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Rule of thumb

The English phrase rule of thumb refers to a principle with broad application, not intended to be accurate or reliable for every situation. It refers to an learned and applied procedure or standard, based on practical experience rather than theory; this usage of the phrase can be traced back to the seventeenth century and has been associated with various trades where quantities were measured by comparison to the width or length of a thumb. A modern folk etymology holds that the phrase is derived from the maximum width of a stick allowed for wife-beating under English law, but no such law existed; this belief might have originated in a rumored statement by eighteenth-century judge Sir Francis Buller that a man may beat his wife with a stick no wider than his thumb. The rumor produced numerous jokes and satirical cartoons at Buller's expense, but there is no record that he made such a statement. English jurist Sir William Blackstone wrote in his Commentaries on the Laws of England of an "old law" that once allowed "moderate" beatings by husbands, but he did not mention thumbs or any specific implements.

Wife-beating has been outlawed for centuries in England and the United States, but continued in practice. The phrase rule of thumb first became associated with domestic abuse in the 1970s, after which the spurious legal definition was cited as factual in a number of law journals, the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights published a report on domestic abuse titled "Under the Rule of Thumb" in 1982. In English, rule of thumb refers to an approximate method for doing something, based on practical experience rather than theory; the exact origin of the phrase is uncertain. Its earliest appearance in print comes from a posthumously published collection of sermons by Scottish preacher James Durham: "Many profest Christians are like to foolish builders, who build by guess, by rule of thumb, not by Square and Rule"; the phrase is found in Sir William Hope's The Compleat Fencing Master, 1692: "What he doth, he doth by rule of Thumb, not by Art". James Kelly's The Complete Collection of Scottish Proverbs, 1721, includes: "No Rule so good as Rule of Thumb, if it hit", meaning a practical approximation.

The width of the thumb, or "thumb's breadth", was used as the equivalent of an inch in the cloth trade. The thumb has been used in brewing beer, to gauge the heat of the brewing vat. Ebenezer Cobham Brewer writes that rule of thumb means a "rough measurement", he says that "Ladies measure yard lengths by their thumb. Indeed, the expression'sixteen nails make a yard' seems to point to the thumb-nail as a standard" and that "Countrymen always measure by their thumb". According to Phrasefinder, "The phrase joins the whole nine yards as one that derives from some form of measurement but, unlikely to be definitively pinned down". A modern folk etymology relates the phrase to domestic violence via an alleged rule under English law which permitted wife-beating provided that the implement used was a rod or stick no thicker than a man's thumb. Wife-beating has been outlawed in England and the United States for centuries, but enforcement of the law was inconsistent, wife-beating did continue. However, a rule of thumb permitting wife-beating was never codified in law.

English jurist William Blackstone wrote in the late 1700s in his Commentaries on the Laws of England that, by an "old law", a husband had been justified in using "moderate correction" against his wife but was barred from inflicting serious violence. According to Blackstone, this custom was in doubt by the late 1600s, a woman was allowed "security of the peace" against an abusive husband. Twentieth-century legal scholar William L. Prosser wrote that there was "probably no truth to the legend" that a husband was allowed to beat his wife "with a stick no thicker than his thumb"; the association between the thumb and implements of domestic violence can be traced to 1782, when English judge Sir Francis Buller was ridiculed for purportedly stating that a husband could beat his wife, provided that he used a stick no wider than his thumb. There is no record of Buller making such a statement, but the rumor generated much satirical press, with Buller being mocked as "Judge Thumb" in published jokes and cartoons.

In the following century, several court rulings in the United States referred to a supposed common-law doctrine which the judges believed had once allowed wife-beating with an implement smaller than a thumb. None of these courts referred to such a doctrine as a rule of thumb or endorsed such a rule, but all permitted some degree of wife-beating so long as it did not result in serious injury. An 1824 court ruling in Mississippi stated that a man was entitled to enforce "domestic discipline" by striking his wife with a whip or stick no wider than the judge's thumb. In a case in North Carolina, the defendant was found to have struck his wife "with a switch about the size of this fingers"; the judgement was upheld by the state supreme court, although the judge stated: Nor is it true that a husband has a right to whip his wife. And if he had, it is not seen how the thumb is the standard of size for the instrument which he may use, as some of the old authorities have said The standard is the effect produced, not the manner of producing it, or the instrumen


The Porr Group is a publicly listed construction company with its headquarters in Vienna. It is the biggest Austrian building contractor in domestic building industry. Globally, Porr is on the second position among Austrian building contractors. Porr provides services in all areas of the construction industry, it operates nationally and internationally in areas from civil engineering including roads and special underground constructions through building construction including project development up to environmental engineering and facility management. Today's Porr AG parent company was founded in 1869 as a public company under the name Allgemeine österreichische Baugesellschaft, which makes Porr the oldest public company in the country; the name Porr goes back to the building technician Arthur Porr, the co-founder of A. Porr Betonbauunternehmung which merged with Allgemeine österreichische Baugesellschaft in 1927; the Allgemeine österreichische Baugesellschaft was founded in 1869 in Vienna. That same year took place the first listing on the Vienna stock exchange and the establishment of several Vienna Ring Road buildings of 19th century, such as the House of the Industry on Schwarzenbergplatz.

In 1873 the company established erection of seven exhibition pavilions and numerous hotels for the World Exposition in Vienna. Arthur Porr, a concrete construction pioneer, O. Stern founded the A. Porr Betonbauunternehmung Gesellschaft mbH in 1908; the merger of the two parent companies for Allgemeine Baugesellschaft - A. Porr Aktiengesellschaft was carried out in 1927. In 1930, the company pioneered with the construction of the world-famous Grossglockner High Alpine Road. In the interwar years Porr participated in construction of numerous power plants, roads and industrial buildings. During the occupation after the 2nd World War the company belonged to Soviet-run USIA-Betrieben; this was followed by the construction of prestigious office and commercial buildings such as the distinctive Ringturm in Vienna in 1960. Porr acted as a general contractor for major national projects. In 1973 the construction of the Vienna International Center took the Vienna UNO City. In the 1980s, the group expanded its activities in Eastern Europe.

In 2000 Porr became the majority owner of the Teerag-Asdag AG, the most important road construction company in Austria. In 2008 the company was an international construction group with subsidiaries active in 16 European countries; the Turkish Renaissance Group got involved in 2009 with 10,22 percent of the Porr Group. Together, companies founded. In 2010 in the context of the BUWOG-Affair came investigations on Austrian Porr departments. Despite the international activities at the time, 70% of the revenue came from construction projects in Austria, the remaining 30% from Germany and Eastern Europe. Since September 2010 Karl-Heinz Strauss is the CEO of Porr. By the time, the Porr Group has been extensively restructured. In 2011 Porr took over the Teerag-Asdag shares of Wiener Stadtwerke and thus becoming the only owner; the board of the company in December 2011 announced the decision of buying the Treves Lime and Cement Plant in Wellen. In 2012, the Bank Austria sold its 38% shares in the company to Karl-Heinz Strauss for around 80 million euros, so that Strauss with 44% of voting share became the largest single shareholder.

Moreover, the company Strauss & Partner, founded in 2008, which operated projects such as Euro Plaza in Wienerberg and Monte Laa, was brought in the group. In 2013 the company name was changed from Allgemeine Baugesellschaft - A. Porr AG to PORR AG, with which the group appears internationally. In July 2014, Porr increased its shares in UBM from 41,33% back to a controlling stake; the parent company PORR AG acts as an umbrella. Main operative business groups in the construction sector are the Porr Bau for building construction and the Teerag-Asdag for civil engineering, after those come national companies such as Porr Deutschland; the output service range is structured into business units: Business Unit 1 - DACH: includes the business area in building construction and civil engineering in Germany and Switzerland Business Unit 2 - CEE/SEE: is responsible for the business area of building construction and civil engineering in South East Europe Business Unit 3 - International: in charge of the joint venture with the Turkish Renaissance Group and focuses on Qatar and Saudi Arabia Business Unit 4 - Infrastructure: combines the expertise of the Group in the departments: tunnelling, foundation engineering, railway construction, pipeline construction, civil engineering, power plant construction and major civil engineering projects Business Unit 5 - Environmental engineering: bundles all environmental activities of the Porr Group Business Unit 6 - Real Estate: together with the brands Strauss & Partner and Porreal services the entire spectrum of real estate development and operation The range of Porr services covers the entire chain of construction industry: designing, building, maintaining.

The area of building construction covers the spectrum of Porr hotels, apartments, office buildings, objects in the healthcare sector, industrial plants and football stadiums as well as the revitalization of architecture worth protecting. Numerous tunnels, subways, power plants, industrial plants and highways in Austria and neighbouring countries have been constructed by Porr in the past; the company has numerous patents, including some of the most advanced tunnel and railway systems as well as special metho

2019–20 MPBL season

The 2019–2020 MPBL season for sponsorship reasons with Chooks-to-Go, is the third season of the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League and the second full season with a national scope. It was opened June 12, 2019 at the Mall of Asia Arena, which coincided with the Philippine Independence Day. From 26 teams in the last conference, the third season will feature now 31 teams; the format for this season is: Just like the last season, all teams will play in a single round-robin regardless of division. Each team will have 30 games in their schedule. At the end of eliminations, if there are games which were postponed during the regular season, the game/s shall be played if there will be significant effects in the standings after these games are played. If there are ties in the standings, these will be broken via the following criterion: 1. Head-to-head matchup, 2. Point difference against each other 3. Record vs. the other division, if necessary, the quotient system. Playoffs, the first round, division semifinals, the division finals will be in a best-of-three series, while the MPBL Finals or the National Finals will be a best-of-five series.

Six new teams entered the season joined for this cup: Sarangani Marlins Iloilo United Royals Bicol Volcanoes Mindoro Tamaraws Nueva Ecija ForestLake Bacolod Master Sardines The Imus Bandera changed their team name to Imus Khaleb Shawarma before the start of the seasonThe Cebu City Sharks changed their team name to Cebu Sharks before the start of the seasonThe Laguna Heroes changed their team name to Biñan City Krah Heroes before the start of the seasonThe Valenzuela Classic changed their team name to Valenzuela SPVTOP Marketplace in June 2019The Navotas Clutch changed their team name to Navotas Uni-Pak Sardines in June 2019The Nueva Ecija MiGuard changed their team name to Nueva Ecija ForestLake in August 2019The Nueva Ecija ForestLake changed their team name to Nueva Ecija Rice Vanguards in October 2019The Cebu Sharks changed their name to Cebu Casino Ethyl Alcohol in October 2019The Valenzuela SPVTOP Marketplace changed their team name to Val City-Carga Backload Solution in November 2019The SOCCSKSARGEN Marlins-Armor On changed their team name to Sarangani Marlins in November 2019The Biñan City Krah Heroes changed their team name to Biñan City Luxxe White in November 2019The Bataan Risers changed their team name to 1Bataan Risers-Camaya Coast in November 2019The Imus Khaleb Shawarma changed their team name to Imus Bandera-Luxxe Slim in December 2019 The muses for the participating teams are as follows: Not all games are in home–away format.

Each team plays every team once. Number of asterisks after each score denotes number of overtimes played. Teams in bold advanced to the next round; the numbers to the left of each team indicate the team's seeding in its division, the numbers to the right indicate the number of games the team won in that round. Teams with home court advantage, the higher seeded team, are shown in italics

Treaties of Reichenbach (1813)

The Treaties of Reichenbach were a series of agreements signed in Reichenbach between Great Britain, Prussia and Austria. These accords served to establish and strengthen a united coalition force against Napoleon I of France. On 14 June 1813 the Treaty of Reichenbach was signed between Great Prussia. Based on the terms of the accord, Britain agreed to provide Prussia a subsidy of 666,666 pounds sterling in order for Prussia to maintain its force of 80,000 troops. In exchange for this aid, the king of Prussia agreed to cede the principality of Hildesheim and other territories to the Electorate of Hanover. On 15 June 1813 the Treaty of Reichenbach was signed between Great Russia. Based on the terms of the accord, Great Britain agreed to provide Russia with a subsidy of 1,333,334 pounds sterling in order for Russia to maintain its force of 160,000 troops. On 27 June 1813 the Treaty of Reichenbach was signed between Prussia and Austria. Based on the terms of the accord, Austria agreed to declare war against Napoleon if he rejected its conditions of peace.

List of treaties Clare, Israel Smith. Library of Universal History: Containing a Record of the Human Race from the Earliest Historical Period to the Present Time Embracing a General Survey of the Progress of Mankind in National and Social Life, Civil Government, Literature and Art. R. S. Peale, J. A. Hill, 1897

Cleveland City Stars

The Cleveland City Stars were an American professional soccer team based in Cleveland, United States. Founded in 2006, the team played in the USL First Division, the second tier of the American Soccer Pyramid in 2009; the club folded soon after the 2009 season. The team played its home games at Bearcat Stadium on the campus of Bedford High School in nearby Bedford, where they played in 2009; the team's colors were green and white. Their final head coach was Rod Underwood; the Cleveland City Stars were founded in 2006 as a member of the USL Second Division and played their inaugural season in 2007. The team found success early on, going undefeated for the first nine games before losing to the Charlotte Eagles in the tenth game of the season, they ended the regular season undefeated at home, clinched the second seed for the USL-2 play-offs, where they progressed to the semi-final, lost to eventual champions Harrisburg 1–0 after extra time. The team's success continued in 2008. City posted a 10–3–7 record, which proved good enough for third place in the USL Second Division, playoff qualification.

They faced the Western Mass Pioneers in the quarterfinals and won 4–2. They won 1 -- 0 after extra time; the City Stars hosted the championship game and defeated Charlotte 2–1 for the team's first championship. On December 4, 2008 the team announced that they would compete in the USL First Division for the 2009 season. Soon after the end of the 2009 USL First Division season, the City Stars club folded due to financial issues. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. See also: All-time Cleveland City Stars roster USL Second Division Winners: 2008 Martin Rennie Rod Underwood Krenzler Field; each match aired tape delayed on game night with replays airing on Sundays. Play-by-play and color commentary was provided by Desmond Armstrong, 1994 World Cup TV commentator and former US national team player, Glen Duerr, a former City Stars player; the broadcast included a half-time segment highlighting the team's weekly inner-city coaching and life-lessons program.

On April 6, 2009, the City Stars announced a new deal with SportsTime Ohio to air 12 home games. Glen Duerr returned and was joined by two new TV commentators, Mark Zimmerman and Steve Bell, former A-League and MLS player. Bell did play-by-play for three matches on Fox Soccer Channel. USL First Division teams Official Site of the Cleveland City Stars Official site of the United Soccer Leagues Official Green Army Forum

John Lok

John Lok was the son of Sir William Lok, the great-great-great-grandfather of the philosopher John Locke. In 1554 he was captain of a trading voyage to Guinea. An account of his voyage was published in 1572 by Richard Eden. John Lok's date of birth is unknown, he was one of the nineteen children of the London mercer Sir William Lok by his second wife, Katherine Cooke, daughter of Sir Thomas Cooke of Wiltshire. He was a half-brother of the mercer Thomas Lok, Sir William Lok's eldest surviving son and heir by his first wife, his brothers and sisters of the whole blood were: Dorothy Lok, who married firstly the London merchant Otwell Hill, secondly John Cosworth of London and Cornwall, merchant. Otwell Hill was the brother of Richard Hill. Katherine Lok, who married firstly Thomas Stacey of London, Warden of the Mercers' Company in 1555 together with his brother-in-law, Thomas Lok, secondly William Matthew of Bradden, Northamptonshire. Rose Lok, who married firstly the London mercer Anthony Hickman, son of Walter Hickman of Woodford and secondly Simon Throckmorton, esquire, of Brampton and was a Marian exile.

She died 21 November 1613, aged 86. Alice Lok, died without issue. Thomasine Lok, died without issue. Henry Lok of London, who married Anne Vaughan, by whom he was father of the poet, Henry Lok. Michael Lok of London, who married firstly Jane Wilkinson, daughter of William Wilkinson and Sheriff of London, secondly Margery Perient, widow of Caesar Adelmare, father of Sir Julius Caesar. Elizabeth Lok, who married firstly Richard Hill and alderman of London, by him had thirteen children, secondly Nicholas Bullingham, Bishop of Worcester, who died in 1576, by whom she had one child. John Lok, whose mother died at his birth, he the day after. In 1553 Lok travelled to Jerusalem. In 1554 Lok was captain of three ships, the Trinity of 140 tons, the Bartholomew of 90 tons, the John Evangelist of 140 tons which set sail on a trading voyage to Guinea on 11 October. Although unfavourable winds kept them from leaving England's shores until 1 November, they were near Madeira by 17 November, becalmed two days at the Canary Islands under the Peak of Tenerife.

They touched the coast of Africa at Cape Barbas, after reaching the mouth of the Sestos River, traded down the coast,'touching every place of consequence without any memorable incident occurring' until 13 February, when they turned back toward England. Although the voyage out had taken seven weeks, the return voyage took twenty. In all, twenty-four seamen were lost in the course of the voyage; the cargo brought back included more than 400 pounds' weight of gold, 36 butts of Guinea pepper, 250 elephants’ tusks, as well as an elephant's skull of such size and weight that a man could scarcely lift it. Lok's ships brought home five Africans from present-day Ghana to learn English and act as interpreters on future trading voyages to Guinea. An account of the voyage was written by master of one of the ships. On 8 September certain articles were delivered to Lok by the London merchants Sir William Garrard, William Winter, Benjamin Gonson, Lok's brother-in-law, Anthony Hickman, Edward Castelyn concerning another voyage to Guinea which they proposed to finance with Lok as captain.

In a letter dated 11 December 1561 Lok declined to go, among other reasons, the unsoundness of the ship and the unseasonableness of the time of year. The voyage went ahead without Lok in 1562. Lok is said to have died in France; the date of his death is unknown. Lok is said to have died without issue. Baldwin, R. C. D.. "Spert, Sir Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/52009. Brennan, Michael G.. "Lok, Henry". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16949. Grosart, Alexander, ed.. Poems by Henry Lok, Gentleman. Printed. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Hakluyt, Richard; the Principal Navigations, Traffiques & Discoveries of the English Nation. V. Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons. Pp. 76–104. Retrieved 29 November 2013. Hakluyt, Richard; the Principal Navigations, Traffiques & Discoveries of the English Nation. VI. Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons. Pp. 154–80, 253–7. Retrieved 28 November 2013. Hunt, Freeman.

The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review. VII. New York. Kerr, Robert. A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels. VII. Edinburgh: William Blackwood. Retrieved 24 November 2013. Lardner, Dionysius; the Cabinet Encyclopedia: The History of Maritime and Inland Discovery. II. London: Longman Rees. Lee, Sidney. "Lok, William". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 93. Lock, Julian. "Bullingham, Nicholas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3917. Locke, John Goodwin. Booke of the Lockes. Boston: James Munroe and Company. Lowe, Ben. "Throckmorton, Rose". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/67979. McDermott, James