Coke County, Texas
Coke County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,320, its county seat is Robert Lee. The county is named for Richard Coke, the 15th governor of Texas. Coke County was one of 46 prohibition, or dry, counties in the state of Texas, but passed a law allowing the sale of beer and wine in 2005. From about 1700 to the 1870s, Tonkawa, Lipan Apache and Kiowa roamed the county; these tribes settled in rock shelters in the river and creek valleys, leaving behind artifacts and caches of seeds, burial sites, river shells and deer bones, flint knives and points. In 1851, United States Army post Fort Chadbourne was established to protect the frontier, the fort was manned until the Civil War; the Butterfield Overland Mail ran through the area from 1858 to 1861. Between 1860 and the early 1880s, the only settlers in what became Coke County were ranchers attracted to open grazing land. J. J. Austin established his ranch headquarters near Sanco in 1875.
Pate Francher settled in the area in 1877. In 1882, the Texas and Pacific Railway began providing service to San Angelo, settlers started coming into the region in somewhat larger numbers. Severe drought in the 1880s led to its attendant issues. State authorities settled the disputes. A few years the county was named after Confederate soldier, Texas leader, U. S senator Richard Coke; the Texas Legislature established Coke County in 1889, out of Tom Green County. The county was organized that same year, with Hayrick as county seat; the county's first newspaper, the Hayrick Democrat, began publication in 1889, but was renamed the Rustler. In 1891, after an election, the new town of Robert Lee became the county seat. Robert E. Lee had once served at Fort Chadbourne; that same year, the county's newspaper moved to the new county seat and was renamed the Robert Lee Observer. Dr. D. W. Key started the town of Bronte, named after English writer Charlotte Brontë; the town was named Oso and Bronco. A post office was granted in 1890.
Silver, named after Silver Peak Summit, was settled between 1880 as a ranching hub. Early settlers were S. M. Conner, R. B. Allen, W. G. Jameson, W. R. Walker. Dr. Joseph Eaton Reed was for 50 years the only physician. Oil discovery and related industries created a boom in Silver in the mid-20th century. After the oil camps closed down in 1966, Silver’s population slipped drastically. Tennyson, named in honor of the British poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson was established in 1892, it received a post office two years later. The Kansas City and Orient Railway built tracks north from San Angelo in 1907, which benefited Tennyson and Fort Chadbourne. Cotton acreage peaked in 1910, but plunged during the 1920s, because of a boll weevil infestation. Expanding during the same period was the production of corn, wheat and fruit trees; the county population declined during the Great Depression. Oil was discovered in the county in 1942, by 1991, 209,281,131 barrels had been taken from Coke County lands. Tax money derived from oil profits helped the county to improve infrastructure and public facilities and services for its citizens.
Oil production accounts for the major share of income for the county. In 1995 Louis Jones murdered United States Army soldier Tracie Joy McBride in Coke County after having kidnapped her from Goodfellow Air Force Base in San Angelo, Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 928 square miles, of which 911 square miles are land and 17 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 277 State Highway 158 State Highway 208 Nolan County Runnels County Tom Green County Sterling County Mitchell County At the 2000 census, 3,864 people, 1,544 households and 1,068 families resided in the county; the population density was four per square mile. The 2,843 housing units averaged three per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.85% White, 1.94% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.94% from other races] and 1.40% from two or more races. About 16.90% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 1,544 households, 27.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.40% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were not families. The average household size was 2.31, the average family size was 2.84. Age distribution was 24.40% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 20.50% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 24.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median household income was $29,085, the median family was $36,724. Males had a median income of $30,778 versus $19,596 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,734. About 9.70% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.00% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. Blackwell Robert Lee Bronte Hayrick Sanco Silver Tennyson Edith' Juniper National Register of Historic Places listings in Coke County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Coke County Coke County government's website Coke County in Handbook of Texas Online Coke County Profile from the Texas Associ
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza was a Spanish soldier who played an important role in suppressing the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and who made two major expeditions from New Mexico into Texas. Juan Domínguez de Mendoza was born in 1631, he was a member of the wealthiest family in New Mexico. He had, at least, two siblings. At the age of twelve he went to New Mexico, he was to accompany several expeditions into what is now Texas, he was a member of the Diego de Guadalajara expedition of 1654 from Santa Fe to what is now San Angelo, where the three main tributaries of the Concho River converge. Domínguez rose in rank to lieutenant general and was appointed Maestro de Campo in New Mexico - second in command to the Governor, he was an able administrator, by the time of the Pueblo Revolt in 1680 was one of the most experienced and capable of the New Mexico militia leaders. When the Pueblo Revolt broke out, Domínguez advanced north from Isleta Pueblo to Cochiti, to the southwest of Santa Fe. However, he was forced to retreat to El Paso del Norte.
He was criticized for not being sufficiently aggressive in his action against the Pueblos. In 1681 a group of Jumano Indians came to El Paso asking for the Spanish to establish missions in their country; the Jumano chief Juan Sabeata had been understood Spanish ways. He was seeking protection for his people against the Apaches, whom he hoped the Spanish would engage in war. To gain the attention of the Spanish he said that thirty-six nations of Indians needed missions and claimed that a multi-colored cross had appeared above La Junta de los Ríos, at the junction of the Rio Conchos and Rio Grande near modern-day Presidio, Texas, he talked of wooden houses floating on the sea, which the Spanish took to refer to French ships. Three friars left at once for La Junta; the Governor Domingo Jironza Petriz de Cruzate sent Domínguez de Mendoza and Fray Nicolás López to explore the Jumano country and establish missions. He was instructed to explore for pearls; the expedition called the Mendoza Expedition, set off from El Paso on 15 December 1683, going down the Rio Grande to La Junta.
Fray Antonio de Acevedo was left there in charge of new missions. The rest of the expedition, joined by many Indians, followed Indian trails north to the Pecos River followed the Concho River downstream to its junction with the Colorado River, they spent six weeks on what Domínguez called the "glorious San Clemente" river, building a fort near the location of present-day Ballinger, Texas as defense against Apaches and hunting buffalo for hides and food. They baptized many of the friendly local people who visited their camp. Dominguez de Mendoza and the Jumano leader, Juan Sabeata, clashed early in the expedition. Sabeata, Dominguez said, was untruthful and spread false rumors of hostile Apaches to bring the expedition to a halt. Sabeata believed that the Spaniards were more interested in hunting buffalo than fighting Apache. Sabeata abandoned the expedition. A grand council of Indians envisioned by the Spanish never took place and the Spaniards returned to El Paso having collected 5,000 valuable buffalo hides.
On returning to La Junta de los Ríos, Domínguez took possession of the north bank of the Rio Grande in the name of Spain. Domínguez and López returned to El Paso, went on to Mexico City in 1685, where they made a strong case for sending soldiers and missionaries to the Jumano country. Domínguez and López were optimistic about the potential for setting up missions among the Jumanos. However, Governor Jironza was unable to help since his forces were tied up combating local insurrections by the Suma and the Manso Indians; the incursion into eastern Texas by Frenchman René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1685 caused another distraction, so there was no immediate follow-up to Dominguez de Mendoza's expedition. Citations Sources Further reading
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Pompeo Luigi Coppini was an Italian born sculptor who emigrated to the United States. Although his works can be found in Italy, Mexico and a number of American states, the majority of his work can be found in Texas, he is famous for the Alamo Plaza work "Spirit of Sacrifice" a.k.a. The Alamo Cenotaph, as well as numerous statues honoring Texas heroes, he was born in Moglia, Italy, the son of musician Giovanni Coppini and his wife Leandra Coppini. The family moved to Florence where at the age of ten, Pompeo was hired to make ceramic horses shaped like whistles. From there, he worked for a sculptor. At age sixteen, he studied at Accademia dell'Arte del Disegno under Augusto Rivalta. Upon earning a degree, Coppini opened a short-lived studio making gratis busts of local celebrities. While working for a cemetery monument sculptor, Coppini tried to become co-owner of the business by courting the owner's daughter; the girl's mother balked, the resulting situation got Coppini denounced from a local priest's pulpit.
He emigrated to the United States in March, 1896 with nothing but a trunk of clothes and $40 to his name. Coppini got a job in New York sculpting figures for a wax museum. Elizabeth di Barbieri of New Haven, Connecticut arrived, accompanied by a chaperone, to model for Coppini's memorial to Francis Scott Key, he married his model. Coppini became a United States citizen in 1902. While he managed to find work in New York, Coppini was frustrated the fame and greatness escaped him, he moved to Texas in 1901. He was commissioned to do the figures for the Confederate monument for the state capitol grounds. For the next fifteen years, he worked in San Antonio. After spending a short time in Chicago, Illinois, he spent three years in New York City overseeing the Littlefield commission for the University of Texas at Austin, he collaborated with architect Paul Cret on the Littlefield Memorial Fountain, sculpted six statues for the campus. By 1910, Coppini was assisted by sculptor Waldine Tauch, born in Schulenburg, Texas.
Tauch became more-or-less his adopted daughter and protégée, he, after extracting a promise from her that she would never marry, molded her into a devotee of classical sculpture. She collaborated with Coppini until his death; the William P. Rogers chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy raised $5,000 in 1911 and commissioned Coppini to design and erect the 1912 Confederate soldier memorial statue named "Last Stand", a.k.a. "Firing Line", in De Leon Plaza, Hiring Otto Zirkel of near the San Antonio studio to build the stone portion of the monument. He sculpted three distinct statues of George Washington; the first, commissioned by Americans living in Mexico to commemorate the 1910 centennial of Mexican Independence, was installed in 1912 in the Plaza Dinamarca of the Colonia Juárez section of Mexico City. The Mexican Civil War was just beginning. Two years in reaction to the April 1914 United States invasion of Veracruz, the statue was toppled from its pedestal and dragged through the streets.
The second statue was created to commemorate the 1926 sesquicentennial of the Declaration of Independence. It was installed in 1927 in Oregon; the third statue was commissioned by the Texas Society, Daughters of the American Revolution to commemorate the 1932 bicentennial of Washington's birth. Fund-raising problems delayed the project for years, it was installed in February 1955 on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. In 1931, Italy decorated Coppini with the Commendatore of the Order of the Crown of Italy for his contribution to art in America; the Texas Centennial Committee awarded Coppini the 1934 commission to design the Texas Centennial Half Dollar. In 1937, Coppini opened his San Antonio studio on Melrose Place, in order to work on what would become the Spirit of Sacrifice at Alamo Plaza. Baylor University awarded Coppini an honorary doctor of fine arts degree in 1941. From 1943 to 1945 he was head of the art department of Trinity University in San Antonio. In 1945 he and Tauch cofounded the Classic Arts Fraternity in San Antonio.
Many of his works are in Austin, displayed on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol and on the campus of The University of Texas. Coppini's statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Texas Governor and third president of Texas A&M University is considered one of the most revered works on the A&M campus in College Station and students place coins at the statue's feet for good luck on exams. Coppini's marble statue of Senator James Paul Clarke stands in the U. S. Capitol. Coppini designed two bronze sculptures at Baylor University in Waco, Texas—those of former Baylor University President Rufus C. Burleson, located on the Burleson Quadrangle on the Baylor campus, Baylor University namesake and founder Judge R. E. B. Baylor. One of Coppini's best works, as stated by the artist, is the bronze sculpture of John Reagan, former U. S. Senator from Palestine, located in that city's Reagan Park, featuring the personification of the "Lost Cause of the Confederacy" seated at the base of the monument. Coppini died in San Antonio on September 26, 1957.
He designed his own crypt for his final resting place in Sunset Memorial Park. Jefferson Davis, Confederate Monument, Texas State Capitol, Texas. Confederate Monument, Texas: Bust of Jefferson Davis. Bust of Robert E. Lee. Bust of Stonewall Jackson. Bust of Albert Sidney Johnston. Rufus C. Burleson, Burleson Quadrangle, Baylor University, Texas. The
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif