Jersey the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, the ducal title surrendered to France and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown; the bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial and judicial systems, the power of self-determination. The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, has an international identity separate from that of the UK, but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey; the definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. The European Commission have confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 that Jersey is within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey is not part of the European Union but has a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency if some people still speak the Norman language.
Additional cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, the popularity of British sports, including cricket. The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Barsa and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified because none corresponds directly to the present names; the name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey since William Camden's Britannia, is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea. Andium and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð or jarl, or a personal name, Geirr; the ending -ey denotes an island. Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island.
Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship. Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula came under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands; when William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.
The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. In the Treaty of Paris, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, since the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey.
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Philip Massinger was an English dramatist. His finely plotted plays, including A New Way to Pay Old Debts, The City Madam and The Roman Actor, are noted for their satire and realism, their political and social themes; the son of Arthur Massinger or Messanger, he was baptized at St. Thomas's Salisbury on 24 November 1583, he belonged to an old Salisbury family, for the name occurs in the city records as early as 1415. He is described in his matriculation entry at Oxford, as the son of a gentleman, his father, educated at St. Alban Hall, was a member of parliament, was attached to the household of Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Herbert recommended Arthur in 1587 for the office of examiner in the Court of the Marches. William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, who would come to oversee the London Stage and the royal company as King James's Lord Chamberlain, succeeded to the title in 1601, it has been suggested that he supported Massinger at Oxford, but the omission of any reference to him in any of Massinger's prefaces points to the contrary.
Massinger left Oxford without a degree in 1606. His father had died in 1603, that may have left him without financial assistance; the lack of a degree and the want of patronage from Lord Pembroke may both be explained on the supposition that he had become Roman Catholic. On leaving the university he went to London to make his living as a dramatist, but his name cannot be affixed to any play until fifteen years when The Virgin Martyr appeared as the work of Massinger and Thomas Dekker. During these years he worked in collaboration with other dramatists. A joint letter, from Nathan Field, Robert Daborne and Philip Massinger, to Philip Henslowe, begs for an immediate loan of five pounds to release them from their "unfortunate extremity," the money to be taken from the balance due for the "play of Mr. Fletcher's and ours." A second document shows that Massinger and Daborne owed Henslowe £3 on 4 July 1615. The earlier note dates from 1613, from this time Massinger worked with John Fletcher. Sir Aston Cockayne, Massinger's constant friend and patron, refers in explicit terms to this collaboration in a sonnet addressed to Humphrey Moseley on the publication of his folio edition of Beaumont and Fletcher, in an epitaph on the two poets he says: "Plays they did write together, were great friends, And now one grave includes them in their ends."
After Philip Henslowe's death in 1616 Massinger and Fletcher began to write for the King's Men. Between 1623 and 1626 Massinger produced unaided for the Lady Elizabeth's Men playing at the Cockpit Theatre, three pieces, The Parliament of Love, The Bondman and The Renegado. With the exception of these plays and The Great Duke of Florence, produced in 1627 by Queen Henrietta's Men, Massinger continued to write for the King's Men until his death; the tone of the dedications of his plays affords evidence of his continued poverty. In the preface to The Maid of Honour he wrote, addressing Sir Francis Foljambe and Sir Thomas Bland: "I had not to this time subsisted, but that I was supported by your frequent courtesies and favours."The prologue to The Guardian refers to two unsuccessful plays and two years of silence, when the author feared he had lost the popular favour. It is probable that this break in his production was owing to his free handling of political matters. In 1631, Sir Henry Herbert, the Master of the Revels, refused to license an unnamed play by Massinger because of "dangerous matter as the deposing of Sebastian, King of Portugal," calculated to endanger good relations between England and Spain.
There is little doubt that this was the same piece as Believe as You List, in which time and place are changed, Antiochus being substituted for Sebastian, Rome for Spain. In the prologue, Massinger apologizes for his ignorance of history, professes that his accuracy is at fault if his picture comes near "a late and sad example." The obvious "late and sad example" of a wandering prince could be no other than Charles I's brother-in-law, the Elector Palatine. An allusion to the same subject may be traced in The Maid of Honour. In another play by Massinger, not extant, Charles I is reported to have himself struck out a passage put into the mouth of Don Pedro, king of Spain, as "too insolent." The poet seems to have adhered to the politics of his patron, Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke, who had leanings to democracy and was a personal enemy of the Duke of Buckingham. The servility towards the Crown displayed in Beaumont and Fletcher's plays reflected the temper of the court of James I; the attitude of Massinger's heroes and heroines towards kings is different.
Camiola's remarks on the limitations of the royal prerogative could hardly be acceptable at court. Massinger died at his house near the Globe Theatre, was buried in the churchyard of St. Saviour's, Southwark, on 18 March 1640. In the entry in the parish register he is described as a "stranger," which, implies nothing more than that he belonged to another parish, he is buried in the same tomb as Fletcher. That grave can be seen to this day in the chancel of what is now Southwark Cathedral near London Bridge on the south bank of the Thames. There the names of Fletcher and Massinger appear on adjacent plaques laid in the floor between the choir stalls. Next to these is a plaque commemorating Edmund Shakespeare, buried in the Cathedral, although the exact location of his grave is unknown; the supposition that Massinger was a Roman Catholic rests upon three of his
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II; this followed the Interregnum called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The term Restoration is used to describe both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established, it is often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II and the brief reign of his younger brother James II. In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the Stuart monarchs as far as the death of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I in 1714; the Commonwealth, which preceded the English Restoration, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was. After seven months, an army faction known as the Wallingford House party removed him on 6 May 1659 and reinstalled the Rump Parliament.
Charles Fleetwood was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659, he was nominated lord-general of the army. However, his leadership was undermined in Parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the post-First Civil War Parliament. A royalist uprising was planned for 1 August 1659. However, Sir George Booth gained control of Cheshire. Booth held Cheshire until the end of August; the Commons, on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the Speaker. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general; the Committee of Safety sent Lambert with a large force to meet George Monck, in command of the English forces in Scotland, either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms.
It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, he returned to London alone. Monck marched to London unopposed; the Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled, on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. On 3 March 1660, Lambert was sent to the Tower of London, he tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a participant in the regicide of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Guernsey in 1694. On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England.
Monck organised the Convention Parliament. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. "Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened." Charles returned from exile, landing at Dover on 25 May. He entered London on his 30th birthday. To celebrate His Majesty's Return to his Parliament, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle"; the sudden and unexpected deliverance from usurpation and tyranny was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order. The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on 8 May 1661, it would endure for over 17 years being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist, it is known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.
The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". Many Royalist exiles were rewarded. Prince Rupert of the Rhine returned to the service of England, became a member of the privy council, was provided with an annuity. George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. Marmaduke Langdale returned and was made "Baron Langdale". William Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle and was able to regain the greater part of his estates, he was invested in 1666 with the Order of the Garter, was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the 59 commissioners (
Henry Purcell was an English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music, he is considered to be one of the greatest English composers. Purcell was born in St Ann's Lane, Old Pye Street, Westminster – the area of London known as Devil's Acre – in 1659. Henry Purcell Senior, whose older brother, Thomas Purcell, was a musician, was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal and sang at the coronation of King Charles II of England. Henry the elder had three sons: Edward and Daniel. Daniel Purcell, the youngest of the brothers, was a prolific composer who wrote the music for much of the final act of The Indian Queen after Henry Purcell's death. Henry Purcell's family lived just a few hundred yards west of Westminster Abbey from 1659 onwards. After his father's death in 1664, Purcell was placed under the guardianship of his uncle Thomas, who showed him great affection and kindness. Thomas was himself a gentleman of His Majesty's Chapel, arranged for Henry to be admitted as a chorister.
Henry studied first under Captain Henry Cooke, Master of the Children, afterwards under Pelham Humfrey, Cooke's successor. The composer Matthew Locke was a family friend and with his semi-operas also had a musical influence on the young Purcell. Henry was a chorister in the Chapel Royal until his voice broke in 1673, when he became assistant to the organ-builder John Hingston, who held the post of keeper of wind instruments to the King. Purcell is said to have been composing at nine years old, but the earliest work that can be identified as his is an ode for the King's birthday, written in 1670, it is assumed that the three-part song Sweet tyranness, I now resign was written by him as a child. After Humfrey's death, Purcell continued his studies under Dr John Blow, he in 1676 was appointed copyist at Westminster Abbey. Henry Purcell's earliest anthem Lord, who can tell was composed in 1678, it is a psalm, prescribed for Christmas Day and to be read at morning prayer on the fourth day of the month.
In 1679, he wrote songs for John Playford's Choice Ayres and Dialogues and an anthem, the name of, unknown, for the Chapel Royal. From an extant letter written by Thomas Purcell we learn that this anthem was composed for the exceptionally fine voice of the Rev. John Gostling at Canterbury, but afterwards a gentleman of His Majesty's Chapel. Purcell wrote several anthems at different times for Gostling's extraordinary basso profondo voice, known to have had a range of at least two full octaves, from D below the bass staff to the D above it; the dates of few of these sacred compositions are known. In gratitude for the providential escape of King Charles II from shipwreck, of the royal party, put together some verses from the Psalms in the form of an anthem and requested Purcell to set them to music; the challenging work opens with a passage which traverses the full extent of Gostling's range, beginning on the upper D and descending two octaves to the lower. In 1679, appointed organist of Westminster Abbey 10 years before, resigned his office in favour of Purcell.
Purcell now devoted himself entirely to the composition of sacred music, for six years severed his connection with the theatre. However, during the early part of the year before taking up his new office, he had produced two important works for the stage, the music for Nathaniel Lee's Theodosius, Thomas d'Urfey's Virtuous Wife. Between 1680 and 1688 Purcell wrote music for seven plays; the composition of his chamber opera Dido and Aeneas, which forms a important landmark in the history of English dramatic music, has been attributed to this period, its earliest production may well have predated the documented one of 1689. It was written to a libretto furnished by Nahum Tate, performed in 1689 in cooperation with Josias Priest, a dancing master and the choreographer for the Dorset Garden Theatre. Priest's wife kept a boarding school for young gentlewomen, first in Leicester Fields and afterwards at Chelsea, where the opera was performed, it is considered the first genuine English opera, though that title is given to Blow's Venus and Adonis: as in Blow's work, the action does not progress in spoken dialogue but in Italian-style recitative.
Each work runs to less than one hour. At the time and Aeneas never found its way to the theatre, though it appears to have been popular in private circles, it is believed to have been extensively copied, but only one song was printed by Purcell's widow in Orpheus Britannicus, the complete work remained in manuscript until 1840, when it was printed by the Musical Antiquarian Society under the editorship of Sir George Macfarren. The composition of Dido and Aeneas gave Purcell his first chance to write a sustained musical setting of a dramatic text, it was his only opportunity to compose a work. The story of Dido and Aeneas derives from the original source in Virgil's epic the Aeneid. Soon after Purcell's marriage, in 1682, on the death of Edward Lowe, he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal, an office which he was able to hold with his position at Westminster Abbey, his eldest son was born in this same year. H
William Rowley was an English Jacobean dramatist, best known for works written in collaboration with more successful writers. His date of birth is estimated to have been c. 1585. Rowley was an actor-playwright, he must have been a large man, since his forte lay in fat-clown roles. He played the Fat Bishop in Thomas Middleton's A Game at Chess, Plumporridge in the same author's Inner Temple Masque, he wrote fat-clown parts for himself to play: Jaques in All's Lost by Lust, Bustopha in The Maid in the Mill, his collaboration with John Fletcher. He played Simplicity in The World Tossed at Tennis, Chough in A Fair Quarrel — and since these are Middleton/Rowley collaborations, they qualify as two more parts that Rowley wrote for himself; the part of the otherwise-unnamed Clown in The Birth of Merlin shows signs of being another role that Rowley the playwright wrote with Rowley the actor in mind. As a writer, Rowley was exclusively a dramatist. Two plays are accepted as Rowley's solo works: A Shoemaker a Gentleman and All's Lost by Lust.
Three other works that might have been Rowley solo plays have not survived: Hymen's Holidays or Cupid's Vagaries, A Knave in Print, The Fool Without Book. Rowley appears to have begun his career working for Queen Anne's Men at the Red Bull Theatre. In 1609, he was part of a group of actors who set up a new playing company, the Duke of York's Men, which became known as Prince Charles's Men after 1612. Most of Rowley's career was spent writing and clowning for this company, based at a series of different playhouses, including the Curtain, the Hope, the Red Bull. Rowley was the troupe's payee for their Court performances in the 1610–15 era. In 1623, Rowley left his company and joined the successful King's Men at the Globe, until his death in 1626. Though brief, his stay with the troupe was eventful: in 1624 he was embroiled in both the Game at Chess controversy in August and the Spanish Viceroy affair in December; the roles he took with the company included Cacafogo in Rule a Wife and Have a Wife, the Cook in Rollo Duke of Normandy, Tony in A Wife for a Month.
Notably, Rowley did not restrict his playwriting efforts to the company to which he was committed as an actor. In 1624 he was a member of the King's Men, Shakespeare's famous company, in August of that year played in their notorious production of A Game at Chess — yet in the same year he worked on the now-lost play Keep the Widow Waking with Dekker and Webster, intended for the Red Bull Theatre. Rowley's canon is plagued by uncertainty and by the complexities of collaboration: the following is only an approximate guide. All's Lost by Lust The Birth of Merlin; the title page claims William Shakespeare as Rowley's co-writer. The Changeling. Co-written with Thomas Middleton. A Cure for a Cuckold. Co-written with John Webster. A Fair Quarrel. Co-written with Thomas Middleton. Fortune by Land and Sea. Co-written with Thomas Heywood; the Maid in the Mill. Co-written with John Fletcher. A Match at Midnight. Attributed only to'W. R.', stylistic analysis suggests that it may not be by Rowley. A New Wonder, a Woman Never Vexed.
A collaboration. The Old Law, or A New Way to Please You. Co-written with Thomas Middleton, a third collaborator who may have been Philip Massinger or Thomas Heywood. A Shoemaker a Gentleman The Spanish Gypsy. Although the title page attributes this play to Rowley and Thomas Middleton, stylistic analysis favours a different playwriting team: John Ford and Thomas Dekker; the Thracian Wonder. The title page attributes this play to Rowley and John Webster although few readers accept Webster's presence; the Travels of the Three English Brothers. Co-written with George Wilkins and John Day. Wit at Several Weapons. Although it was first printed as part of the Beaumont and Fletcher folio, stylistic analysis suggests that this play was revised by Rowley and Thomas Middleton; the Witch of Edmonton. Co-written with John Ford and Thomas Dekker; the World Tossed at Tennis. Co-written with Thomas Middleton. Bentley, G. E; the Jacobean and Caroline Stage. 7 vols.. Chambers, E. K; the Elizabethan Stage.. Gurr, Andrew; the Shakespeare Company, 1594–1642.
Beaumont and Fletcher
Beaumont and Fletcher were the English dramatists Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, who collaborated in their writing during the reign of James I of England. They became known as a team early in their association, so much so that their joined names were applied to the total canon of Fletcher, including his solo works and the plays he composed with various other collaborators including Philip Massinger and Nathan Field; the first Beaumont and Fletcher folio of 1647 contained 35 plays. Other works bring the total plays in the canon to about 55. While scholars and critics will never render a unanimous verdict on the authorship of all these plays — given the difficulties of some of the individual cases — contemporary scholarship has arrived at a corpus of about 12 to 15 plays that are the work of both men.. The plays recognized as Beaumont/Fletcher collaborations: The Woman Hater, comedy Cupid's Revenge, tragedy Philaster, or Love Lies a-Bleeding, tragicomedy The Maid's Tragedy, tragedy A King and No King, tragicomedy The Captain, comedy The Scornful Lady, comedy Love's Pilgrimage, tragicomedy The Noble Gentleman, comedy.
Beaumont/Fletcher plays revised by Massinger: Thierry and Theodoret, tragedy The Coxcomb, comedy Beggars' Bush, comedy Love's Cure, comedy. Due to Fletcher's distinctive pattern of contractional forms and linguistic preferences, his hand can be readily distinguished from Beaumont's in their collaborative works. In A King and No King, Beaumont wrote Acts I, II, III in their entirety, plus scene IV,iv and V,ii and iv, while Fletcher wrote only the first three scenes in Act IV and the first and third scenes of Act V; the play is more. Beaumont dominates in The Maid's Tragedy, The Noble Gentleman and The Woman Hater. In contrast, The Captain, The Coxcomb, Cupid's Revenge, Beggars' Bush, The Scornful Lady contain more of Fletcher's work than Beaumont's; the cases of Thierry and Theodoret and Love's Cure are somewhat confused by Massinger's revision. Critics and scholars debate other plays. Fletcher wrote the last two quarters of Four Plays in One, another play in his canon — and he didn't write the first two sections.
Many scholars attribute the play's first half to Nathan Field --. Given the limits of the existing evidence, some of these questions may be unresolvable with currently-available techniques. Fletcher, Ian. Beaumont and Fletcher. London, Green, 1967. Hoy, Cyrus. "The Shares of Fletcher and His Collaborators in the Beaumont and Fletcher Canon." Studies in Bibliography. Seven parts: Vols. VIII-IX, XI-XV, 1956-62. Logan, Terence P. and Denzell S. Smith, eds; the Later Jacobean and Caroline Dramatists: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1978
Nathan Field was an English dramatist. He was an actor, his father was the Puritan preacher John Field, his brother Theophilus Field became the Bishop of Llandaff. One of his brothers named Nathaniel confused with the actor, became a printer. Nathan's father passionately opposed London's public entertainments: he delivered a sermon which attributed Divine judgment to the collapse of the public seating area, during a bear baiting on a Sunday, at Beargarden in 1583, which resulted in several deaths. Nathan did not intend a career in the theatre. At some point before 1600, he was impressed by Nathaniel Giles, the master of Elizabeth's choir and one of the managers of the new troupe of boy players at Blackfriars Theatre, called alternately the Children of the Chapel Royal and the Blackfriars Children, he remained in this profession for the remainder of his life adding to it the profession of a playwright. John Field was buried on 26 March 1588; when John Field died, he left seven children. He left all his property to Joan.
The first child was a daughter, baptized on 7 May 1570. The first son was named after his father, John. Theophilus was baptized on 22 January 1574, Jonathan on 13 May 1577, Nathaniel on 13 June 1581, Elizabeth on 2 February 1583 and Nathan on 17 October 1587. Little is known of the two daughters: Dorcas was married to Edward Rice on 9 November 1590. We know nothing of the life of junior. Jonathan Field, who died in 1640. Theophilus followed his father's profession, he in his will left all his possessions to his wife, Alice. He was buried in Hereford Cathedral; as a member of the Children of the Queen's Revels, Field acted in the innovative drama staged at Blackfriars in the first years of the 17th century. Cast lists associate him with The Poetaster. In the decade, he performed in Epicoene and played Humphrey in Francis Beaumont's The Knight of the Burning Pestle. During the same years, he wrote commendatory verses for Jonson's Volpone and Catiline, for John Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. Field was also among those of the children's company imprisoned for the official displeasure occasioned by Eastward Hoe and John Day's The Isle of Gulls.
Field stayed with a children's company until his twenty-sixth year. He appears to be the only one of the boy actors of 1600 to remain with the Blackfriars troupe when, in 1609, Philip Rosseter and Robert Keysar assumed control of the company. In this company, he performed in the theatre in Whitefriars and at court, in plays such as Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. From the latter years of this period come the first of his plays: A Woman is a Weathercock and The Honest Man's Fortune. In 1613, Rosseter combined his company with the Lady Elizabeth's Men, managed by Philip Henslowe. Performing at the Swan Theatre and Hope Theatre, Field acted in Thomas Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside and Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. For the latter play, in which he may have performed as Cokes or Littlewit, he received payment for the company after a performance at court; these years witnessed some degree of tumult. This period ended when Henslowe died, Rosseter abandoned his plans, Lady Elizabeth's Men merged and separated from Prince Charles's Men, thereafter touring in the country.
For Field, the period had a more satisfactory end: by late 1616, he had joined the King's Men. With the King's Men, Field seems to have performed as Voltore in Volpone and as Face in The Alchemist, it is not clear. Edmond Malone supposed. Of course he acted in a number of Fletcher's plays, as well as Shakespeare's. Field died some time between May 1619 and August 1620. Scholars and critics have argued for authorial contributions from Field in a number of plays of his era, most in Four Plays in One, The Honest Man's Fortune, The Queen of Corinth and The Knight of Malta, four dramas in the canon of Fletcher and his collaborators. Field had a contemporary reputation as a ladies' man. A portrait believed to be of Field can be seen at Dulwich Picture Gallery in London, UK. Where he is depicted as a melancholy figure with hand on heart, it has been said that this painting may be one of the first depictions of an actor "in character"; the portrait artist is unknown. Susan Cooper's King of Shadows is a work of fiction.
It is set in 1599, uses Field's background as a student of Richard Mulcaster's at St