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Rules of Go

The rules of Go have seen some variation over time and from place to place. This article discusses those sets of rules broadly similar to the ones in use in East Asia. Among these, there is a degree of variation. Notably and Japanese rules differ in a number of aspects; the most significant of these are the scoring method, together with attendant differences in the manner of ending the game. While differences between sets of rules may have moderate strategic consequences on occasion, they do not change the character of the game; the different sets of rules lead to the same game result, so long as the players make minor adjustments near the end of the game. Differences in the rules are said to cause problems in one in every 10,000 games in competition; this article first presents a simple set of rules which are, except for wording, identical to those referred to as the Tromp–Taylor Rules, themselves close in most essential respects to the Chinese rules. These rules are discussed at length, in a way that does not assume prior knowledge of go on the part of the reader.

The discussion is with exceptions noted. Sections of the article address major areas of variation in the rules of go, individual sets of rules. A set of rules suitable for beginners is presented here; the rules are studied more in § Explanation of the basic rules below. Two statements of the same basic rules, differing only in wording, are given here; the first is a concise one due to James Davies. The second is a formulation of the basic rules used for expository purposes in this article. Except for terminology, the basic rules are identical to the Logical Rules first proposed in their current form in September 1996 by John Tromp and Bill Taylor, they are quite close to the Simplified Ing Rules of the European Go Federation, the only exception being the method of ending the game. These rules appear in "The Elements of Go" by James Davies, they assume familiarity with the equipment used to play go, for which one may refer to § Elements of the game below. Notes: The words move and territory are used differently here than elsewhere in this article.

A clarification to rule 5 is added in parentheses. The board is empty at the onset of the game. Black makes the first move, after which Black alternate. A move consists of placing one stone of one's own color on an empty intersection on the board. A player may pass their turn at any time. A stone or solidly connected group of stones of one color is captured and removed from the board when all the intersections directly adjacent to it are occupied by the enemy. No stone may be played so as to recreate a former board position. Two consecutive passes end the game. A player's area consists of all the points the player has either surrounded; the player with more area wins. These rules rely on common sense to make notions such as "surround" precise. What is here called a "solidly connected group of stones" is called a chain; the basic rules are formulated here in a more detailed way to ease their presentation in § Explanation of the basic rules below. An optional rule prohibiting suicide is included as Rule 7A.

Rule 1. Players: Go is a game between two players, called Black and White. Rule 2. Board: Go is played on a plain grid of 19 horizontal and 19 vertical lines, called a board. Definition. A point on the board where a horizontal line meets a vertical line is called an intersection. Two intersections are said to be adjacent if they are connected by a horizontal or vertical line with no other intersections between them. Rule 3. Stones: Go is played with playing tokens known as stones; each player has at their disposal an adequate supply of stones of the same color. Rule 4. Positions: At any time in the game, each intersection on the board is in one and only one of the following three states: 1) empty. A position consists of an indication of the state of each intersection. Definition. Two placed stones of the same color are said to be connected if it is possible to draw a path from one intersection to the other by passing through adjacent intersections of the same state. Definition. In a given position, a liberty of a stone is an empty intersection adjacent to that stone or adjacent to a stone, connected to that stone.

Rule 5. Initial position: At the beginning of the game, the board is empty. Rule 6. Turns: Black moves first; the players alternate thereafter. Rule 7. Moving: When it is their turn, a player may either pass or play. A play consists of the following steps: Step 1. Placing a stone of their color on an empty intersection, it can never be moved to another intersection after being played. Step 2. Removing from the board any stones of their opponent's color that have no liberties. Step 3. Removing from the board any stones of their own color that have no liberties. Optional Rule 7A. Prohibition of suicide: A play is illegal if one or more stones of that player's color would be removed in Step 3 of that play. Rule 8. Prohibition of repetition: A play is illegal if it would have the effect of creating a position that has oc

Stephan Morais

Stephan Godinho Lopes Morais is a European business management executive and investor. Morais, the son of Portuguese lawyers was raised in Lisbon, attended two of the top rated schools in the country, Colégio Sagrado Coração de Maria and Colégio Valsassina. A Civil Engineer, Morais graduated from Portugal's largest and most respected engineering institute, the Instituto Superior Técnico - University of Lisbon in Lisbon, Class of 1996, having spent the last semester at the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées in Paris, France. In 2000 he was accepted for the MBA program of Harvard Business School. Awarded the Sainsbury Management Fellowship, he graduated in 2002. Morais initiated his career at Halcrow Group Limited in the UK, working in privatization projects on behalf of multilateral agencies in Mozambique, Pakistan and Chile, he moved permanently to London joining Arthur Andersen Business Consulting, to integrate the Energy and Utilities team as a Senior Consultant. After the MBA, Morais was appointed as consultant to the Portuguese Government for the privatization of a main State investing conglomerate, IPE, for the draft of the country's National Energy policy.

Morais joined Energias de Portugal in 2003 as Chief of Staff of the CEO and was subsequently appointed Managing Director of the Bilbao based Naturgas Energia Servicios. Specialized in Private Equity investments while attending Harvard, Morais went on to buy out Temahome, a major Portuguese furniture design and manufacturing company, with a group of other Portuguese investors and the company's management team in 2006, he left the company at the end of 2009. in 2010, Stephan Morais was the first Portuguese to be named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. Morais is a former Non-Executive Director at Crimson Investment Management, a real estate investment company, has served on several companies´ Advisory Boards where he provided financial and strategic advice through his personal holding SEI. In 2010 he joined Portugal's largest bank Grupo Caixa Geral de Depósitos where he was appointed as Board Member and Deputy CEO of a new African investment bank based in Mozambique, BNI - Banco Nacional de Investimento, a partnership between Portuguese Caixa and the Mozambican government.

Morais is a former Executive Director heading up venture capital investing at Caixa Capital, one of the largest and most international private equity and venture capital operators in Iberia managing over 700 million Euros in funds. He became Portugal´s most notorious and successful Venture Capitalist after having led investments in most major Portuguese global startups such as Farfetch, Uniplaces and others that raised significant capital in Silicon valley and London, he is a former Venture Capital Council Member at Invest Europe, Council Member of the International Venture Club, Chairman of the European Venture Finance Network and a jury at numerous entrepreneurship and investment awards. He is a frequent speaker at global events. Morais is Managing General Partner at his own independent Venture Capital Fund, Indico Capital Partners, which he founded with Ricardo Torgal and Talkdesk´s co-founder Cristina Fonseca. 2002 Sainsbury Management Fellowship 2009 DME Award - Design management Europe 2009 National Design Award - "Sena da Silva" Presented by the Portuguese Design Center and the President of the Portuguese Republic 2010 Nominated Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum Young Global Leaders - Profile at The World Economic Forum Twitter - Stephan Morais official Twitter page

Cees Kurpershoek

Cornelis "Cees" Kurpershoek is a sailor from the Netherlands, who represented his native country at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Kiel, Germany. With helmsman Ben Staartjes Kurpershoek took the 5th place in the Tempest. "Cees Kurpershoek Bio and Results". Olympic Sports. Retrieved 2014-01-09. "OS-zeilers". Het vrije volk: democratisch-socialistisch dagblad. 1972-06-22. Retrieved 2014-01-28. "GOED WERK VAN ZEILERS IN KIEL". Leeuwarder courant: hoofdblad van Friesland. 1972-08-31. Retrieved 2014-01-21. "Topzeilers vallen tegen". De tijd: dagblad voor Nederland. 1972-09-13. Retrieved 2014-01-21. "The official report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad Munich 1972, Volume 1 The organization". Munich: proSport. 1974. Archived from the original on 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2014-01-28. "The official report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad Munich 1972, Volume 2 The constructions". Munich: proSport. 1974. Retrieved 2014-01-28. "The official report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad Munich 1972, Volume 3 The competitions".

Munich: proSport. 1974. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2014-01-28

Sweet Lorraine (Uriah Heep song)

"Sweet Lorraine" is a song by the band Uriah Heep, first released on the 1972 album The Magician's Birthday on Bronze Records, the first single from that album. It was written by Mick Box, Gary Thain and David Byron and reached #91 in the US Billboard Hot 100; the B-side is "Blind Eye". One of the band's better-known songs, it is famous, in part, for its Moog synthesizer solo performed by Ken Hensley, it became popular in live performance. Mick Box — guitar Lee Kerslakedrums Gary Thain — bass guitar Ken Hensley — keyboards David Byron — lead vocal Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Metanoia (song)

"Metanoia" is the special limited edition single release, a b-side on MGMT's debut CD single "Time to Pretend". It was released August 2008, available in 10" etched vinyl. "Metanoia" was named "Song of the Day" on September 16, 2008 by Rolling Stone, describing it as a "14-minute opus, which ranges from Donovan-ish acid ballads to interstellar synth-powered dirges to falsetto-laden theater rock." "Metanoia" peaked at #2 on Billboard's Hot Singles Sales chart in September 2008. Psychologist Carl Jung is the "mystic referee" referred to throughout the song, he is pictured wearing a referee's uniform on the title cover. Metanoia is a psychoanalytic theory developed by Jung himself. Religious teacher Swami Satchidananda is referenced several times throughout the song's entirety.. The term Satcitananda could be in reference to the description of the subjective experience of Brahman, meaning "being, bliss."


The redcurrant, or red currant is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family. It is native across Europe; the species is cultivated and has escaped into the wild in many regions. Ribes rubrum is a deciduous shrub growing to 1–1.5 metres tall 2 m, with five-lobed leaves arranged spirally on the stems. The flowers are inconspicuous yellow-green, in pendulous 4–8 cm racemes, maturing into bright red translucent edible berries about 8–12 mm diameter, with 3–10 berries on each raceme. An established bush can produce 3–4 kg of berries from mid to late summer. There are several other similar species native in Europe and North America with edible fruit; these include Ribes spicatum, Ribes alpinum, R. schlechtendalii, R. multiflorum, R. petraeum and R. triste. While Ribes rubrum and R. nigrum are native to northern and eastern Europe, large berried cultivars of the redcurrant were first produced in Belgium and northern France in the 17th century. In modern times, numerous cultivars have been selected.

The white currant is a cultivar of Ribes rubrum. Although it is a sweeter and albino variant of the redcurrant, not a separate botanical species, it is sometimes marketed with names such as Ribes sativum or Ribes silvestre, or sold as a different fruit. Currant bushes can grow in most types of soil, they are low-maintenance plants and can be used as ornamentation. Many redcurrant and whitecurrant cultivars are available for domestic cultivation from specialist growers; the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:- ‘Jonkheer van Tets’ ‘Red Lake’ ‘Stanza’ ’White Grape’ With maturity, the tart flavour of redcurrant fruit is greater than its blackcurrant relative, but with the same approximate sweetness. The white-fruited variant of redcurrant referred to as white currant, has the same tart flavour but with greater sweetness. Although cultivated for jams and cooked preparations, much like the white currant, it is served raw or as a simple accompaniment in salads, garnishes, or drinks when in season.

In the United Kingdom, redcurrant jelly is a condiment served with lamb, game meat including venison and goose in a festive or Sunday roast. It is a jam and is made in the same way, by adding the redcurrants to sugar and straining. In France, the rarefied and hand-made Bar-le-duc or Lorraine jelly is a spreadable preparation traditionally made from white currants or alternatively redcurrants; the pips are taken off by hand before cooking. In Scandinavia and Schleswig-Holstein, it is used in fruit soups and summer puddings. In Germany it is used in combination with custard or meringue as a filling for tarts. In Linz, Austria, it is the most used filling for the Linzer torte, it can be enjoyed in its fresh state without the addition of sugar. In German-speaking areas, syrup or nectar derived from the redcurrant is added to soda water and enjoyed as a refreshing drink named Johannisbeerschorle, it is so named because the redcurrants are said to ripen first on St. John's Day known as Midsummer Day, June 24.

In Russia, redcurrants are ubiquitous and used in jams, preserves and desserts. In Mexico, redcurrants are a popular flavour for iced/frappé drinks and desserts, most in'raspado' form. In a 100 gram serving, redcurrants supply 56 calories and are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 49% of the Daily Value. Vitamin K is the only other essential nutrient in significant content at 10% of DV. Redcurrant fruits are known for their tart flavor, a characteristic provided by a high content of organic acids and mixed polyphenols; as many as 65 different phenolic compounds may contribute to the astringent properties of redcurrants, with these contents increasing during the last month of ripening. Twenty-five individual polyphenols and other nitrogen-containing phytochemicals in redcurrant juice have been isolated with the astringent flavor profile sensed in the human tongue. Jostaberry Blackcurrant Media related to Ribes rubrum at Wikimedia Commons