Italian Minister of the Interior
The Minister of the Interior in Italy is one of the most important positions in the Italian Council of Ministers and leads the Ministry of the Interior. The current Minister is Matteo Salvini, appointed on 1 June 2018 in the government of Giuseppe Conte; the Minister of the Interior is responsible for internal security and the protection of the constitutional order, for civil protection against disasters and terrorism, for displaced persons and administrative questions. It is host to the Standing Committee of Interior Ministers and drafts all passport, identity card and explosives legislation; the Interior Minister is political head for the administration of internal affairs. He controls the State police, the Vigili del Fuoco, the prefects; the minister herefore sits on the High Council of Defence. Parties1861–1912: Historical Right Historical Left 1912–1922: Liberal Union Radical Party Reform Socialist Party Military 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Christian Democracy Labour Democratic Party Action Party Socialist Party Independent Governments Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties 1946–1994: Christian Democracy Since 1994: Lega Nord Democratic Party of the Left People's Party The Democrats Forza Italia/The People of Freedom Democratic Party New Centre-Right Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition
Mario Tanassi was an Italian politician, several times Minister of the Italian Republic. In 1979 he was condemned by the Constitutional Court of Italy for his involvement in the Lockheed bribery scandal. Tanassi was born in the province of Campobasso, he entered the Italian Democratic Socialist Party and was alter national co-secretary, together with Francesco De Martino, of the unified PSI-PSDI, a short-lived reunion of PSDI and the Italian Socialist Party. He was minister of defence for the first time in the Rumor II Cabinet, formed by an alliance between Christian Democracy, PSI and PSDI. In 1972 he was again appointed as minister of defencee, as well as vice-prime minister. Tanassi was minister of defence for the third time in the fourth Rumor Government. After a short tenure in 1972, in June 1975 he became again national secretary of PSDI, replacing Flavio Orlandi. A few time he was involved in the Lockheed bribery scandal together with Mariano Rumor and Luigi Gui, therefore he lost the position of the party's secretary.
In 1979 the Constitutional Courty of Italy found him guilty of bribery and he spent fourth months in jail. He was the first Italian former minister to undergo a prison condemn
Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
The Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Italy. The office was one of the positions which Italy inherited from the Kingdom of Sardinia where it was the most ancient ministry of the government: this origin gives to the office a ceremonial primacy in the Italian cabinet. Parties1861–1912: Historical Right Historical Left Military 1912–1922: Liberal Union Radical Party Democratic Liberal Party 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Labour Democratic Party Christian Democracy Independent Military Governments Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties 1946-1994: Christian Democracy Socialist Party Republican Party Liberal Party Democratic Socialist Party Independent Since 1994: People's Party Forza Italia/The People of Freedom Italian Renewal The Olive Tree Democrats of the Left/Democratic Party National Alliance Italian Radicals New Centre-Right/Popular Alternative Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition Affari Esteri Foreign policy
Italian Minister of Public Works
This is a list of Italian Ministers of Public Works. The list shows the ministers that served under the same office but with other names, in fact this Ministry has changed name many times. Parties 1946-1994: Socialist Party Communist Party Christian Democracy Democratic Socialist Party Republican Party Since 1994: Forza Italia/The People of Freedom The Democrats People's Party Party of Italian Communists Italy of Values New Centre-Right Democratic Party Five Star Movement Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition
Prime Minister of Italy
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic. The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy; the Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election and must have the confidence of the Italian Parliament to stay in office. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. From 1925 to 1943 during the Fascist regime, the position was transformed into the dictatorial position of Head of the Government, Prime Minister, Secretary of State held by Benito Mussolini, Duce of Fascism, who governed on the behalf of the King of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943.
Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers which holds executive power and the position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems; the formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. As the President of the Council of Ministers, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and is required by the Constitution to have the confidence of the majority of the voting members of the Parliament. In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of Cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers".
This power has been used to a quite variable extent in the history of the Italian state as it is influenced by the political strength of individual ministers and thus by the parties they represent. The Prime Minister's activity has consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers; the Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a Cabinet reshuffle or sometimes an individual vote of no confidence on the part of Parliament may in practice provide a surrogate measure. The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861, ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. After the unification of Italy and the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change.
In fact, the candidate for office was appointed by the King and presided over a unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, appointed on 23 March 1861, but he died on 6 June the same year. From 1861 to 1911, Historical Right and Historical Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a left-wing patriot and statesman, the first head of the government from Southern Italy, he led the country for six years from 1887 until 1891 and again from 1893 until 1896. Crispi was internationally famous and mentioned along with world statesmen such as Otto von Bismarck, William Ewart Gladstone and Salisbury. An enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, Crispi went on to become a bellicose authoritarian Prime Minister and admirer of Bismarck, his career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a major banking scandal and subsequently fell from power in 1896 after a devastating colonial defeat in Ethiopia.
He is seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. In 1892, Giovanni Giolitti, a young leftist politician, was appointed Prime Minister by King Umberto I, but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903, he was appointed again head of the government after a period of instability. Giolitti was Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history. Giolitti was a master in the political art of trasformismo, the method of making a flexible, fluid centrist coalition in Parliament which sought to isolate the extremes of the left and the right in Italian politics. Under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party, they were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no formal links to political constituencies. The period between the start of the 20th century and the start of World War I, when he was Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior from 1901 to 1914 with only brief interruptions, is called the Giolittian Era.
A left-wing liberal with strong ethical concerns, Giolitti's periods in office were notable for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms which improved the living standards of ordinary Italians, together with the enactment of several policies of government intervention. Besides putting in place several tar
Italian Minister of Defence
This Italian Ministers of Defence is a senior member of the Italian Cabinet who leads the Ministry of Defence. The minister is responsible for military and civil defence matters and managing the Italian Armed Forces; the first Minister of War was Manfredo Fanti, a General of the Royal Italian Army, while the first Minister of Defence was Luigi Gasparotto, member of the Labour Democratic Party. Parties1861–1912: Military Historical Right Historical Left 1912–1922: Military Reform Socialist Party People's Party Agrarian Party Liberal Union 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Military Liberal Party Christian Democracy Republican Party Governments Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties 1946-1994: Labour Democratic Party Christian Democracy Republican Party Democratic Socialist Party Socialist Party Liberal Party Independent 1994–present: Forza Italia/The People of Freedom People's Party Democratic Union for the Republic The Daisy/Democratic Party Civic Choice/Populars for Italy Five Star Movement Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition Ministry of Defence
Italian Republican Party
The Italian Republican Party is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Italy. Founded in 1895, the PRI is the oldest political party still active in Italy; the PRI has old roots and a long history that began with a left-wing position, claiming descent from the political thought of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi. The early PRI was known for its anti-clerical, anti-monarchist republican and anti-fascist stances. While maintaining the latter three traits, during the second half of the 20th century the party moved to the centre of the political spectrum, becoming economically liberal; as such, the PRI was a member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party from 1976 to 2010. After 1949 the party was a member of the pro-NATO alliance formed by Christian Democrats, Democratic Socialists and Liberals, enabling it to participate in most governments of the 1950s. In 1963 the PRI helped bring together the Italian Socialist Party. Although small in terms of voter support, it was an important opinion leader, as articulated by Eugenio Chiesa, Giovanni Conti, Cipriano Facchinetti, Ugo La Malfa and Bruno Visentini.
The PRI traces its origins from the time of Italian unification and more to the democratic-republican wing represented by figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini, Carlo Cattaneo and Carlo Pisacane. They were against the so-called piemontesizzazione of Italy, meaning the conquest by war of the Kingdom of Sardinia of the rest of Italy. After the latter was unified under the Savoy kings, following the political lines of moderates such as Camillo Benso di Cavour, the Republicans remained aside from the political life of the new country, proclaiming their abstention from elections, they created several democratic movements, like the Brotherhood Pact of Workers' Societies, founded by Mazzini in 1871. However, Mazzini's death the following year and internationalism put the Republicans in a difficult position. In the run-up of the 1880 general election, the Republicans chose to abandon abstentionism. At the time, their ranks included both members of the middle class, such as Giovanni Bovio, Arcangelo Ghisleri and Napoleone Colajanni, as well as the working class, such as Valentino Armirotti.
The PRI, whose power base was limited to Romagna, Marche, the Tuscan littoral and Lazio, was founded in 1895. By the end of the century, the party was allied with the Italian Socialist Party and the Radical Party in several local governments, including Milan and Rome. At the outbreak of World War I, the PRI sided with interventionists, aiming at supporting France and annexing Trento and Trieste. After the end of the conflict, the party tried to form an alliance with other left-wing parties, but the attempt failed as the PSI at was influenced by its "maximalist" wing. In 1921, Pietro Nenni left the PRI to become one of the leaders of the PSI. In the 1920s, the rise of the National Fascist Party caused the collapse of all Italian left-wing parties, including the PRI, banned in 1926. Several Republicans were arrested, confined or exiled and the PRI collaborated to the anti-fascist struggle. In 1927, the party joined Anti-fascist Concentration. In the late 1930s it participated in the Spanish Civil War.
In 1940, the German occupation of France, where many Republicans had took refuge, put the party in jeopardy. During the armed resistance against the German occupation of Italy from 1943, PRI members were part of the provincial National Liberation Committees, but they did not participate to the national CLN as they did not want to collaborate with Italian monarchists, some of whom were active members of the committee. In 1946, the PRI gained 4.4% of the popular vote in the election for a Constituent Assembly, confirming its traditional strongholds. However, it was weak if compared to Christian Democracy and the Italian Communist Party. After that, a ballot on the same day abolished monarchy in Italy and the PRI declared itself available to take a role in the government of Italy, entering the second government of Alcide De Gasperi. In late 1946, Ugo La Malfa and Ferruccio Parri members of the Action Party, moved to the PRI. La Malfa would be appointed as minister in several of the following governments.
At the 19th congress of the party held in 1947, there were two main inner trends: one, represented by the national secretary Randolfo Pacciardi, supported an alliance with the PCI. The latter was to prevail. Carlo Sforza, a Republican, was Minister of Foreign Affairs in De Gasperi's third government, although only as an independent. Sforza signed the treaty of peace and contributed to the entrance of Italy into the Marshall Plan, NATO and the Council of Europe; the exclusion of left-wing parties from the government in 1947 led the PRI to join De Gasperi's fourth government. Pacciardi refused to take a position as minister; as the PCI was closer to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Pacciardi changed his mind and became Deputy Prime Minister. The 1948 general election saw the PRI as a solid ally of the DC, but a reduction of the party's share to 2.5%. In the following years, the strongest party faction was that of La Malfa, who refused to participate to the DC-led governments until 1962. In 1963, the party voted in favour of the first centre-left government in Italy led by Aldo Moro.
Pacciardi, who had voted against, was expelled and founded a separate movement, Democratic Union for the New Republic, whose electoral result were dis