A cricket ball is a hard, solid ball used to play cricket. A cricket ball consists of cork covered by leather, manufacture is regulated by cricket law at first-class level; the manipulation of a cricket ball, through employment of its various physical properties, is a staple component of bowling and dismissing batsmen. Movement in the air, off the ground, is influenced by the condition of the ball, the efforts of the bowler and the pitch, while working on the cricket ball to obtain optimum condition is a key role of the fielding side; the cricket ball is the principal manner through which the batsman scores runs, by manipulating the ball into a position where it would be safe to take a run, or by directing the ball through or over the boundary. In day Test cricket, professional domestic games that spread over a multitude of days, the entirety of amateur cricket, the traditional red cricket ball is used. In many one day cricket matches, a white ball is used instead in order to remain visible under floodlights, since 2010, pink has been introduced to contrast with players' white clothing and for improved night visibility during day/night Test matches.
Training balls of white and pink are common, tennis balls and other similar-sized balls can be used for training or informal cricket matches. During cricket matches, the quality of the ball changes to a point where it is no longer usable, during this decline its properties alter and thus can influence the match. Altering the state of the cricket ball outside the permitted manners designated in the rules of cricket is prohibited during a match, so-called "ball tampering" has resulted in numerous controversies. Injuries and fatalities have been caused by cricket balls during matches; the hazards posed by cricket balls were a key motivator for the introduction of protective equipment. British Standard BS 5993 specifies the construction details, dimensions and performance of cricket balls. A cricket ball is made with a core of cork, layered with wound string, covered by a leather case with a raised sewn seam. In a top-quality ball suitable for the highest levels of competition, the covering is constructed of four pieces of leather shaped similar to the peel of a quartered orange, but one hemisphere is rotated by 90 degrees with respect to the other.
The "equator" of the ball is stitched with string to form the ball's prominent seam, with six rows of stitches. The remaining two joins between the leather pieces are stitched internally forming the quarter seam. Lower-quality balls with a two-piece covering are popular for practice and lower-level competition due to their lower cost; the nature of the cricket ball varies with its manufacturer. White Kookaburra balls are used in one-day and Twenty20 international matches, while red Kookaburras are used in test matches played in most of the ten test-playing nations, except for the West Indies and England, who use Dukes, India, who use SG balls. Cricket balls are traditionally red, red balls are used in Test cricket and First-class cricket. White balls were introduced when one-day matches began being played at night under floodlights, as they are more visible at night; the white balls have been found to behave differently to the red balls, most notably that they swing a lot more during the first half of an innings than the red ball, that they deteriorate more quickly.
Manufacturers claim that white and red balls are manufactured using the same methods and materials, other than the dying treatment of the leather. Another problem associated with white cricket balls used in One Day Internationals is that they become dirty or dull in colour, which makes it more difficult for batsmen to sight the ball after 30-40 overs of use. Since October 2012, this has been managed by the use of two new white balls in each innings, with a different ball used from each bowling end. Between October 2007 and October 2012, the issue had been managed using one new ball from the start of the innings swapping it at the end of the 34th over with a "reconditioned ball", neither new nor too dirty to see. Before October 2007, except during 1992 and 1996 World Cups, only one ball was used during an innings of an ODI and it was the umpires discretion to change the ball if it was difficult to see. Pink balls were developed in the 2000s to enable first-class matches played at night; the red ball is unsuited to night tests due to poor visibility, the white ball is unsuited to first-class cricket because its rapid deterioration makes it unable to be used for eighty overs as specified in the rules, so the pink ball was designed to provide a satisfactory compromise on both issues.
It is still considered more difficult to see than a white ball. It has performed well enough in testing and first-class cricket to be approved for use in international cricket. A pink ball was used for the first time in an international match in July 2009 when the England Woman's team defeated Australia in a one-day match at Wormsley, a pink ball was used in a day-night Test match for the first time in November 2015. Other colours were experimented with, such as yellow and orange, for improved night visibility, but pink proved to be the preferred option; as of 2014, the ball used in Test match cricket in England has a recommended retail price of 100 pounds sterling. In test match cricket this ball is used for a minimum of 80 overs (theo
The nervous nineties is a used term in cricket. The term refers to a specific form of analysis paralysis, felt by a batsman when he has scored more than 90 runs in an innings, is nervous because of the pressure and desire to convert this into a century, considered to be a milestone of success in the game; therefore this situation is referred to as batsmen being in the nervous nineties. Batsmen tend to bat in a more conservative manner when they are close to their century, in order to avoid getting out and thus missing out on the milestone. Batsmen dismissed on 99 are considered the unluckiest of the nervous nineties victims; the opposing captain may position his fielders near the batsmen in order to create extra pressure to get the batsman out. As a result of this many batsmen fail to convert scores of nineties into centuries. Statistically, one of the worst victims of the nervous nineties was Australian opener Michael Slater, dismissed in the nineties 9 times in his test career, surviving to make a century 14 times.
West Indian batsman Alvin Kallicharran's record was poor, dismissed in the nineties 7 times for 12 career centuries. India's most renowned cricketer Sachin Tendulkar has scored in 90s 17 times in ODIs and 10 times in Test cricket and holds the record for highest number of dismissals in the 90s across all forms of international cricket. Sir Donald Bradman holds the record for most world centuries scored in a career without being dismissed in the nervous nineties: a total of 29 centuries. Greg Chappell and Michael Vaughan have the next best records. While most dedicated batsmen can achieve multiple centuries and dozens of opportunities to score them, for many all-rounders and bowlers, it can be rare for an innings to last long enough to achieve a century because of his team-mates losing their wickets, or for the lower-skilled bowler to be effective enough in his stroke play to come close to a century on many occasions. Shane Warne, considered to have a good level of skill as a power-hitting lower-order batsman, played 199 Test innings as a batsman and achieved 12 half-centuries.
He was dismissed twice in the 90s, once on 90, once on 99. Ashton Agar, playing on debut for Australia against England, came in as the last batsman and compiled the highest score for a number 11 batsmen, but fell for 98 with a rash pull shot from a bouncer, after nervously swatting and missing at two previous deliveries. Nervous nineties are applicable for the batsmen who get dismissed at 190s or the 290s. Steven Smith the Aussie skipper against West Indies in April 2015, Younus Khan of Pakistan, Lokesh Rahul of India missed a chance of a double ton; the most unlucky was former New Zealand captain Martin Crowe, dismissed for 299 against Sri Lanka in 1991. In T20 International, Alex Hales got out on 99; this is the only instance where a batsman had been dismissed on 99 in T20I. However there has been one incident, it was Marcus Stoinis for Melbourne Stars against the Brisbane Heat in 2017-18 season of the Big Bash League. Meher-Homji, Kersi; the nervous nineties. Sydney: Kangaroo Press. ISBN 0-86417-650-3
In cricket a boundary is the edge or boundary of the playing field, or a scoring shot where the ball is hit to or beyond that point. The boundary is the edge of the playing field, or the physical object marking the edge of the field, such as a rope or fence. In low-level matches, a series of plastic cones are used. Since the early 2000s the boundaries at professional matches are a series of padded cushions carrying sponsors' logos strung along a rope. If it is moved during play the boundary is considered to remain at the point where that object first stood; when the cricket ball is inside the boundary, it is live. When the ball is touching the boundary, grounded beyond the boundary, or being touched by a fielder, himself either touching the boundary or grounded beyond it, it is dead and the batting side scores 4 or 6 runs for hitting the ball over the boundary; because of this rule, fielders near the boundary attempting to intercept the ball while running or diving flick the ball back in to the field of play rather than pick it up directly, because their momentum could carry them beyond the rope while holding the ball.
They return to the field to pick the ball up and throw it back to the bowler. A law change in 2010 declared that a fielder could not jump from behind the boundary and, while airborne, parry the ball back on to the field. A boundary is the scoring of four or six runs from a single delivery with the ball reaching or crossing the boundary of the playing field. There is an erroneous use of the term boundary as a synonym for a "four". For example, sometimes commentators say such as "There were seven boundaries and three sixes in the innings." The correct terminology would be "There were ten boundaries in the innings of which seven were fours and three were sixes." Four runs are scored if the ball bounces before touching or going over the edge of the field and six runs if it does not bounce before passing over the boundary in the air. These events are known as a four or a six respectively; when this happens the runs are automatically added to the batsman's and his team's score and the ball becomes dead.
If the ball did not touch the bat or a hand holding the bat, four runs are scored as the relevant type of extra instead. Prior to 1910, six runs were only awarded for hits out of the ground. Four runs can be scored by hitting the ball into the outfield and running between the wickets. Four runs scored in this way is referred to as an "all run four" and is not counted as a boundary. Four runs are scored as overthrows if a fielder gathers the ball and throws it so that no other fielder can gather it before it reaches the boundary. In this case, the batsman who hit the ball scores however many runs the batsmen had run up to that time, plus four additional runs, it is counted as a boundary. If the ball has not come off the bat or hand holding the bat the runs are classified as'extras' and are added to the team's score but not to the score of any individual batsman; the scoring of a four or six by a good aggressive shot displays a certain amount of mastery by the batsman over the bowler, is greeted by applause from the spectators.
Fours resulting from an edged stroke, or from a shot that did not come off as the batsman intended, are considered bad luck to the bowler. As a batsman plays himself in and becomes more confident as his innings progresses, the proportion of his runs scored in boundaries rises. An average first-class match sees between 50 and 150 boundary fours. Sixes are less common, fewer than 10 will be scored in the course of a match; the record for most sixes in a Test match innings is 12, achieved by Pakistani all-rounder Wasim Akram during an innings of 257 not out against Zimbabwe in October 1996 at Sheikhupura. The One Day International record for most sixes hit in an innings is held by Rohit Sharma who hit 16 sixes against Australia in Bengaluru on 2 November 2013 in his innings of 209 off 158 balls. Brendon McCullum holds the record for most sixes in a Test career with 107. Shahid Afridi holds the record for most sixes in an ODI career; the record for the most sixes in a Test match is 27, which occurred during a 2006 Test match between Pakistan and India at the Iqbal Stadium in Faisalabad.
In their first innings, Pakistan hit. India hit nine in their first innings. Pakistan hit seven more sixes in their second innings; the record for most sixes in a One Day International is 38, achieved in a match between India and Australia at M Chinnaswamy Stadium on 2 November 2013. India and Australia hit 19 sixes each; the equivalent record in Twenty20 Internationals was set on the AMI Stadium, 24 sixes were hit during the Twenty20 International match between India and New Zealand on 25 February 2009. In 2012, during the First Test against Bangladesh in Dhaka, West Indies cricketer Chris Gayle became the first player to hit a six off the first ball in a Test cricket match. On 31 August 1968, Garfield Sobers became the first man to hit six sixes off a single six-ball over in first-class cricket; the over was bowled by Malcolm Nash in Nottinghamshire's first innings against Glamorgan at St Helen's in Swansea. Nash was a seam bowler but decided to try his arm at spin bowling; this achievement was caught on film.
On 10 January 1985, Ravi Shastri equaled Garry Sobers's record of hitting six sixes in an over in first class cricket. On 19 September 2007, during a match between England and India in the inaugural T20 World Cup, Yuvraj Singh became the first Indian ba
In the sport of cricket, a wide is one of two things: The event of a ball being delivered by a bowler too wide or high to be hit by the batsman by means of a normal cricket shot, ruled so by the umpire. The run scored by the batting team as a penalty to the bowling team. Wides are covered by Law 22 of the Laws of Cricket. A wide does not count as one of the six balls in an over; when a wide is bowled, one run is added to the runs scored off that ball, is scored as extras and are added to the team's total, but are not added to a batsman's total. A batsman cannot, by definition, be out bowled, leg before wicket, caught, or hit the ball twice off a wide, as a ball cannot be ruled as a wide if the ball strikes the batsman's bat or person or hits the wicket, he may however be run out, or stumped. If the wicket-keeper fumbles or misses the ball, the batsmen may attempt additional runs. Any runs scored thus are recorded as wides, not byes, are added to the bowler's record. If the wicket-keeper misses the ball and it travels all the way to the boundary, the batting team scores five wides as if the ball had been hit to the boundary for a four off a no-ball.
If a wide ball crosses the boundary without touching the ground, only five wides are scored - according to Law 19.7, a boundary six can only be scored if the ball has touched the bat. If a ball qualifies as a no-ball as well as a wide, the umpire will call it a no-ball, all the rules for a no-ball apply. Wides are considered to be the fault of the bowler, are recorded as a negative statistic in a bowler's record. However, this has only been the case since the early 1980s - the first Test to record wides against the bowler's analyses was India vs Pakistan in September 1983. Wides used to be rare, but regulations have been added in many competitions to enforce a much stricter interpretation in order to deter defensive bowling, the number of wides has increased sharply. In one-day cricket, most deliveries that pass the batsman on the leg side without hitting the stumps are now called as wides. In the semi-finals and final of the first World Cup in 1975, there were 79 extras, of which 9 were wides.
In the six Tests of the 1970-71 Ashes series there were 9 wides. An umpire straightens both his arms to form straight line to signal a wide; the conventional scoring notation for a wide is an equal cross. If the batsmen run byes on a wide ball or the ball runs to the boundary for 4, a dot is added in each corner for each bye, run top left top right bottom left and all 4 corners. If the batsman hits the stumps with his bat, or the wicket-keeper stumps him, the batsman would be out and a ‘W’ is added to the WIDE ‘cross’ symbol. If a batsman is run out while taking byes on a wide delivery the number of completed runs are shown as dots and an'R' is added in the corner for the incomplete run
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
In the sport of cricket, the crease is a certain area demarcated by white lines painted or chalked on the field of play, pursuant to the rules of cricket they help determine legal play in different ways for the fielding and batting side. They define the area within which bowlers operate; the term crease may refer to any of the lines themselves the popping crease, or to the region that they demark. Law 7 of the Laws of Cricket governs the size and position of the crease markings, defines the actual line as the back edge of the width of the marked line on the grass, i.e. the edge nearest to the wicket at that end. Four creases are drawn around the two sets of stumps; the batsmen play in and run between the areas defined by the creases at each end of the pitch. The bowling creases lie 22 yards away, marks the other end of the pitch. For the fielding side, the crease defines whether there is a no-ball because a fielder has encroached on the pitch or the wicket-keeper has moved in front of the wicket before he is permitted to do so.
In addition part of the bowler's back foot in the delivery stride was required to fall behind the bowling crease to avoid a delivery being a no-ball. This rule was replaced by a requirement that the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride must land with some part of it behind the popping crease; the origin of creases is uncertain but they were in use by the beginning of the 18th century when they were created by scratch marks, the popping crease being 46 inches in front of the wicket at each end of the pitch. In the course of time, the scratches became cuts which were an inch wide; the cut was in use until the second half of the 19th century. Sometime during the early career of Alfred Shaw, he suggested that the creases should be made by lines of whitewash and this was adopted through the 1870s; the origin of the term "popping crease" is unknown. One popping crease is drawn at each end of the pitch in front of each set of stumps; the popping crease is 4 feet in parallel to the bowling crease.
Although it is considered to have unlimited length the popping crease must be marked to at least 6 feet perpendicular to the pitch, on either side of the middle of the pitch. For the fielding team the popping crease is used as one test of whether the bowler has bowled a no-ball. To avoid a no-ball, some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride must be behind the popping crease when it lands, although it does not have to be grounded; the foot may be on the line as long. This has given rise to the term "the line belongs to the umpire." For a batsman the popping crease – which can be referred to as the batting crease in the context of batting – determines whether they have been stumped or run out. This is described in Laws 29, 38, 39 of the Laws of Cricket. Both involve the wicket being put down before a batsman can touch his body or bat to the ground behind the popping crease and make his ground and return safely from his run. A 2010 amendment to Law 29 clarified the circumstance where the wicket is put down while a batsman has become airborne after having first made his ground.
If the batsman facing the bowler steps out of his ground to play the ball but misses and the wicket-keeper takes the ball and puts down the wicket the striker is out stumped. If a fielder puts down either wicket whilst the batsmen are running between the wickets the batsman nearest the downed wicket is out run out. There is no limit of. Drawn parallel with the popping crease and four feet away from it; the bowling crease is the line through the centres of the three stumps at each end. It is 8 ft 8 in long, with the stumps in the centre. Four return creases are drawn, one on each side of each set of stumps; the return creases lie perpendicular to the popping crease and the bowling crease, 4 feet 4 inches either side of and parallel to the imaginary line joining the centres of the two middle stumps. Each return crease line starts at the popping crease but the other end is considered to be unlimited in length and must be marked to a minimum of 8 feet from the popping crease; the return creases are used to determine whether the bowler has bowled a no-ball.
To avoid a no-ball, the bowler's back foot in the delivery stride must land within and not touch the return crease. This is to stop the bowler from bowling at the batsmen from an unfair angle. Though the small size of the crease is such that they limit the degree to which a batsman or a bowler can alter where they stand to face or deliver a ball, there is a degree of latitude afforded whereby both can move around the crease as long as they remain within the aforementioned confines. Batsmen ` use the crease' while playing a shot. Bowlers'use the crease' by varying the position of their feet, relative to the stumps, at the moment of delivery. In so doing, they can alter the trajectory of the ball. Cricket terminology Laws of Cricket Notes SourcesThe Laws of Cricket at Lord's Cricket Ground Altham, H. S.. A History of Cricket, Volume 1. George Allen & Unwin; the Laws of Cricket. Wisden. 2010. MCC Laws of Cricket. Marylebone Cricket Club. 1993. Rundell, M. and M. Atherton; the Original L
Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move on foot. Running is a type of gait characterized by an aerial phase; this is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion. A characteristic feature of a running body from the viewpoint of spring-mass mechanics is that changes in kinetic and potential energy within a stride occur with energy storage accomplished by springy tendons and passive muscle elasticity; the term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting. It is assumed that the ancestors of humankind developed the ability to run for long distances about 2.6 million years ago in order to hunt animals. Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas. Records of competitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland between 632 BCE and 1171 BCE, while the first recorded Olympic Games took place in 776 BCE.
Running has been described as the world's most accessible sport. It is thought that human running evolved at least four and a half million years ago out of the ability of the ape-like Australopithecus, an early ancestor of humans, to walk upright on two legs; the theory proposed considered to be the most evolution of running is of early humans' developing as endurance runners from the practice of persistence hunting of animals, the activity of following and chasing until a prey is too exhausted to flee, succumbing to "chase myopathy", that human features such as the nuchal ligament, abundant sweat glands, the Achilles tendons, big knee joints and muscular glutei maximi, were changes caused by this type of activity. The theory as first proposed used comparative physiological evidence and the natural habits of animals when running, indicating the likelihood of this activity as a successful hunting method. Further evidence from observation of modern-day hunting practice indicated this likelihood.
According to Sears scientific investigation of the Nariokotome Skeleton provided further evidence for the Carrier theory. Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas such as Greece, Egypt and the East African Rift in Africa; the Tailteann Games, an Irish sporting festival in honor of the goddess Tailtiu, dates back to 1829 BCE, is one of the earliest records of competitive running. The origins of the Olympics and Marathon running are shrouded by myth and legend, though the first recorded games took place in 776 BCE. Running in Ancient Greece can be traced back to these games of 776 BCE.... I suspect that the sun, earth and heaven, which are still the gods of many barbarians, were the only gods known to the aboriginal Hellenes. Seeing that they were always moving and running, from their running nature they were called gods or runners... Running gait can be divided into two phases in regard to the lower extremity: stance and swing; these can be further divided into absorption, initial swing and terminal swing.
Due to the continuous nature of running gait, no certain point is assumed to be the beginning. However, for simplicity, it will be assumed that absorption and footstrike mark the beginning of the running cycle in a body in motion. Footstrike occurs. Common footstrike types include forefoot and heel strike types; these are characterized by initial contact of the ball of the foot and heel of the foot and heel of the foot respectively. During this time the hip joint is undergoing extension from being in maximal flexion from the previous swing phase. For proper force absorption, the knee joint should be flexed upon footstrike and the ankle should be in front of the body. Footstrike begins the absorption phase as forces from initial contact are attenuated throughout the lower extremity. Absorption of forces continues as the body moves from footstrike to midstance due to vertical propulsion from the toe-off during a previous gait cycle. Midstance is defined as the time at which the lower extremity limb of focus is in knee flexion directly underneath the trunk and hips.
It is at this point that propulsion begins to occur as the hips undergo hip extension, the knee joint undergoes extension and the ankle undergoes plantar flexion. Propulsion continues until the leg is extended behind the body and toe off occurs; this involves maximal hip extension, knee extension and plantar flexion for the subject, resulting in the body being pushed forward from this motion and the ankle/foot leaves the ground as initial swing begins. Most recent research regarding the footstrike debate, has focused on the absorption phases for injury identification and prevention purposes; the propulsion phase of running involves the movement beginning at midstance until toe off. From a full stride length model however, components of the terminal swing and footstrike can aid in propulsion. Set up for propulsion begins at the end of terminal swing as the hip joint flexes, creating the maximal range of motion for the hip extensors to accelerate through and produce force; as the hip extensors change from reciporatory inhibitors to primary muscle movers, the lower extremity is brought back toward the ground, although aided by the stretch reflex and gravity.
Footstrike and absorption phases occur next with two types of outcomes. This phase can be only a continuation of momentum from the stretch reflex reaction to