State Herbarium of South Australia
The State Herbarium of South Australia is located in Adelaide, South Australia. It is Commonwealth herbaria in Australia; the Department of Environment and Natural Resources is the state agency, responsible for the Herbarium, but the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium is charged with its establishment and maintenance. In 1954 the State Herbarium of South Australia was founded as part of the Adelaide Botanic Garden; the first flora collection of the state was produced by Richard Schomburgk in 1875. The State Herbarium's collections include collections of Ralph Tate, John McConnell Black, the moss herbarium of Professor David Guthrie Catcheside, the collections of the Field Naturalists Society of South Australia. Since 2000 the Herbarium has been located in the historic Tram Barn A building adjacent to the Adelaide Botanic Garden's Bicentennial Conservatory on Hackney Road, Adelaide. In late 2011 the Herbarium was due to list its one millionth specimen, is producing an on-line version of the Flora of South Australia, 5th edition.
EFloraSA Electronic flora of South Australia Retrieved 18 May 2018
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service known as the Soil Conservation Service, is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers. Its name was changed in 1994 during the presidency of Bill Clinton to reflect its broader mission, it is a small agency comprising about 12,000 employees. Its mission is to improve and conserve natural resources on private lands through a cooperative partnership with state and local agencies. While its primary focus has been agricultural lands, it has made many technical contributions to soil surveying and water quality improvement. One example is the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, set up to quantify the benefits of agricultural conservation efforts promoted and supported by programs in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. NRCS is the leading agency in this project; the agency was founded through the efforts of Hugh Hammond Bennett, a soil conservation pioneer who worked for the Department of Agriculture from 1903 to 1952.
Bennett's motivation was based on his knowledge of the detrimental effects of soil erosion and the impacts on U. S lands. On September 13, 1933, the Soil Erosion Service was formed in the Department of the Interior, with Bennett as chief; the service was transferred to the Department of Agriculture on March 23, 1935, was shortly thereafter combined with other USDA units to form the Soil Conservation Service by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1935. The Soil Conservation Service was in charge of 500 Civilian Conservation Corps camps between 1933 and 1942; the primary purpose of these camps was erosion control. Hugh Bennett continued as chief, a position he held until his retirement in 1952. On October 20, 1994, the agency was renamed to the Natural Resources Conservation Service as part of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994. NRCS offers financial assistance to farmers and ranchers; the financial assistance is authorized by the Farm Bill, a law, renewed every five years.
The 2014 Farm Bill consolidated 23 programs into 15. NRCS offers these services to private land owners, conservation districts and other types of organizations. NRCS collects and shares information on the nation's soil, water and plants; the Conservation Title of the Farm Bill provides the funding to agricultural producers, a conservation plan must be included. All of these programs are voluntary; the main programs include: The purpose of EQIP is to provide assistance to landowners to help them improve their soil and related natural resources, including grazing lands and wildlife habitat. Conservation Stewardship Program CSP is targeted to a producers who maintain a higher level of environmental stewardship. Regional Conservation Partnership Program RCPP consolidated four programs from the prior 2008 Farm Bill, it aims at more watershed scale projects, rather than individual farms and ranches. Agricultural Conservation Easement Program ACEP was another consolidation effort of the 2014 Farm Bill, which includes the former Grasslands Reserve Program and Ranch Lands Protection Program, Wetlands Reserve Program.
ACEP includes technical and financial help to maintain or improve land for agriculture or environmental benefits. Landowners volunteer to protect forests in 30 or 10 year contracts; this program hands assisting funds to participants. The objectives of HFRP are to: Promote the recovery of endangered and threatened species under the Endangered Species Act Improve plant and animal biodiversity Enhance carbon sequestration Serves 10 states in the Midwest United States in helping to reduce Nitrate levels in soil due to runoff from fertilized farmland; the project began in 2010 and focused on the Mississippi Basin area. The main goal of the project is to implement better methods of managing water drainage from agricultural uses, in place of letting the water drain as it had done in the past. In October 2011, The National "Managing Water, Harvesting Results" Summit was held to promote the drainage techniques used in hopes of people adopting them nationwide. Includes water supply forecasts and the Surface Water Supply Index for Alaska and other Western states.
NRCS agents collect data from snowpack and mountain sites to predict spring runoff and summer streamflow amounts. These predictions are used in decision making for agriculture, wildlife management and development, several other areas; these predictions are available within the first 5 days of each month from January to June. Is a blanket program which involves conservation efforts on soil and water conservation, as well as management of agricultural wastes and general longterm sustainability. NRCS and related agencies work with landowners, communities, or developers to protect the environment. Serve to guide people to comply with acts such as the Highly Erodible Land and Conservation Compliance Provisions acts; the CTA can cover projects by state and federal governments. Is a program to assist gulf bordering states improve water quality and use sustainable methods of farming and other industry; the program will deliver up to 50 million dollars over 2011-2013 to apply these sustainable methods, as well as wildlife habitat management systems that do not hinder agricultural productivity, prevent future over use of water resources to protect native endangered spe
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex L. are a genus of about 200 species of annual and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae. Members of this family are common perennial herbs with a native worldwide distribution, with introduced species growing in the few places where the genus is not native; some are nuisance weeds. Rumex species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species, are the only host plants of Lycaena rubidus, they are erect plants with long taproots. The fleshy to leathery leaves form a basal rosette at the root; the basal leaves may be different from those near the inflorescence. They may not have stipules. Minor leaf veins occur; the leaf blade margins are crenate. The inconspicuous flowers are carried above the leaves in clusters; the fertile flowers are hermaphrodites, or they may be functionally male or female. The flowers and seeds grow on long clusters at the top of a stalk emerging from the basal rosette; each seed is a three-sided achene with a round tubercle on one or all three sides.
The genus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. Within the family Polygonaceae, it is placed in the subfamily Polygonoideae; the genus Emex was separated from Rumex by Francisco Campderá in 1819 on the basis that it was polygamous. However, some species of Rumex subg. Acetosa have this characteristic, most other features that are supposed to distinguish Emex are found in species of Rumex. Accordingly, in 2015, Schuster et al. demoted Emex to a subgenus of Rumex. Within the subfamily Polygonoideae, Rumex is placed in the tribe Rumiceae, along with the two genera Oxyria and Rheum, it is most related to Rheum. As of March 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species. A large number of hybrids are recorded; these plants have many uses. Broad-leaved dock used to be called butter dock because its large leaves were used to wrap and conserve butter. Rumex hymenosepalus has been cultivated in the Southwestern US as a source of tannin, for use in leather tanning, while leaves and stems are used for a mordant-free mustard-colored dye.
These plants are edible. The leaves of most species contain oxalic acid and tannin, many have astringent and purgative qualities; some species with high levels of oxalic acid are called sorrels, some of these are grown as leaf vegetables or garden herbs for their acidic taste. In Western Europe, dock leaves are a traditional remedy for the sting of nettles, suitable larger docks grow conveniently in similar habitats to the common nettle. In traditional Austrian medicine, R. alpinus leaves and roots have been used internally for treatment of viral infections. Rumex nepalensis is has a variety of medicinal uses in the Greater Himalayas, including Sikkim in Northeastern India. Several fossil fruits of Rumex sp. have been described from middle Miocene strata of the Fasterholt area near Silkeborg in Central Jutland, Denmark. One fossil fruit of a Rumex species has been extracted from a borehole sample of the Middle Miocene fresh water deposits in Nowy Sacz Basin, West Carpathians, Poland; this fossil fruit is similar to the fruits of the extant species Rumex maritimus and Rumex ucranicus which both have fossil records from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Europe.
Antipruritic Rumex acetosella. Edibility of Dock: Identification and edible parts of Rumex spp. Video:- Dock As Wild Edible Food Part 1 | Frank Cook "Rumex". African Plants Database. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques & South African National Biodiversity Institute. Retrieved 2018-07-05. Linnæi, Caroli. "Trigynia". Species Plantarum, Exhibentes Plantas Rite Cognitas, ad Genera Relatas, cum Differenentiis Specificis, Nominibus Trivialibus, Synonymis Selectis, Locis Natalibus, Secundum System Sexuale Digestas. Retrieved 2008-07-02
The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States. The name is based on the genus Polygonum, was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum; the name refers to the many swollen nodes. It is derived from Greek; the Polygonaceae comprise about 1200 species distributed into about 48 genera. The largest genera are Eriogonum, Coccoloba and Calligonum; the family is most diverse in the North Temperate Zone. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals. A few species of Triplaris provide lumber; the fruit of the sea grape is eaten, in Florida, jelly is made from it and sold commercially. The seeds of two species of Fagopyrum, known as buckwheat, provide grain; the petioles of rhubarb are a food item. The leaves of the common sorrel are eaten as a leaf vegetable. Polygonaceae contain some of the worst weeds, including species of Persicaria and Polygonum, such as Japanese knotweed.
Polygonaceae are well-defined and have long been universally recognized. In the APG III system, the family is placed in the order Caryophyllales. Within the order, it lies outside of the large clade known as the core Caryophyllales, it is sister to the family Plumbaginaceae. The last comprehensive revision of the family was published in 1993 by John Brandbyge as part of The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Brandbyge followed earlier systems of plant classification in dividing Polygonaceae into two subfamilies and Polygonoideae. Since 1993, the circumscriptions of these two subfamilies have been changed in light of phylogenetic studies of DNA sequences. Genera related to Coccoloba and Triplaris were moved from Polygonoideae to Eriogonoideae; the genus Symmeria does not belong to either of these subfamilies because it is sister to the rest of the family. Afrobrunnichia might constitute a new subfamily as well. Brandbyge wrote descriptions for 43 genera of Polygonaceae in 1993. Since a few more genera have been erected, some segregates of Brunnichia and Persicaria have been given generic status in major works.
Some of the genera were found not to be monophyletic and their limits have been revised. These include Ruprechtia, Chorizanthe, Aconogonon, Polygonum and Muehlenbeckia. Most Polygonaceae are perennial herbaceous plants with swollen nodes, but trees and vines are present; the leaves of Polygonaceae are simple, arranged alternately on the stems. Each leaf has a peculiar pair of sheathing stipules known as an ochrea; those species that do not have the nodal ocrea can be identified by their possession of involucrate flower heads. The flowers are bisexual and actinomorphic, with a perianth of three to six sepals. After flowering, the sepals become thickened and enlarged around the developing fruit. Flowers lack a corolla and in some, the sepals are petal-like and colorful; the androecium is composed of three to eight stamens that are free or united at the base. The ovary consists of three united carpels; the ovary is superior with free-central placentation. The gynoecium terminates in 1 to 3 styles; as of March 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted 56 genera: Aconogonon Rchb. – now included in Koenigia Homalocladium L.
H. Bailey – now included in Muehlenbeckia Parapteropyrum A. J. Li – now included in Fagopyrum Polygonella Michx. – now included in Polygonum Rubrivena M. Král – now included in Koenigia The following phylogenetic tree is based on two papers on the molecular phylogenetics of Polygonaceae. Polygonaceae In: FNA volume 5 In: Family List In: Flora of North America At: eFloras Polygonaceae In: Genera Plantarum At: Genera Plantarum At: Search At: Botanicus.org List of Genera in Polygonaceae At: Polygonaceae At: Caryophyllales At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missoure Botanical Garden Website List of genera in family Polygonaceae At: Dicotyledons At: List Genera within a Family At: Vascular Plant Families and Genera At: About the Checklist At: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families At: Data Sources At: ePIC At: Scientific Databases At: Kew Gardens List of genera At: Polygonaceae At: List of families At: Families and Genera in GRIN At: Queries At: GRIN taxonomy for plants non-core Caryophyllales At: Caryophyllales At: Root of the Tree At: Tree of Life web project Polygonaceae In: Flowering Plants Polygonaceae in L. Watson and M.
J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants: descriptions, identification, information retrieval. Http://delta-intkey.com Family Polygonaceae Flowers in Israel Polygonaceae of Mongolia in FloraGREIF
ARKive was a global initiative with the mission of "promoting the conservation of the world's threatened species, through the power of wildlife imagery", which it did by locating and gathering films and audio recordings of the world's species into a centralised digital archive. Its priority was the completion of audio-visual profiles for the c. 17,000 species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The project was an initiative of a UK-registered educational charity, based in Bristol; the technical platform was created by Hewlett-Packard, as part of the HP Labs' Digital Media Systems research programme. ARKive had the backing of leading conservation organisations, including BirdLife International, Conservation International, International Union for Conservation of Nature, the United Nations' World Conservation Monitoring Centre, the World Wide Fund for Nature, as well as leading academic and research institutions, such as the Natural History Museum, it was a member of the Institutional Council of the Encyclopedia of Life.
Two ARKive layers for Google Earth, featuring endangered species and species in the Gulf of Mexico were produced by Google Earth Outreach. The first of these was launched in April 2008 by Sir David Attenborough; the website closed on 15 February 2019. The project formally was launched on 20 May 2003 by its patron, the UK-based natural history presenter, Sir David Attenborough, a long-standing colleague and friend of its chief instigator, the late Christopher Parsons, a former Head of the BBC Natural History Unit. Parsons never lived to see the fruition of the project, succumbing to cancer in November 2002 at the age of 70. Parsons identified a need to provide a centralised safe haven for wildlife films and photographs after discovering that many such records are held in scattered, non-indexed, collections with little or no public access, sometimes in conditions that could lead to loss or damage, he believed the records could be a powerful force in building environmental awareness by bringing scientific names to life.
He saw their preservation as an important educational resource and conservation tool, not least because extinction rates and habitat destruction could mean that images and sounds might be the only legacy of some species’ existence. His vision of a permanent, refuge for audio-visual wildlife material won immediate support from many of the world’s major broadcasters, including the BBC, international state broadcasting corporations and National Geographic magazine; the initial feasibility study for creating ARKive was carried out in the late 1980s by conservationist John Burton, but at the time the costs of the technology needed were too far too high, so it was over a decade after the technology had caught up with Christopher Parson's vision, that the project was able to get off the ground. After capital development funds of £2m were secured from the Heritage Lottery Fund in 1997 and New Opportunities Fund in 2000, work on building ARKive began as part of the UK's Millennium celebrations, using advanced computerised storage and retrieval technology devised for the project by Hewlett-Packard, with an initial capacity of up to 74 terabytes of data, using redundant hardware and multiple copies of media stored at multiple sites.
Media was digitised to the highest available quality without compression and encoded to open standards. A prototype site was online as early as April 1999. There were several design iterations before the formal launch. By the launch date, the project team had researched, copied and authenticated image and fact files of 1,000 animals and fungi, many of them critically endangered. More multi-media profiles are added every month, starting with British flora and fauna and with species included on the Red List – that is, species that are believed to be closest to extinction, according to research by the World Conservation Union. By January 2006, the database had grown to 2,000 species, 15,000 still images and more than 50 hours of video. By 2010, over 5,500 donors had contributed photos of more than 12,000 species. In February 2019, Wildscreen announced that they "...have had to make the hard decision to close the Arkive website on 15 February 2019", due to funding issues. On that date the website was replaced with a short statement, concluding: The complete Arkive collection of over 100,000 images and videos is now being stored securely offline for future generations.
The site was Sunday Times website of the year for 2005. It was a 2010 Webby Award honoree for its outstanding calibre of work, in the'Education' category, a 2010 Association of Educational Publishers'Distinguished Achievement Award' winner, in the category for websites for 9-12 year olds. Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life List of online encyclopedias Nature documentary Official ARKive site Technical specifications from Hewlett-Packard Memorandum of Understanding with Encyclopedia of Life
Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, amaranths, ice plants and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy leaves; the members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species. This order is part of the core eudicots; the Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species. The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations; as with all taxa, the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants. Although the monophyly of the order has been supported, their placement is still uncertain. Systematists are undecided on whether Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade.
The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey and others. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham and Hutchinson have suggested.' "Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders: Polygonineae. These two suborders were recognized as two orders and Caryophyllales. Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae and Petiveriaceae were added in APG IV; as circumscribed by the APG III system, this order includes the same families as the APG II system plus the new families, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Anacampserotaceae. Family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Kewaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Macarthuriaceae family Microteaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Petiveriaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae As circumscribed by the APG II system, this order includes well-known plants like cacti, spinach, rhubarb, venus fly traps, bougainvillea.
Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales. Order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998 order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae The Cronquist system recognised the order, with this circumscription: order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Didiereaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Portulacaceae family MolluginaceaeThe difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order".
The APG favours much larger orders and families, the order Caryophyllales sensu APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist. A part of the difference lies with; the plants in the Stegnospermataceae and Barbeuiaceae were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae are included in Amaranthaceae by APG. New to the order are the Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae, each containing a single genus, two genera from Cronquist's order Nepenthales. Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935, the Engler system