National Capital Commission
The National Capital Commission is the Canadian Crown corporation responsible for planning, as well as taking part in the development and improvement of Canada’s Capital Region. It administers a large number of buildings in the National Capital Region; the NCC was created by Canada's Parliament in 1959 under the National Capital Act to replace the Federal District Commission, created in 1927, the earlier Ottawa Improvement Commission, created in 1899. The NCC was created to replace the FDC because the latter had failed to convince municipal governments to cooperate in planning efforts regarding the capital. Although the NCC was given the authority to implement its plans, an authority confirmed by the Supreme Court in Munro v. National Capital Commission, it has been criticized for failing to assert that authority effectively; the logo was modified in April 1999 with the formation of Nunavut as an independent territory from the Northwest Territories. The logo went from 10 shaded maple leaves and 2 blank maple leaves in a circular C shape, to ten shaded maple leaves and 3 blank maple leaves in a circular C shape.
After the 2006 elections, the Government of Canada asked for a formal review of the mandate of the NCC. A panel conducting the review, in its report, suggested that the Crown Corporation needed more money and should become more transparent. To achieve the latter, the governance of the organization was modified; the role of chairperson was, by amendment of the National Capital Act, divided between two positions: the Chairperson and the Chief Executive Officer. Moreover, the NCC created an Ombudsman office; the NCC is the responsibility of the Minister of Canadian Heritage Pablo Rodríguez. It is governed by the National Capital Act, which explains the boundaries of the National Capital Region in great detail, its headquarters are in the Chambers Building between Queen and Sparks Streets. In the 28th Canadian Ministry, under Stephen Harper the NCC reported to Parliament through the Minister of Foreign Affairs, through senior Ottawa-area cabinet ministers, the last of whom was Pierre Poilievre; the NCC board of directors has 15 members, including the chairperson and the chief executive officer.
Its main role is to oversee the corporation, ensure that it meets its strategic objectives. The NCC board of directors meets at least four times per year; the members of the board are appointed by the minister responsible for the National Capital Commission, with the approval of the Governor-in-Council. Five are from the National Capital Region, eight are from other regions across Canada; the chairperson and CEO are appointed by the Governor-in-Council. Since April 2016, Gatineau Mayor Maxime Pedneau-Jobin and Ottawa Mayor Jim Watson have a non-voting ex-officio seat on the board. 1952–1959: Major General Howard Kennedy 1959–1961: Alan K. Hay 1961–1967: Lieutenant General Samuel Findlay Clark 1967–1969: A. John Frost 1969–1973: Douglas H. Fullerton 1973–1976: Edgar Gallant 1976–1977: Pierre Juneau 1978–1985: Charles Mills Drury 1985–1992: Jean Elizabeth Morrison Pigott 1992–2006: Marcel Beaudry 2007–2017: Russell Andrew Mills 2017–present: Marc Seaman 2007–2007: Micheline Dubé 2008–2012: Marie Lemay 2012–2014: Jean-François Trépanier 2014–2019: Mark Kristmanson 2019–present: Tobi Nussbaum The role of the NCC is to champion the interests of Ottawa and surrounding region as the nation's capital with regard to issues of national interest, such as the location of monument and museum sites, major streetscapes such as Confederation Boulevard.
The objects and purposes of the NCC are "to prepare plans for and assist in the development and improvement of the National Capital Region in order that the nature and character of the seat of the Government of Canada may be in accordance with its national significance."With 11% of the area’s landmass, the NCC is the largest landowner in Canada’s Capital Region. Its assets include: Gatineau Park the Greenbelt the Rideau Canal Skateway urban lands and parks Capital Pathway scenic parkways real property heritage buildings agricultural and research facilities and commemorative monuments The NCC is the steward of the Capital’s six official residences: Rideau Hall, 24 Sussex Drive, Harrington Lake, The Farm and 7 Rideau Gate; the continuing preservation and management of Confederation Boulevard, the ceremonial route linking key attractions in National Capital Region, on both sides of the Ottawa River, in Ottawa as well as Gatineau, are the responsibility of the NCC and its partners. These roles are in contrast with the mandates of the various municipal governments, which serve the benefit of their immediate resident, under provincial legislation, on issues like road maintenance, sewer and public transport.
The Government of Canada is the largest employer and largest landowner in these two areas, the NCC thus has a great deal of influence over the cities. This has sometimes been criticized by city officials from Ottawa and Gatineau for a lack of cooperation, such as in 1998 when the NCC proposed levelling a large strip of downtown Ottawa to build a ceremonial boulevard along the city's existing Metcalfe Street. Over the last thirty years, the activities of the NCC have been denounced or castigated by several Quebec governments, they considered municipal affairs to be a pu
Théâtre de l'Île
The Théâtre de l'Île is a small municipally run theatre in Gatineau, Canada. It is located on a small island at the southern end of the Ruisseau de la Brasserie, a small river running just to the west of Montcalm Street in the former city of Hull; the building was constructed in 1886 as the Hull Water Works, at a time when the site was at the heart of a industrial area. In the subsequent decades the building served a number of different purposes. In 1974, it suffered a devastating fire; the city of Hull and the National Capital Commission joined together to rebuild the structure as a theatre. It opened in 1976, was the first municipally run theatre in Quebec; the theatre seats up to 119. It puts with some 25,000 spectators per annum. Official site
Gatineau is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth-largest city in the province after Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, it is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River across from Ottawa, together with which it forms Canada's National Capital Region. As of 2016, Gatineau had a population of 276,245, a metropolitan population of 332,057; the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area had a population of 1,323,783. Gatineau is coextensive with a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of the same name, whose geographical code is 81, it is the seat of the judicial district of Hull. The current city of Gatineau is centred on an area called Hull, the oldest European colonial settlement in the National Capital Region; this area was not developed until after the American Revolutionary War, when the Crown made land grants to Loyalists for resettlement in Upper Canada. Hull was founded on the north shore of the Ottawa River in 1800 by Philemon Wright at the portage around the Chaudière Falls just upstream from where the Gatineau and Rideau rivers flow into the Ottawa.
Wright brought his family, five other families, twenty-five labourers to establish an agricultural community. They considered the area a mosquito-infested wilderness, but soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands and became involved in the timber trade. The original settlement was called Wrightstown, was renamed as Hull. In 2002, after amalgamation, it was part of a larger jurisdiction named the City of Gatineau. In 1820, before immigrants from Ireland and other parts of Great Britain arrived in great numbers, Hull Township had a population of 707, including 365 men, 113 women, 229 children; the high number of men were related to workers in the lumber trade. In 1824, there were 803 persons. During the rest of the 1820s, the population of Hull doubled, owing to the arrival of Ulster Protestants. By 1851, the population of the County of Ottawa was 11,104. By comparison, Bytown had a population of 7,760 in 1851. By 1861, Ottawa County had a population of 15,671. French Canadians migrated to the Township.
The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was a basic transportation resource for the draveurs, workers who transport logs via the rivers from lumber camps until they arrived downriver. The log-filled Ottawa River, as viewed from Hull, was featured on the back of the Canadian one-dollar bill; the last of the dwindling activity of the draveurs on these rivers ended a few years later. Ottawa was founded as the terminus of the Rideau Canal; this was built under the command of Col. John By as part of fortifications and defences constructed after the War of 1812 against the United States. Named Bytown, Ottawa was not designated as the Canadian capital until the mid-19th century, after the original parliament in Montreal was torched by a rioting mob of Anglo-Canadians on 25 April 1849, its greater distance from the Canada–US border made the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack. Nothing remains of the original 1800 settlement of Hull; the downtown Vieux-Hull sector was destroyed by a terrible fire in 1900.
The bridge was rebuilt to join Ottawa to Hull at Victoria Island. In the 1940s, during World War II, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Île Sainte-Hélène, was the site of prisoner-of-war camps. Hull's prison was identified only by a number; the prisoners of war were organized by status: civilian or military status. In the Hull camp, POWs were Italian and German nationals detained by the government as potential threats to the nation during the war; as a result of the Conscription Crisis of 1944, Canadians who had refused conscription were interned in the camp. The prisoners were required to perform hard labour, which included lumbering the land. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the decaying old downtown core of Hull was redeveloped. Old buildings were replaced by a series of large office complexes. In addition some 4,000 residents were displaced, many businesses uprooted along what was once the town's main commercial area. On 11 November 1992, Ghislaine Chénier, Mayoress by interim for the city of Hull, unveiled War Never Again, a marble stele monument that commemorates the cost of war for the men and children of the city of Hull.
As part of the 2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the five municipalities that constituted the Communauté urbaine de l'Outaouais were merged on 1 January 2002 to constitute the new city of Gatineau. They were: Aylmer Buckingham Hull Gatineau Masson-AngersAlthough Hull was the oldest and most central of the merged cities, the name Gatineau was chosen for the new city; the main reasons given were that Gatineau had more residents, this name was associated with the area: it was the name of the former county, the valley, the hills, the park and the main river within the new city limits. Some argued that the French name of Gatineau was more appealing to the majority French-speaking residents. Since the former city of Hull represents a large area distinct from what was known as Gatineau, some people refer to "Vieux Hull"; the name "Hull" was informally use
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant; the commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC. Brewing was a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe and was brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption but to use as payment.
This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising, Bavaria, it can trace its history back to 1040 AD. The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD; the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. Early breweries were always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors used earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next; this layout is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design. Early breweries used large copper vats in the brewhouse, fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers; such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process.
Today all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently; the steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. It gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating the mash, to prevent scorching, a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. All breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps; the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, always at the same temperature.
Yeast is sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, store it in underground cellars, or caves, to protect it from summer's heat; the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability; some breweries in Belgium, still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look.
Stainless steel has many favourable characteristics that make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavour in beer, it reacts with few chemicals, which means any cleaning solution can be used on it and it is sturdy. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning. Heating in the brewhouse is achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Cooling in other areas of the brewery is done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is common. Today, modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed to correct for variations. Samples are pulled at every step and tested for content, unwanted microbial infections
Jacques Cartier Park
Jacques Cartier Park is a park in Gatineau, Canada, along the Ottawa River. It is at the base of the Alexandra Bridge, it is named for French explorer Jacques Cartier, who arrived at the mouth of the Ottawa River while he was looking for the Northwest Passage. The National Capital Commission uses the site to run one of its popular annual events, Winterlude every February, it is a busy site on Canada Day, offering activities such as music and dance shows throughout the day and activities for children, demonstrations by the Canadian Forces SkyHawks parachute team. Maison Charron, the oldest surviving house in Hull, is located in the park, it is used for various activities. Media related to Parc Jacques-Cartier, Gatineau at Wikimedia Commons
Hull is the central district and oldest neighborhood of the city of Gatineau, Canada. It is located on the west bank of the Gatineau River and the north shore of the Ottawa River, directly opposite Ottawa; as part of the Canadian National Capital Region, it contains offices for over 20,000 civil servants. It is named after Kingston upon Hull in the United Kingdom. Hull is a former municipality in the Province of Quebec and the location of the oldest non-native settlement in the National Capital Region, it was founded on the north shore of the Ottawa River in 1800 by Philemon Wright at the portage around the Chaudière Falls just upstream from where the Gatineau and Rideau Rivers flow into the Ottawa. Wright brought his family, five other families and twenty-five labourers and a plan to establish an agriculturally based community to what was a mosquito-infested wilderness, but soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands and became involved in the timber trade. The place was named Wright's Town, the name Wrightville survives as the name of a neighborhood in Hull.
The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was much the preserve of the draveurs, people who would use the river to transport logs from lumber camps until they arrived downriver. The log-filled Ottawa River, as viewed from Hull, appeared on the back of the Canadian one-dollar bill until it was replaced by a dollar coin in 1987, the last of the dwindling activity of the draveurs on these rivers ended a few years later. Ottawa was founded as the terminus of the Rideau Canal built under the command of LCol. John By as part of fortifications and defences constructed after the War of 1812. Named Bytown, Ottawa did not become the Canadian capital until the mid-19th century after the original parliament in Montreal was torched by a rioting mob of English-speaking citizens on April 25, 1849, its greater distance from the Canada–US border left the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack. Nothing remains of the original 1800 settlement. Hull was noted for its nightlife during the years 1917 to 2000.
Prohibition on the sale of alcohol in Ontario began in 1916, continued until the repeal of the Ontario Temperance Act in 1927. Hull's proximity to Ontario made it a convenient place for people from Ottawa to consume alcohol, a sharp increase in arrests for drunk and disorderly conduct was noted in Hull in 1917; as a result, in May 1918, Hull enacted local laws prohibiting the sale of alcohol. This led to a dramatic increase in bootlegging in Hull, the town gained the nickname le Petit Chicago, because its per capita crime rates were similar to those in Chicago. In 1919, a local plebiscite repealed Hull's prohibition laws, causing Hull's drinking establishments to once again thrive as a result of the continued prohibition in neighbouring Ontario. Most of Hull's bars were conveniently located near the Alexandra Bridge to Ottawa, which a local newspaper called, "the bridge of the thousand thirsts". Hull's Chief of Police stated in 1924 that the cause of Hull's lawlessness was its proximity to Ottawa, a report published in 1925 found that visitors to Hull accounted for up to 90 percent of its bar patrons, as well as the vast majority of those arrested for drunk and disorderly conduct.
A newspaper in the 1920s stated, "these taverns, which are Hull's sole attraction, are not bar rooms, but barn-like, dim rooms in old buildings". During the early 1940s—when bars in Ontario closed at 1 am and bars in Quebec closed at 3 am—residents of Ontario continued to take advantage of Quebec's more liberal policies on alcohol control. An official inquiry in the 1940s found that gambling houses and illegal bars in Hull were receiving protection from corrupt local politicians, who encouraged police not to arrest prostitutes. During World War II, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay, Lac Saint-Jean, Île Sainte-Hélène, had Prisoner-of-war camps. Hull's prison was labeled with a number and remained unnamed just like Canada's other war prisons; the prisoners of war were sorted and classified into categories by nationality and civilian or military status. In this camp, POWs were Italian and German nationals. During the Conscription Crisis of 1944 the prison included Canadians who had refused conscription.
Prisoners were forced into hard labour which included farming the land and lumbering. The Macdonald-Cartier Bridge was constructed in 1965. A large office complex known as Place du Portage began construction in the 1970s, uprooting many businesses along what was once the town's main commercial area, displacing some 4,000 residents; the disco era of the 1970s ushered in new prosperity for Hull's nightlife, "Viva Disco" was named in Playboy magazine's top ten in North America. In the early 1980s, Hull City Council began encouraging the expansion of bars in the downtown area. Bars in Hull continued to remain open two additional hours compared to bars in Ontario, some bars offered a shuttle service from Ottawa. By 1985, Hull had the highest crime rate in Quebec, with offences in the bar district including murder, drug dealing, violence, noise and drunkenness; the Canadian Museum of History relocated nearby in 1989, politicians in Hull expressed concern about the city's image. Official committees in Hull weighed the job creation a