Hyderabad (Sindhi and Urdu: حيدرآباد. Located 140 kilometres east of Karachi, Hyderabad is the 2nd largest in Sindh province by population, the 8th largest city in Pakistan. Founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty, Hyderabad served as the Kalhoro, Talpur, capital until the British transferred the capital to Karachi in 1843; the city was named in honour of the fourth caliph and cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Hyderabad's name translates as "Lion City" - from haydar, meaning "lion," and ābād, a suffix indicating a settlement. "Lion" references Ali's valour in battle, so he is referred to as Ali Haydar meaning "Ali the Lionheart," by South Asian Muslims. The River Indus was changing course around 1757, resulting in periodic floods of the capital of the Kalhora dynasty, Khudabad. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro decided to shift the capital away from Khudabad, founded Hyderabad in 1768 over a limestone ridge on the eastern bank of the Indus River known as Ganjo Takkar, or "Bald Hill."
The small hill is traditionally believed to have been the location of the ancient settlement of Neroon Kot, a town which had fallen to the armies of Muhammad Bin Qasim in 711 CE. When the foundations were laid, the city came to be known by the nickname Heart of the Mehran. Devotees of Imam Ali advised Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro to name the city in honour of their Imam; the Shah of Iran gifted the city a stone which purportedly bears the imprint of Ali's feet. The stone was placed in the Qadamgah Maula Ali, which became a place of pilgrimage. In 1768, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people; the fort was built using baked clay bricks, earning it the name Pacco Qillo, meaning Strong Fort in Sindhi. The fort was completed in 1769, is spread over 36 acres. Mian Ghulam Shah built the "Shah Makki Fort," known as Kacha Qila, to fortify the tomb of the Sufi saint Shah Makki. Hyderabad remained the Kalhora capital during the period.
Attracted by the security of the city, Hyderabad began to attract artisans and traders from throughout Sindh, thereby resulting in the decline of other rival trading centres such as Khudabad. A portion of the population of Khudabad migrated to the new capital, including Sonaras and Bhaibands; those groups retained the term "Khudabadi" in the names of their communities as a marker of origin. Mian Ghulam Shah died in 1772, was succeeded by his son, Sarfraz Khan Kalhoro. In 1774, Sarfraz Khan built a "New" Khudabad north of Hala in memory of the old Kalhoro capital, attempted to shift his capital there; the attempt failed, Hyderabad continued to prosper while New Khudabad was abandoned by 1814. A formal plan for the city was laid out by Sarfraz Khan in 1782. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur captured the city of Khudabad from the Kalhoros in 1773, made the city his capital, he captured Hyderabad in 1775, shifted his capital there in 1789 after Khudabad once again flooded. Renovation and reconstruction of the city's fort began in 1789, lasted for 3 years.
Celebrations were held in 1792 to mark his formal entry in the Pacco Qillo fort, which he made his residence and held court. Talpur rule maintained Hyderabad's security, the city continued to attract migrants from throughout Sindh, turning the city into a major regional centre. Lohana Hindus from Afghanistan set up ship as metalworkers; the city's goldsmiths and leather tanners began to export their Hyderabadi wares abroad. The city's textile industry boomed with the arrival of Susi and Khes cotton cloth and handicrafts from towns in rural Sindh; the city's became renowned for its calligraphers and bookbinders, while its carpet dealers traded carpets from nearby Thatta. Henry Pottinger traveled up the Indus River in the early 1830s on behalf of the British, he claimed to have seen 341 ships over the course of 19 days at Hyderabad, indicating its importance as a major trading centre by this time. Hyderabad's goods were exported to markets in Khorasan, India and Kashmir - though some Hyderabadi wares were displayed at The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London.
In order to use the Indus River for commercial navigation to Punjab, the British signed a treaty with the rulers of Hyderabad and Khairpur that guaranteed the British free passage along the Indus and through Sindh. Mir Murad Ali was pressured into accepting an 1838 treaty which resulted in the stationing of a British Resident in the city; the British signed a treaty of "eternal friendship" with the Talpur rulers of Hyderabad in the early 19th century, who promised not to allow the French to set up residency in Sindh. In 1839, they were pressured into forcing another treaty that guaranteed the British trade and security privileges; the British defeated the city's Talpur rulers at the Battle of Hyderabad on 24 March 1843. The provincial capital was transferred to Karachi by the British general Sir Charles Napier. Being the last stronghold in Sindh, the conquered city was the final step in the British Conquest of Sindh. Following the success of the British, several of the city's Talpur Mirs rulers were exiled and died in Calcutta.
Their bodies were brought back to Hyderabad, were buried in the Tombs of the Talpur Mirs located at the northern edge of the Ganjo Hill. Hyderabad's prosperity did not decline after the shifting of Sindh's capital to Karachi. Merchants there forged links with the commercial community in Hyderabad, began exporting Hyderabadi wares to distant markets. Following Sindh's assimilation into the Bombay Presidency in 1847, the city emerged as hub for a st
The tiger is the largest species among the Felidae and classified in the genus Panthera. It is most recognizable for its dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside, it is an apex predator preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring. Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother's home range to establish their own; the tiger once ranged from Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands. Since the early 20th century, tiger populations have lost at least 93% of their historic range and have been extirpated in Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, in large areas of Southeast and South Asia and China. Today's tiger range is fragmented, stretching from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.
The tiger is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. This, coupled with the fact that it lives in some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans; the tiger is among the most popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams; the tiger is the national animal of India, Bangladesh and South Korea. The Middle English tigre and Old English tigras derive from Latin tigris; this was a borrowing of Classical Greek τίγρις'tigris', a foreign borrowing of unknown origin meaning'tiger' as well as the river Tigris.
The origin may have been the Persian word tigra meaning'pointed or sharp', the Avestan word tigrhi'arrow' referring to the speed of the tiger's leap, although these words are not known to have any meanings associated with tigers. The generic name Panthera is traceable to the Old French word'pantère', the Latin word panthera, the Ancient Greek word πάνθηρ'panther'; the Sanskrit word पाण्डर pând-ara means'pale yellow, white'. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis tigris. In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus Panthera using the scientific name Panthera tigris; the tiger's closest living relatives were thought to be the Panthera species lion and jaguar. Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard lineages diverged from the other Panthera species, that both may be more related to each other than to the lion and jaguar.
P. T. palaeosinensis from the Early Pleistocene of northern China is the most primitive known tiger to date. Fossil remains of Panthera zdanskyi were excavated in Gansu province of northwestern China; this species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene about two million years ago, is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and had a different coat pattern. Despite being considered more "primitive", it was functionally and also ecologically similar to the modern tiger. Northwestern China is thought to be the origin of the tiger lineage. Tigers grew in size in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene. Panthera tigris trinilensis lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils excavated near Trinil in Java. The Wanhsien, Ngandong and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times. Tigers reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia and Sakhalin.
Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago. Tiger fossils found in the island of Palawan were smaller than mainland tiger fossils due to insular dwarfism. Fossil remains of tigers were excavated in Sri Lanka, Japan, Sarawak dating to the late Pliocene and Early Holocene; the Bornean tiger was present in Borneo between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, but may have gone extinct in prehistoric times. The potential tiger range during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was predicted applying ecological niche modelling based on more than 500 tiger locality records combined with bioclimatic data; the resulting model shows a contiguous tiger range from southern India to Siberia at the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating an unobstructed gene flow between tiger populations in mainland Asia throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were separated during interglacial periods.
Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago. The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013, it was found to have similar repeat composition to other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny. Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of t
The Zulu are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Small numbers live in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Mozambique; the Zulu were a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaMalandela. In the Nguni languages, iZulu means weather. At that time, the area clans. Nguni communities had migrated down Africa's east coast over centuries, as part of the Bantu migrations The Zulu formed a powerful state in 1818 under the leader Shaka. Shaka, as the Zulu King, gained a large amount of power over the tribe; as commander in the army of the powerful Mthethwa Empire, he became leader of his mentor Dingiswayo's paramouncy and united what was once a confederation of tribes into an imposing empire under Zulu hegemony. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane. In mid-December of 1878, envoys of the British crown delivered an ultimatum to 11 chiefs representing the then-current king of the Zulu empire, Cetshwayo.
Under the British terms delivered to the Zulu, Cetshwayo would have been required to disband his army and accept British sovereignty. Cetshwayo refused, war between the Zulus and African contingents of the British crown began on January 12th, 1879. Despite an early victory for the Zulus at the Battle of Isandlwana on the 22nd of January, the British fought back and won the Battle at Rorke's Drift, definitively defeated the Zulu army by July at the Battle of Ulundi. After Cetshwayo's capture a month following his defeat, the British divided the Zulu Empire into 13 "kinglets"; the sub-kingdoms fought amongst each other until 1883 when Cetshwayo was reinstated as king over Zululand. This still did not stop the fighting and the Zulu monarch was forced to flee his realm by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets, supported by Boer mercenaries. Cetshwayo died in February 1884, killed by Zibhebhu's regime, leaving his son, the 15-year-old Dinuzulu, to inherit the throne. In-fighting between the Zulu continued for years, until Zululand was absorbed into the British colony of Natal.
Under apartheid, the homeland of KwaZulu was created for Zulu people. In 1970, the Bantu Homeland Citizenship Act provided that all Zulus would become citizens of KwaZulu, losing their South African citizenship. KwaZulu consisted in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. Hundreds of thousands of Zulu people living on owned "black spots" outside of KwaZulu were dispossessed and forcibly moved to bantustans – worse land reserved for whites contiguous to existing areas of KwaZulu. By 1993 5.2 million Zulu people lived in KwaZulu, 2 million lived in the rest of South Africa. The Chief Minister of KwaZulu, from its creation in 1970 was Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi. In 1994, KwaZulu was joined with the province of Natal. Inkatha YeSizwe means "the crown of the nation". In 1975, Buthelezi revived the Inkatha YaKwaZulu, predecessor of the Inkatha Freedom Party; this organization was nominally a protest movement against apartheid, but held more conservative views than the ANC. For example, Inkatha was opposed to the armed struggle, to sanctions against South Africa.
Inkatha was on good terms with the ANC, but the two organizations came into increasing conflict beginning in 1976 in the aftermath of the Soweto Uprising. The modern Zulu population is evenly distributed in both urban and rural areas. Although KwaZulu-Natal is still their heartland, large numbers have been attracted to the relative economic prosperity of Gauteng province. Indeed, Zulu is the most spoken home language in the province, followed by Sotho; the language of the Zulu people is "isiZulu", a Bantu language. Zulu is the most spoken language in South Africa, where it is an official language. More than half of the South African population are able to understand it, with over 9 million first-language and over 15 million second-language speakers. Many Zulu people speak Xitsonga and others from among South Africa's 11 official languages. Zulus wear a variety of attire, both traditional for ceremonial or culturally celebratory occasions, modern westernized clothing for everyday use; the women engaged, or married.
The men wore a leather belt with two strips of hide hanging down back. Most Zulu people state their beliefs to be Christian; some of the most common churches to which they belong are African Initiated Churches the Zion Christian Church, United African Apostolic Church, although membership of major European Churches, such as the Dutch Reformed and Catholic Churches are common. Many Zulus retain their traditional pre-Christian belief system of ancestor worship in parallel with their Christianity. Zulu religion includes belief in a creator God, above interacting in day-to-day human life, although this belief appears to have originated from efforts by early Christian missionaries to frame the idea of the Christian God in Zulu terms. Traditionally, the more held Zulu belief was in ancestor spirits, who had the power to intervene in people's lives, for good or ill; this belief continues to be widespread among the modern Zulu population. Traditionally, the Zulu recognize several elements to b
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the second metropolitan city of the state. It was the seat of a princely state of the same name. Jodhpur has been the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar, now part of Rajasthan. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar Desert, it is popularly known as Sun city among people of Rajasthan and all over India. The old city is bounded by a wall with several gates. However, the city has expanded outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of the Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists. According to the Hindu epic Mahabharat, Ahirs were the inhabitants of Marwar and on the Rathore clan established the Marwar Kingdom. There may have been small settlements before Rathore rule; the Jodhpur city was founded in 1459 by a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a kingdom which came to be known as Marwar.
As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town served as the capital of this state. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat; this enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, silk, sandalwood and other tradeable goods. After the death of Rao Chandrasen Rathore in 1581, the kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Marwar thus became a Mughal vassal owing fealty to them while enjoying internal autonomy; the mother of Emperor Shah Jahan was a Princess of Jodhpur. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world as new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India. Aurangzeb sequestrated the state after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh, but the prior ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years.
The Mughal empire declined after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue. This did not make for stability or peace, however- 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought the help of the British and entered into a subsidiary alliance with them in 1818 and were British allies against rest of India in the Revolt of 1857. During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest land area of any in the Rajputana. Jodhpur prospered under the peace and stability, a hallmark of this era; the land area of the state was 90,554 km2 its population in 1901 was 44,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £3,529,000, its merchants, the Marwaris and came to occupy a position of dominance in trade across India. In 1947, when India became independent, the state merged into the union of India and Jodhpur became the second largest city of Rajasthan. At the time of division, the ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh, did not want to join India, but due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Home Minister at the time, the state of Jodhpur was included in Indian Republic.
After the State Reorganisation Act, 1956 it was included within the state of Rajasthan. As per provisional reports of Census India, the population of Jodhpur is 1,033,918 in 2011, where males constitute 52.62 percent of the population and females constitute 47.38 percent. The average literacy rate of Jodhpur is 80.56 percent, with a male literacy rate of 88.42 percent and a female literacy rate of 73.93 percent. 12.24 percent of the population are under six years of age. Jodhpur city is governed by Municipal Corporation; the Jodhpur Urban/Metropolitan area include Jodhpur, Kuri Bhagtasani, Mandore Industrial Area, Pal Village and Sangariya. Its Urban/Metropolitan population is 1,137,815 of which 599,332 are males and 538,483 are females. According to www.citypopulation.de population of Jodhpur city on 01/01/2019 is 1,440,000. The climate of Jodhpur is hot and semi-arid during its nearly yearlong dry season, but contains a brief rainy season from late June to September. Although the average rainfall is around 362 millimetres, it fluctuates greatly.
In the famine year of 1899, Jodhpur received only 24 millimetres, but in the flood year of 1917 it received as much as 1,178 millimetres. Temperatures are extreme from March to October, except when the monsoonal rain produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April and June, high temperatures exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's low humidity rises, which adds to the perception of the heat; the highest temperature recorded in Jodhpur was on 18 May 2016 when it rose up to 53.2 degrees Celsius. The handicrafts industry has, in recent years, eclipsed all the other industries in the city; the items manufactured include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles and sporting goods. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manu
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755, he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers.
As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships, he left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June 1755. Cook married Elizabeth Batts, the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St Margaret's Church, Essex; the couple had six children: James, Elizabeth, Joseph and Hugh. When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London, he attended St Paul's Church, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own. Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, serving as able seaman and master's mate under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, Captain Hugh Palliser thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He joined the frigate
Culture of Indonesia
The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East, South Asia and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Confucianism and Christianity, all strong in the major trading cities; the result is a complex cultural mixture different from the original indigenous cultures. Examples of the fusion of Islam with Hindu include Javanese Abangan belief, the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Bodha, the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan. Balinese dances have stories about ancient Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms, while Islamic art forms and architecture are present in Sumatra in the Minangkabau and Aceh regions. Traditional art and sport are combined in a martial art form called Pencak Silat; the Western world has influenced Indonesia in science and modern entertainment such as television shows and music, as well as political system and issues.
India has notably influenced Indonesian movies. A popular type of song is the Indian-rhythmical dangdut, mixed with Arab and Malay folk music. Despite the influences of foreign culture, some remote Indonesian regions still preserve uniquely indigenous culture. Indigenous ethnic groups Mentawai, Dani, Dayak and many others are still practising their ethnic rituals and wearing traditional clothes. Indonesia is home to with those from the islands of Java and Bali being recorded; the traditional music of central and East Java and Bali is the gamelan. On 29 June 1965, Koes Plus, a leading Indonesian pop group in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, was imprisoned in Glodok, West Jakarta, for playing Western-style music. After the resignation of President Sukarno, the law was rescinded, in the 1970s the Glodok prison was dismantled and replaced with a large shopping mall. Kroncong is a musical genre; this genre was introduced by Portuguese traders in the 15th century. There is a traditional Keroncong Tugu music group in North Jakarta and other traditional Keroncong music groups in Maluku, with strong Portuguese influences.
This music genre was popular in the first half of the 20th century. Angklung musical orchestra, native of West Java, received international recognition as UNESCO has listed the traditional West Java musical instrument made from bamboo in the list of intangible cultural heritage; the soft Sasando music from the province of East Nusa Tenggara in West Timor is different. Sasando uses an instrument made from a split leaf of the Lontar palm, which bears some resemblance to a harp. Indonesian dance reflects the diversity of culture from ethnic groups that composed the nation of Indonesia. Austronesian roots and Melanesian tribal dance forms are visible, influences ranging from neighbouring Asian countries; each ethnic group has their own distinct dances. However, the dances of Indonesia can be divided into three eras. There is a continuum in the traditional dances depicting episodes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata from India, ranging through Thailand, all the way to Bali. There is a marked difference, between the stylised dances of the courts of Yogyakarta and Surakarta and their popular variations.
While the court dances are promoted and performed internationally, the popular forms of dance art and drama must be discovered locally. During the last few years, Saman from Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam has become rather popular and is portrayed on TV. Reog Ponorogo is a dance that originated from the district Ponorogo, East Java, a visualisation of the legendary story Wengker kingdom and the kingdom of Kediri. A popular line dance called Poco-poco was originated in Indonesia and popular in Malaysia, but at early April 2011 Malaysian Islamic clerics banned the poco-poco dance for Muslims due to them believing it is traditionally a Christian dance and that its steps make the sign of the cross. Wayang, the Javanese and Balinese shadow puppet theatre shows display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata, many more. Wayang Orang is Javanese traditional dance drama based on wayang stories. Various Balinese dance drama can be included within traditional form of Indonesian drama. Another form of local drama is Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, Sundanese Sandiwara, Betawi Lenong.
All of these drama incorporated humor and jest involving audiences in their performance. Randai is a folk theatre tradition of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals, it incorporates music, dance and the silat martial art, with performances based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Bangsawan is a Malay folk theatre found in the province of Riau. Modern performing art developed in Indonesia with their distinct style of drama. Notable theatre and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are gain popularity in Indonesia as their drama portray social and political satire of Indonesian society; the art of Pencak Silat was firstly developed in the islands of Java and Sumatra. It is an art for survival and pract