Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov; the southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. The population is over one million people. From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian and Savromat tribes, it was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire. In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey, it was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post. In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, it was renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz. Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began.
Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia for the export of wheat and iron ore. In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don; the two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged; the former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia. In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon. During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don the most industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and St. George Cathedral. During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first for ten days from November 21, 1941 to November 29, 1941 after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 23, 1942 to February 14, 1943; the town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II. On August 11 and 12, 1942 in Rostov-on-Don 27,000 Jews were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka. In 2018, Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the FIFA World Cup. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status.
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts: The 2010 census recorded the population of Rostov-on-Don at 1,089,261 making it the tenth most populous city in Russia. Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood: There were sultry days of brassy sun, but cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea. Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate; the winter is moderately cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C. The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C occurred in January 1940. Summers are humid; the city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters, the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, the average air humidity is 72%. In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town.
The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents th
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
Russian Provisional Government
The Russian Provisional Government was a provisional government of Russia established following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention; the provisional government lasted eight months, ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October 1917. According to Harold Whitmore Williams the history of eight months during which Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government was the history of the steady and systematic disorganisation of the army. For most of the life of the Provisional Government, the status of the monarchy was unresolved; this was clarified on 1 September, when the Russian Republic was proclaimed, in a decree signed by Kerensky as Minister-President and Zarudny as Minister of Justice. The Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 by the Provisional Committee of the State Duma.
The State Duma was the more representative chamber out of the two in the Russian parliament established after the Revolution of 1905, was led first in the new post-Czarist era by Prince Georgy Lvov and by Alexander Kerensky. It replaced the Imperial institution of the Council of Ministers of Russia, members of which after the February Revolution presided in the Chief Office of Admiralty. At the same time, the last ruling Russian Emperor Nicholas II abdicated in February 1917 in favor of his youngest brother, the Grand Duke Michael who agreed that he would accept after the decision of Russian Constituent Assembly; the Provisional Government was unable to make decisive policy decisions due to political factionalism and a breakdown of state structures. This weakness left the government open to strong challenges from the left; the Provisional Government's chief adversary on the left was the Petrograd Soviet, a Communist committee taking over and ruling Russia's most important port city, which tentatively cooperated with the government at first, but gradually gained control of the Imperial Army, local factories, the Russian Railway.
The period of competition for authority ended in late October 1917, when Bolsheviks routed the ministers of the Provisional Government in the events known as the "October Revolution", placed power in the hands of the soviets, or "workers' councils," which had given their support to the Bolsheviks led by Vladmir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. The weakness of the Provisional Government is best reflected in the derisive nickname given to Kerensky: "persuader-in-chief." The authority of the Tsar's government began disintegrating on 1 November 1916, when Milyukov attacked the Boris Stürmer government in the Duma. Stürmer was succeeded by Alexander Trepov and Nikolai Golitsyn, both Prime Ministers for only a few weeks. During the February Revolution two rival institutions, the imperial State Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, both located in the Tauride Palace, competed for power. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on 2 March, Milyukov announced the committee's decision to offer the Regency to his brother, Grand Duke Michael, as the next tsar.
Grand Duke Michael did not want to take the poisoned chalice and deferred acceptance of imperial power the next day. The Provisional Government was designed to set up elections to the Assembly while maintaining essential government services, but its power was limited by the Petrograd Soviet's growing authority. Public announcement of the formation of the Provisional Government was made, it was published in Izvestia the day after its formation. The announcement stated the declaration of government Full and immediate amnesty on all issues political and religious, including: terrorist acts, military uprisings, agrarian crimes etc. Freedom of word, unions and strikes with spread of political freedoms to military servicemen within the restrictions allowed by military-technical conditions. Abolition of all hereditary and national class restrictions. Immediate preparations for the convocation on basis of universal, equal and direct vote for the Constituent Assembly which will determine the form of government and the constitution.
Replacement of the police with a public militsiya and its elected chairmanship subordinated to the local authorities. Elections to the authorities of local self-government on basis of universal, direct and secret vote. Non-disarmament and non-withdrawal out of Petrograd the military units participating in the revolution movement. Under preservation of strict discipline in ranks and performing a military service - elimination of all restrictions for soldiers in the use of public rights granted to all other citizens, it said, "The provisional government feels obliged to add that it is not intended to take advantage of military circumstances for any delay in implementing the above reforms and measures." Initial composition of the Provisional Government: On 18 April 1917 minister of Foreign Affairs Pavel Milyukov sent a note to the Allied governments, promising to continue the war to'its glorious conclusion'. On 20–21 April 1917 massive demonstrations of workers and soldiers erupted against the continuation of war.
Demonstrations demanded resignation of Milyukov. They were soon met by the counter-demonstrations organised in his support. General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Petrograd military district, wished to suppress the disorders, but premier Georgy Lvov refused to resort to violence; the Provisional Government accepte
History of Ukraine
Prehistoric Ukraine, as part of the Pontic steppe, has played an important role in Eurasian cultural contacts, including the spread of the Chalcolithic, the Bronze Age, Indo-European expansion and the domestication of the horse. Part of Scythia in antiquity and settled by Getae, in the migration period, Ukraine is the site of early Slavic expansion, enters history proper with the establishment of the medieval state of Kievan Rus, which emerged as a powerful nation in the Middle Ages but disintegrated in the 12th century. After the middle of the 14th century, present-day Ukrainian territories came under the rule of three external powers: the Golden Horde the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland - during the 15th century these lands came under the rule of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth the Crimean Khanate After a 1648 rebellion against dominantly Polish Catholic rule, an assembly of the people agreed to the Treaty of Pereyaslav in January 1654.
In consequence, the southeastern portion of the Polish-Lithuanian empire came under Russian rule for the following centuries. After the Partitions of Poland and the Russian conquest of the Crimean Khanate, the Russian Empire and Habsburg Austria were in control of all the territories that constitute present day Ukraine. A chaotic period of warfare ensued after the Russian Revolutions of 1917; the internationally recognised Ukrainian People's Republic emerged from its own civil war of 1917-1921. The Ukrainian–Soviet War followed, in which the bolshevik Red Army established control in late 1919; the Ukrainian Bolsheviks, who had defeated the national government in Kiev, established the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which on 30 December 1922 became one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. Initial Soviet policy on Ukrainian language and Ukrainian culture made Ukrainian the official language of administration and schools. Policy in the 1930s turned to russification. In 1932 and 1933, millions of people peasants, in Ukraine starved to death in a devastating famine, known as Holodomor.
It is estimated by Encyclopædia Britannica that 6 to 8 million people died from hunger in the Soviet Union during this period, of whom 4 to 5 million were Ukrainians. Nikita Khrushchev was appointed the head of the Ukrainian Communist Party in 1938. After Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland in September 1939, the Ukrainian SSR's territory expanded westward. Axis armies occupied Ukraine from 1941 to 1944. During World War II the Ukrainian Insurgent Army fought for Ukrainian independence against both Germany and the Soviet Union. In 1945 the Ukrainian SSR became one of the founding members of the United Nations. After the death of Stalin, Khrushchev as head of the Communist Party of Soviet Union enabled a Ukrainian revival. Political repressions against poets and other intellectuals continued, as in all other parts of the USSR. In 1954 the republic expanded to the south with the transfer of the Crimea. Ukraine became independent again when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991; this started a period of transition to a market economy, in which Ukraine suffered an eight-year recession.
Subsequently, the economy experienced a high increase in GDP growth. Ukraine was caught up in the worldwide economic crisis in 2008 and the economy plunged. GDP fell 20% from spring 2008 to spring 2009 leveled off; the prolonged Ukrainian crisis began on 21 November 2013, when then-president Viktor Yanukovych suspended preparations for the implementation of an association agreement with the European Union. This decision resulted in mass protests by pro-Europeans - events which became known as the "Euromaidan". After months of such protests, the protesters ousted Yanukovych on 22 February 2014. Following his ousting, unrest enveloped the Russophone eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, from where Yanukovych had drawn most of his support. An invasion by Russia of the Ukrainian autonomous region of Crimea resulted in the annexation of Crimea by Russia on 18 March 2014. Subsequently, unrest in Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine evolved into a war between the post-revolutionary Ukrainian government and pro-Russian insurgents.
The Ukrainian crisis very negatively influenced the Ukrainian economy. Settlement in Ukraine by members of the genus Homo has been documented into distant prehistory; the Neanderthals are associated with the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. Gravettian settlements dating to 32,000 BC have been unearthed and studied in the Buran-Kaya cave site of the Crimean Mountains. Around 10,000 years ago the world's longest river emptied glacier melted water through the Don and the Black Sea. From springs in Gobi it flowed along the Yenisei, dammed by northern glaciers. Through the West Siberian Glacial Lake flowed about 10,000 km; the late Neolithic times the Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture flourished from about 4500–3000 BC. The Copper Age people of the Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture resided in the western part, the Sredny Stog Culture further east, succeeded by the early Bronze Age Yamna culture of the steppes, by the Catacomb culture in the 3rd millennium BC. During the Iron Age, these were followed by the Dacians as well as nomadic peoples like the Cimmerians and Sarmatians.
The Scythian Kingdom existed here from 750–250 BC. Along with ancient Greek colonies founded in the 6th century BC on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, the colonies of Tyras, Hermonassa, continued as Roman and Byzantine cities until the 6th century. In the 3rd century
Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. About two thirds of Bessarabia lies within modern-day Moldova, with the Ukrainian Budjak region covering the southern coastal region and part of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi Oblast covering a small area in the north. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, the ensuing Peace of Bucharest, the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal, along with some areas under direct Ottoman rule, were ceded to Imperial Russia; the acquisition was among the Empire's last territorial acquisitions in Europe. The newly acquired territories were organised as the Governorate of Bessarabia, adopting a name used for the southern plains, between the Dniester and the Danube rivers. Following the Crimean War, in 1856, the southern areas of Bessarabia were returned to Moldavian rule. In 1917, in the wake of the Russian Revolution, the area constituted itself as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, an autonomous republic part of a proposed federative Russian state.
Bolshevik agitation in late 1917 and early 1918 resulted in the intervention of the Romanian Army, ostensibly to pacify the region. Soon after, the parliamentary assembly declared independence, union with the Kingdom of Romania; the legality of these acts was however disputed, most prominently by the Soviet Union, which regarded the area as a territory occupied by Romania. In 1940, after securing the assent of Nazi Germany through the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union pressured Romania, under threat of war, into withdrawing from Bessarabia, allowing the Red Army to annex the region; the area was formally integrated into the Soviet Union: the core joined parts of the Moldavian ASSR to form the Moldavian SSR, while territories inhabited by Slavic majorities in the north and the south of Bessarabia were transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Axis-aligned Romania recaptured the region in 1941 with the success of Operation München during the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, but lost it in 1944 as the tide of war changed.
In 1947, the Soviet-Romanian border along the Prut was internationally recognised by the Paris Treaty that ended World War II. During the process of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Moldavian and Ukrainian SSRs proclaimed their independence in 1991, becoming the modern states of Moldova and Ukraine, while preserving the existing partition of Bessarabia. Following a short war in the early 1990s, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was proclaimed in the Transnistria, extending its authority over the municipality of Bender on the right bank of Dniester river. Part of the Gagauz-inhabited areas in the southern Bessarabia was organised in 1994 as an autonomous region within Moldova. According to the traditional explanation, the name Bessarabia derives from the Wallachian Basarab dynasty, who ruled over the southern part of the area in the 14th century; some scholars question this, claiming that: the name was an exonym applied by Western cartographers it was first used in local sources only in the late 17th century.
According to Dimitrie Cantemir, the name Bessarabia applied only to the part of the territory south of the Upper Trajanic Wall, i.e. an area only bigger than present-day Budjak. The region is bounded by the Dniester to the north and east, the Prut to the west and the lower River Danube and the Black Sea to the south, it has an area of 45,630 km2. The area is hilly plains with flat steppes, it is fertile, has lignite deposits and stone quarries. People living in the area grow sugar beet, wheat, tobacco, wine grapes and fruit, they raise sheep and cattle. The main industry in the region is agricultural processing; the region's main cities are Chișinău, Izmail and Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi called Cetatea Albă / Akkerman. Other towns of administrative or historical importance include: Khotyn and Kilia, Lipcani, Soroca, Bălți, Ungheni, Bender/Tighina and Cahul. In the late 14th century, the newly established Principality of Moldavia encompassed what became known as Bessarabia. Afterwards, this territory was directly or indirectly or wholly controlled by: the Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire, the USSR.
Since 1991, most of the territory forms the core of Moldova, with smaller parts in Ukraine. The territory of Bessarabia has been inhabited by people for thousands of years. Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished between the 6th and 3rd millennium BC. In Antiquity the region was inhabited by Thracians, as well as for shorter periods by Cimmerians, Scythians and Celts by tribes such as the Costoboci, Britogali and Bastarnae. In the 6th century BC
The Kherson Governorate or Government of Kherson was a guberniya, or administrative territorial unit, between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers, of the Russian Empire. It was one of three governorates created in 1802, it was known as the Nikolayev Governorate until 1803, when Kherson replaced Nikolayev as the governorate's capital. The economy of the governorate was based on agriculture. During the grain harvest, thousands of agricultural laborers from the parts of the Empire found work in the area; the industrial part of the economy, consisting of flour milling, metalworking industry, iron mining, beet-sugar processing, brick industry, was underdeveloped. The governorate bordered Bessarabia Governorate to the west, with Kiev and Poltava Governorates to the north, to the east could be found Yekaterinoslav Governorate, in the southward direction was located Taurida Governorate. From 1809, the governorate consisted of five uyezds: Kherson, Ovidiopol and Yelisavetgrad; the city of Odessa carried a special status.
In 1825, The Odessa uyezd was added into the territorial division of the Kherson Governorate. A seventh uyezd — Bobrynets, existed from 1828 to 1865; the cities of Odessa and Nikolayev and their surrounding vicinity were governed separately: Odessa by a gradonachalnik, answerable directly to the tsar and the governor-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia, Nikolayev by a military governor. In 1920, while being under Soviet Ukrainian rule, the governorate's territory, 70,600 km2, was divided to form the newer Odessa Governorate; the Kherson Governorate was renamed Mykolaiv Governorate in 1921, in 1922 - merged with the Odessa Governorate. In 1925, the Odessa Governorate was abolished, its territory was divided into six okruhas: Kherson, Kryvyi Rih, Odessa and Zinoviivske. In 1932, much of this territory was incorporated into the new Odessa Oblast, now an administrative division of the modern Ukrainian nation, divided to form the Mykolaiv Oblast. From the Russian Census of 1897Odessa – 403,815 Nikolayev – 92,012 Yelizavetgrad – 61,488 Kherson – 59,076 Tiraspol – 31,616 Ananyiv – 16,684 Voznesensk – 15,748 Bobrinets – 14,281 Aleksandriya – 14,007 Beryslav – 12,149 Dubossary – 12,089 Novogeorgiyevsk – 11,594 Ochakov – 10,786 Novomirgorod – 9,364 Grigoriopol – 7,605 Olviopol – 6,884 Ovidiopol – 5,187 Mayaki – 4,575 Until 1858, a third of the population was subject to martial law.
The gubernia had a population of about 245,000 in 1812. In the 1850s it consisted of Ukrainians, Russians, Germans, Poles and Gypsies. In 1914, Ukrainians composed only 53% of the population, while Russians made up 22% and Jews - 12%. Urban dwellers made up 10 to 20 percent of the population until the 1850s, after which the proportion of urban dwellers increased, to about 30% in 1897. Migration within the Russian Empire accounted for the area's population growth, with 46% of the population born outside of the governorate in 1897. Kherson Guberniya - Article in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Kherson Guberniya - Historical coat of arms / Kherson gubernia - Article in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine From Kherson Governorate to Kherson Oblast. Kherson regional universal science library of Oles Honchar
Socialist Revolutionary Party
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries was a major political party in early 20th century Imperial Russia. A key player in the Russian Revolution, the SRs' general ideology was revolutionary socialism of democratic socialist and agrarian socialist forms. After the February Revolution, it shared power with liberal and other democratic socialist forces within the Russian Provisional Government. Following the October Revolution, in November 1917, the Socialist Revolutionary Party won a plurality of the national vote in Russia's first-ever democratic elections, however this was more or less nullified as due to a changing political climate, the Bolsheviks disbanded the Constituent Assembly in January 1918; the SRs soon split into anti-Bolshevik factions. The anti-Bolshevik faction of this party, known as the Right SRs and which remained loyal to the Provisional Government leader Alexander Kerensky, was defeated and destroyed by the Bolsheviks in the course of the Russian Civil War and subsequent persecution.
The party's ideology was built upon the philosophical foundation of Russia's Narodnik–populist movement of the 1860s–1870s and its worldview developed by Alexander Herzen and Pyotr Lavrov. After a period of decline and marginalization in the 1880s, the Narodnik–populist school of thought about social change in Russia was revived and modified by a group of writers and activists known as neonarodniki Viktor Chernov, their main innovation was a renewed dialogue with Marxism and integration of some of the key Marxist concepts into their thinking and practice. In this way, with the economic spurt and industrialization in Russia in the 1890s, they attempted to broaden their appeal in order to attract the growing urban workforce to their traditionally peasant-oriented programme; the intention was to widen the concept of the people so that it encompassed all elements in society that opposed the Tsarist regime. The party was established in 1902 out of the Northern Union of Socialist Revolutionaries, bringing together many local socialist revolutionary groups established in the 1890s, notably the Workers' Party of Political Liberation of Russia created by Catherine Breshkovsky and Grigory Gershuni in 1899.
As primary party theorist emerged Viktor Chernov, the editor of the first party organ, Revolutsionnaya Rossiya. Party periodicals included Znamia Truda, Delo Naroda and Volia Naroda. Party leaders included Gershuni, Andrei Argunov, Nikolai Avksentiev, Mikhail Gots, Mark Natanson, Vadim Rudnev, Nikolay Rusanov, Ilya Rubanovich and Boris Savinkov; the party's program was democratic socialist and agrarian socialist—it garnered much support among Russia's rural peasantry, who in particular supported their program of land-socialization as opposed to the Bolshevik programme of land-nationalisation—division of land to peasant tenants rather than the collectivization in state management. The party's policy platform differed from that of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party —both Bolshevik and Menshevik—in that it was not Marxist; the SRs believed that the labouring peasantry as well as the industrial proletariat would be the revolutionary class in Russia. Whereas RSLDP defined class membership in terms of ownership of the means of production and other SR theorists defined class membership in terms of extraction of surplus value from labour.
On the first definition, small-holding subsistence farmers who do not employ wage labour are—as owners of their land—members of the petty bourgeoisie whereas on the second definition they can be grouped with all who provide, rather than purchase, labour-power and hence with the proletariat as part of the labouring class. Chernov considered the proletariat as vanguard and the peasantry as the main body of the revolutionary army; the party played an active role in the 1905 Russian Revolution and in the Moscow and Saint Petersburg Soviets. Although the party boycotted the first State Duma in 1906, 34 SRs were elected while 37 were elected to the second Duma in 1907; the party boycotted both the third Duma and fourth Duma. In this period, party membership drastically declined and most of its leaders emigrated from Russia. A distinctive feature of party tactics until about 1909 was its heavy reliance on assassinations of individual government officials; these tactics were inherited from SRs' predecessor in the populist movement, Narodnaya Volya, a conspiratorial organization of the 1880s.
They were intended to embolden the "masses" and intimidate the Tsarist government into political concessions. The SR Combat Organization, responsible for assassinating government officials, was led by Gershuni and operated separately from the party so as not to jeopardize its political actions. SRCO agents assassinated two Ministers of the Interior, Dmitry Sipyagin and Vyacheslav von Plehve, Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich, the Governor of Ufa N. M. Bogdanovich and many other high-ranking officials. In 1903, Gershuni was betrayed by his deputy, Yevno Azef, an agent of the Okhrana secret police, convicted of terrorism and sentenced to life at hard labor, managing to escape, flee overseas and go into exile. Azef became the new leader of the SRCO and continued working for both the SRCO and the Okhrana orchestrating terrorist acts and betraying his comrades. Boris Savinkov ran many of the actual operations, notably the as