The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre)
The Communist Party of Nepal was a communist political party in Nepal. The party was founded in 1994 after breaking away from the Communist Party of Nepal; the party has led three governments, from 2008 to 2009 and from 2016 to 2017 under Pushpa Kamal Dahal and from 2013 to 2015 under Baburam Bhattarai. The party was known as the Communist Party of Nepal until 2009 and as the Unified Communist Party of Nepal until 2016. In 2008, The Unified Communist Party of Nepal, placed first in the election with 220 out of 575 elected seats, became the largest party in the Constituent Assembly. In the 2013 elections, the party won 80 out of 575 elected seats to become the third largest party in the Constituent Assembly of Nepal; the party dissolved on the 17th of May 2018, after merging with the Communist Party of Nepal to create the Nepal Communist Party. The party was formed in 1994 following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal into two factions, one led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal and the other led Nirmal Lama.
The electoral front of the party, the United People's Front of Nepal split and the faction led by Baburam Bhattarai allied with the Pushpa Kamal Dahal led Communist Party of Nepal. The two United People's Front of Nepal decided to register itself with the Election Commission, but the commission only recognized the Nirmal Lama backed party. Baburam Bhattarai responded by calling for a boycott of the 1994 mid-term elections; the Unity Centre led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal went underground after the split to begin preparations for its next phase of struggle. The party held its Third Plenum in March 1995, where the party renamed itself to the Communist Party of Nepal, it decided that the for "the true liberation of the people, all efforts must be concentrated for the development of a people's war that would usher in the new people's democratic form of government" and decided to give up its policy of taking part in parliamentary elections. The March meeting was followed by six months of preparations to recast the old organizational structure into a fighting machine, in September 1995, the'Plan for the Historic Initiation of the People's War' was adopted by the Central Committee of the party.
There began a series of public meetings all over the country under the aegis of the United People's Front of Nepal as part of the final politico-ideological preparation. The party launched the'Sija campaign' in Rolpa and Rukum, named after the Sisne and Jaljala mountains in the two districts, to propagate the ideology of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism. In October 1995, during the Sija campaign, a fight broke out between supporters of the United People's Front of Nepal and other parties the Nepali Congress and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party, at a village in the eastern part of Rukum; the newly formed government under Sher Bahadur Deuba moved swiftly to arrest the UPFN supporters, accusing them of creating public disorder. The police launched'Operation Romeo' in November 1995. Operation Romeo was labeled as an operation to control a rise in criminal activities in Rolpa. Operation Romeo resulted in gross violations of human rights, including the arbitrary arrest and detention of hundreds of members of left-of-center parties, executions and “disappearances.”
In the light of this action, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the party met in January 1996 and made the final decision on the historic initiation of the'People's War' for February 13, 1996. On February 4, 1996, Baburam Bhattarai led a three-member delegation of the United People's Front of Nepal to present a memorandum to Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba; the memorandum warned that unless the government took initiative to fulfill their 40-point demands by February 17, the UFPN would launch an armed revolution. On February 13, 1996, after Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba had left for a state visit to India two days before, the office of the Small Farmer's Development Programme run by the Agricultural Development Bank was overrun in Gorkha district and the loan papers were destroyed; this was followed in the evening by attacks on police posts in Aathbiskot-Rari in Rukum, Holeri in Rolpa and Sindhuligadhi in Sindhuli. The'People's War' was formally launched. After the Communist Party of Nepal came into government in 1997, violence between both sides stopped but the issue could not be resolved.
The government formed a taskforce to look into the'Maoist Activities and a Search for Solutions' in April 1997 under CPN MP Prem Singh Dhami but the commission report was shelved in August of the same year. A local election was called in May 1997, but polls could not be held in 87 village development committees due to intimidation by the Maoists; the government in response attempted to introduce the Terrorist and Destructive Activities Act in July 1997 at the initiative of deputy prime minister and home minister Bam Dev Gautam. The act would give the police wide-ranging powers against perceived'terrorists', but the government was forced to backtrack on the law before it was placed in front of the parliament owing to mass protests from the civil society, the media, international organizations. On 13 February 1998, the second anniversary of the'people's war', the Maoists announced the existence of a Central Military Commission under Prachanda. By May 1998, 51 village development committees in Rolpa district and western Nepal were under Maoist control and they were operating a parallel administration called the'People's Government'.
When the new Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala went on tour of the Maoist influenced area he r
Tribhuvan International Airport
Tribhuvan International Airport, IATA: KTM, ICAO: VNKT) is an international airport in Kathmandu, located in the Kathmandu Valley about 5 kilometres from the city center of Kathmandu. The airport has served as an airfield since 1949, was inaugurated in 1955 by King Mahendra of Nepal, it received its current name in 1964. A grass runway, it was re-laid in concrete in 1957 and has been extended several times; the first jet aircraft landed at Tribhuvan in 1967 and regular jet operations commenced in 1972. The airport has one domestic and one international terminal. At present, over 30 international airlines connect Nepal to destinations in Asia and the Middle East, the airport serves as a hub for several Nepalese airlines, it is the sole international airport in Nepal, several projects are ongoing to construct further international airports, including Nijgadh International Airport, Pokhara International Airport and Gautam Buddha Airport. The airport was named Gauchaur Airport, after the area of Kathmandu where it was situated.
The formal beginning of aviation in Nepal occurred in 1949, with the landing of a Beechcraft Bonanza carrying the Indian ambassador. The first charter flight took place between Gauchaur and Calcutta, in a Himalayan Aviation Dakota on 20 February 1950. In 1955, the airport was inaugurated by King Mahendra and renamed Tribhuvan Airport in memory of the king's father; the airport was again renamed Tribhuvan International Airport in 1964. The original grass runway was re-laid in concrete in 1957 and extended from 3,750 feet, to 6,600 feet in 1967; the runway was again extended from 6,600 feet to 10,000 feet in 1975. The first jet aircraft to land at Tribhuvan was a Lufthansa Boeing 707 in 1967. Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation commenced jet operations at the airport in 1972 with Boeing 727 aircraft. In May 2007, Austrian Airlines discontinued their flight to Vienna, Nepal's last direct air link to Europe. Since September 2013, Turkish Airlines launched direct flights from Istanbul to Kathmandu, re-establishing Nepal's connection with continental Europe.
The airport has a single 10,007 feet concrete runway oriented 02/20. There is no instrument landing system available; the airport has one for domestic traffic. It has a terminal for VIP guests. There are plans to construct a separate terminal for helicopter transportation. Radisson Hotel Kathmandu operates an executive lounge for first and business class passengers for some airlines and Thai Airways operates a lounge for its business-class passengers, as well as Star Alliance Gold card holders. Tribhuvan International Airport is located 1 km away from Pashupatinath Temple, 6 km east of city center and main tourists area Thamel. Airport is connected to different parts of Kathmandu by city bus Sajha Yatayat, local buses out of airport and cabs; the nearest hotel is Airport Hotel located just 200 m from the airport. The helicopter operators Air Dynasty, Manang Air, Prabhu helicopter, Simrik Air, Shree Airlines and Summit Helicopters offer helicopter operations out of their respective hubs at Tribhuvan International Airport.
Several Airlines provide daily mountain sightseeing flights or Mount Everest sightseeing flights out of Kathmandu Airport. They depart from the domestic terminal in the early morning hours and return to the airport one hour later. Sajha Yatayat buses connect the airport's international terminal to city centre, with the last bus leaving the airport at around 18:00. Buses from other local companies stop in front of the airport's main gate, 500 meters in front of the airport buildings. Meter and prepaid taxis are available at both terminals at all hours. 10 May 1973 – A Thai Airways Douglas DC-8 overran the runway on landing with 100 of passengers and 10 crew on board, there was one fatality. 31 July 1992 – An Airbus A310-304, operating as Thai Airways International Flight 311 crashed into a mountain while approaching Kathmandu, killing all 113 people on board. 28 September 1992 – An Airbus A300 B4-203 operating as PIA Flight 268 crashed while approaching Kathmandu, killing all 167 on board. 17 January 1995 – Royal Nepal Airlines De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter 300, flight RA133 from Kathmandu to Rumjatar, had problems getting airborne at Tribhuvan International Airport.
The aircraft plunged into fields. Of three crew and 21 passengers on board, one crew member and one passenger were killed. 7 July 1999 – A Boeing 727-200F of Lufthansa Cargo crashed in the Champadevi hills at the 7550 feet level, five minutes after takeoff, when it should have been at an altitude of 9500 feet. All five crew members on board were killed. 5 September 1999 – A BAe 748-501 Super 2B operating as Necon Air Flight 128 from Pokhara to Kathmandu, crashed while approaching Tribhuvan International Airport. The aircraft collided with a communication tower of Nepal Telecommunication Corporation and crashed in a wooded area 25 km west of Kathmandu. All 10 passengers and 5 crew were killed. 26 December 1999 – A Airbus A300B2-101 operating as Indian Airlines Flight 814 was hijacked en route from Kathmandu to Delhi. The aircraft ended up in Afghanistan. Indian Airlines suspended all flights to and from Nepal for some time, fearing a lack of security at check-in. 24 December 2008 – A Nepal Airlines De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter 300 ran off the runway during takeoff 24 August 2010 – A Dornier Do 228 operating as Agni Air Flight 101 crashed into hills outside Kathmandu in heavy rain.
All on board were killed. The plane, crashed near Shikharpur village, 80 km south of Kathmandu; the aircraft had left T
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
Ghaghara called Karnali is a perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar. It joins the Sharda River at Brahmaghat in India. Together they form a major left bank tributary of the Ganges. With a length of 507 kilometres it is the longest river in Nepal; the total length of Ghaghara River up to its confluence with the Ganges at Revelganj in Bihar is 1,080 kilometres. It is the largest tributary of the Ganges by volume and the second longest tributary of the Ganges by length after Yamuna. Lower Ghaghara is known as Sarayu river and finds mention in Ramayana. Ayodhya is situated on its right bank, it rises in the southern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet, in the glaciers of Mapchachungo, at an elevation of about 3,962 metres above sea level. The river flows south through one of the most remote and least explored areas of Nepal as the Karnali River; the 202-kilometre Seti River drains the western part of the catchment and joins the Karnali River in Doti District north of Dundras hill.
Another tributary, the 264-kilometre long Bheri, rises in the western part of Dhaulagiri Himalaya and drains the eastern part of the catchment, meeting the Karnali near Kuineghat in Surkhet. Cutting southward across the Siwalik Hills, it splits into two branches, the Geruwa on the left and Kauriala on the right near Chisapani to rejoin south of the Indian border and form the proper Ghaghara. Other tributaries originating in Nepal are the Kali and the little Gandak, it flows southeast through Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states to join the Ganges downstream of the town of Chhapra, after a course of 1,080 kilometres. Sarayu river is stated to be synonymous as a tributary of it. Karnali River exposes the oldest part of the Sivalik Hills of Nepal; the remnant magnetization of siltstones and sandstones in this group suggests a depositional age of between 16 million and 5.2 million years. The Karnali River Basin lies between the mountain ranges of Dhaulagiri in Nepal and Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand. Dhaulagiri II, elevation 7,751 metres, is the highest point of the entire basin.
In the north, it lies in the rain shadow of the Himalayas. The basin formed by the river has a total catchment area of 127,950 square kilometres, of which 45 percent is in India; the population of the Basin districts in Nepal increased from 1.9 million in 1971 to 4.7 million people in 2001 a 250% increase over three decades. The average population density of the Basin area increased from 53 persons/km2 in 1981 to 87 persons/km2 in 2001. There is a steady growth in the economically active population in the basin districts; the average literacy rate has increased from a mere 7.5% in 1971 to 45% in 2001. The social status of the permanent households increased from 24% in 1991 to 31% in 2001; the basin has a total road length of 2,640 kilometres. Chhoti Gandak is a groundwater-fed meandering river originating near Dhesopool, Maharajganj district of Uttar Pradesh, it travels a distance of about 250 kilometres and joins Ghaghara near Guthani, Siwan district of Bihar. The Chhoti Gandak River Basin is located between 26°00' to 27°20' N latitude and 83°30' to 84°15' E longitude.
Right bank tributaries are Khekhra, Jethan, Duhari and Koilar rivers. The discharge of Chhoti Gandak is controlled by rain, high during the monsoon season and low during the summers, it has been observed that whenever precipitation is high in the catchment areas, there is flood in the downstream part of the Chhoti Gandak River Basin. The region exhibits upland terrace surface, river valley terrace surface, present-day river channel with narrow flood plains, natural levee, point-bar deposits. All these geomorphic features made up of alluvium of different ages; the main tributaries of the Karnali are: the Bheri. In Nepal, Karnali Zone is the largest zone with about 5,000 square miles area, its administrative center is Jumla. The zone is divided into the five districts of Dolpa, Jumla and Mugu; the Karnali zone has the lowest population density in Nepal. There are no large settlements on the banks of the river, only crossed near Chisapani by the Mahendra Highway; this region is now connected by karnali highway.
And now due to various hydro electricity projects this area is being developed. Now a 900 mW project is going to be constructed in this river In India, the administrative districts in the Ghaghra catchment are Ambedkarnagar, Barabanki, Ballia, Deoria, Gonda, Sant Kabir Nagar, Kheri Lakhimpur, Sitapur of Uttar Pradesh and Siwan district in Bihar. Important towns in India include Akabarpur, Ayodhya Faizabad, Barabanki, Deoria, Gonda, Khaililabad, Siddharthnagar, Saint Kabir Nagar, Kamhariya and Tanda in Uttar Pradesh and Chapra and Sonepur in Bihar; the Karnali Basin hosts some of Nepal's famous national parks. The protected area constitutes nearly 14% of the total basin area, including four national parks, one wildlife reserve, one hunting reserve and two buffer zones; the basin and its influence area constitute 27% of the total protected area, 63% of national park, 25% of the buffer zone and 31% of wildlife reserve. The significance of some of the protected areas is summarised below: Shey Phoksundo National Park in Dolpa District, established in
Province No. 5
Province No. 5 is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Butwal has been declared the interim state capital of Province No. 5. It borders Gandaki Pradesh and Karnali Pradesh to the north, Sudurpashchim Pradesh to the west, Uttar Pradesh of India to the south; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Tulsipur High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Uma Kanta Jha, Shankar Pokhrel and Nahakul Subedi. The province has 87 provincial assembly constituencies and 26 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 5 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years; the Provincial Assembly of Province No. 5 is temporarily housed at the Chamber of Commerce Meeting Hall in Butwal.
Province No. 5 is divided into 12 districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include 32 municipalities. There are 73 rural municipalities in the province. Arghakhanchi Banke Bardiya Dang Eastern Rukum Gulmi Kapilvastu Parasi Palpa Pyuthan Rolpa Rupandehi List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Nepalese Civil War
The Nepalese Civil War, known popularly as the Maoist Conflict, Maoist Insurgency or Maoist Revolution, was a ten-year-long armed conflict between the Communist Party of Nepal and the government of Nepal, fought from 1996 to 2006. The insurgency period was popularly known as Maovadi Dwandakaal in Nepal; the rebellion was launched by the CPN-M on 13 February 1996 with the main aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a People's Republic. It ended with the Comprehensive Peace Accord signed on 21 November 2006; the conflict was characterized by lynchings, purges and autonomous rule, spread of communist teachings, conflicts against the authority and crimes against humanity. The revolution resulted in deaths of over 17,000 people involving civilians, insurgents and police personnels, internally displaced hundreds of thousands of people; this revolution succeeded in overthrowing the 240 years old Hindu Shah monarchy of Gorkha and established secular republican regime which resulted in political and cultural change in Nepal popularly termed Krambhanga.
More than 17,000 people were killed during the conflict, including over 4,000 Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996-2005, over 8,200 Nepalis killed by government forces from 1996-2005. In addition, an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. Furthermore, this conflict disrupted most rural development activities. On 10 January 1990, the United Left Front was formed, together with the Nepali Congress, was the backbone of the broad-based movement for democratic change. However, communist groups, uncomfortable with the alliance between the ULF and the Congress Party, formed a parallel front, the United National People's Movement; the UNPM called for elections to a constituent assembly, rejected compromises made by ULF and the Congress Party with the royal house. In November 1990, the Communist Party of Nepal, or CPN, was formed, included key elements of the UNPM. On 21 January 1991, the CPN set up the United People's Front of Nepal, with Baburam Bhattarai as its head, as an open front to contest elections.
The CPN held its first convention on 25 November 1991, adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution", decided that the party would remain an underground party. In the 1991 election, the UPFN became the third-largest party in the Nepali parliament. However, disagreements within the UPFN surged. One group, led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal, argued for immediate armed revolution, while the other group, led by Nirmal Lama, claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle. On 22 May 1994, the CPN/UPFN was split in two; the militant faction renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal, or CPN. This faction described the government forces, mainstream political parties, the monarchy, as "feudal forces"; the armed struggle began on 13 February 1996, when the CPN carried out 7 simultaneous attacks over 6 districts. The Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency; the Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for which the police would sustain control.
Controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. On 19 July 2001, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigned over his inability to tackle the Maoist insurgency, over the refusal of the army to take part in the conflict. On 25 July 2001, the government of Sher Bahadur Deuba and the Maoist insurgents declared a ceasefire, held peace talks from August–November of that year; the failure of these peace talks resulted in the return to armed conflict, beginning when the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal, on 22 November. Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents, mobilizing artillery; the insurgency situation changed in 2002, as the number of attacks by both sides increased and more people died than in any other year of the war. The government responded to the insurgency by banning anti-monarchy statements, imprisoning journalists, shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary ceasefires, were held between the insurgents and the government.
The government categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for elections to a constituent assembly, for fear that it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy. In November 2004, the government rejected both the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with King Gyanendra rather than via Prime Minister Deuba, the Maoists' request for discussions to be mediated by a third party such as the United Nations. Throughout the war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoists dominated the rural areas; this was a result of the fact that all government institutions were located in either the capital city Kathmandu, or the headquarters of a district. In August 2004 Kathmandu came under rebel control, as the Maoists performed a week-long blockade of the city. Under the aegis of the global War on Terror and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, United Kingdom, India, among other nations, provided extensive m