duisburg, Essen, Herne and in the east to Dortmund and Hamm; the unmanned stations of Castrop-Rauxel South and Castrop-Rauxel Merklinde on the Duisburg-Ruhrort–Dortmund railway have hourly services with trains to Dortmund and Dorsten. Located in the city centre is the central bus station Muensterplatz.
From here passengers can travel to all suburbs and to neighboring cities like Herne and Bochum. The Rhine-Herne Canal runs right through Castrop-Rauxel. Castrop-Rauxel is twinned with: Wakefield, United Kingdom Vincennes, France Kuopio, Finland Delft, Netherlands Zehdenick, Germany Trikala, since 2013 Zonguldak, since 2013 Castrop-Rauxel has been attempting to change from a former mining city to a city with a modern lifestyle, high recreational value, new economy companies, a 27-hole golf course, various cultural events. Metalworking and electronics are the key manufacturing sectors; the WLT is the oldest and most relevant source of theatrical entertainment in Castrop-Rauxel. There is one cinema with two screens in Castrop. Castrop’s history is connected to horse racing, the Reiterbrunnen in the center of Castrop’s market square is a reminder of the race days on the Naturhindernisbahn, now part of the Goldschmieding Park. Hedwig Kiesekamp and writer. Heinrich Haslinde, local poet. Josef Hermann Dufhues, politician CDU) Member of Landtag North Rhine-Westphalia, NRW Interior Minister and President of the Parliament Wilhelm Specht, entrepreneur and association official Heinz Ballensiefen and Nazi functionary who used to investigate the "Jewish question" Hermann Paschasius Rettler, bishop of Bacabal Alfred Niepieklo, German Football Champion in 1956 and 1957 Josef Reding, writer Erwin Weiss, singer Friedhelm Wentzke, canoeist Dietrich Berke and publishing editor Paul Reding, painter and writer.
Werner Trzmiel, athlete Friedhelm Ost and politician. Klaus Fichtel, footballer Gabriele Sikora, politician, 1995-2010 Member of the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia Lawrence Schlieker, abbot of Benedictine Gerleve Udo Helmbrecht, former President of the BSI and Managing Director ENISA Mathias Schipper, footballer Hans-Peter Villis, manager Inge Blask, since 2012 Member of Parliament Wolfram Wuttke, football player Dieter Hecking, football coach Michael Ostrzyga and conductor Marcel Sieberg, cyclist Marc-André Kruska, footballer Notes