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Runtime system

In computer programming, a runtime system called runtime environment implements portions of an execution model. This is not to be confused with the runtime lifecycle phase of a program, during which the runtime system is in operation. Most languages have some form of runtime system; this environment may address a number of issues including the layout of application memory, how the program accesses variables, mechanisms for passing parameters between procedures, interfacing with the operating system, otherwise. The compiler makes assumptions depending on the specific runtime system to generate correct code; the runtime system will have some responsibility for setting up and managing the stack and heap, may include features such as garbage collection, threads or other dynamic features built into the language. Every programming language specifies an execution model, many implement at least part of that model in a runtime system. One possible definition of runtime system behavior is, among others, any behavior not directly attributable to the program itself.

This definition includes, as part of the runtime system, things such as putting parameters onto the stack before a function call, the behavior of disk I/O, parallel execution of related behaviors. By this definition every language has a runtime system, including compiled languages, interpreted languages, embedded domain-specific languages. API invoked stand alone execution models such as Pthreads have a runtime system, the implementation of execution model's behavior. Most scholarly papers on runtime systems focus on the implementation details of parallel runtime systems. A notable example of a parallel runtime system is that of Cilk, a popular parallel programming model. In addition, the proto-runtime toolkit was created to simplify the creation of parallel runtime systems. In addition to the execution model behavior, a runtime system may perform support services such as type checking, debugging, or code generation and optimization; the runtime system is the gateway by which a running program interacts with the runtime environment, which contains not only state values that are accessible during program execution, but active entities that can be interacted with during program execution like disk drives and people via keyboards.

For example, environment variables are features of many operating systems, are part of the runtime environment. Hardware devices such as a DVD drive are active entities that a program can interact with via a runtime system. A unique application of a runtime environment is within an operating system that only allows that RTE to run, meaning from boot until power-down the entire OS is dedicated to only the application running within that RTE. Any other code that tries to run or any failures in the application break the RTE which breaks the OS which stops all processing and requires a re-boot. If the boot is from read-only memory, an secure, single-mission system is created. Examples for such kind of directly bundled runtime systems include: Between 1983 and 1984, Digital Research offered several of their business and educations applications for the IBM PC on bootable floppy diskettes bundled with SpeedStart CP/M-86, a reduced version of CP/M-86 as runtime environment; some stand-alone versions of Ventura Publisher, Timeworks Publisher and ViewMAX contained special runtime versions of Digital Research's GEM as their runtime environment.

In the late 1990s JP Software's command line processor 4DOS was optionally available in a special runtime version to be linked with BATCOMP pre-compiled and encrypted batch jobs in order to create unmodifyable executables from batch scripts and run them on systems without 4DOS installed. As a simple example of a basic runtime system, the runtime system of the C language is a particular set of instructions inserted into the executable image by the compiler. Among other things, these instructions manage the processor stack, create space for local variables, copy function-call parameters onto the top of the stack. There are no clear criteria for deciding which language behavior is considered inside the runtime system versus which behavior is part of the source program. For C, the setup of the stack is part of the runtime system, as opposed to part of the semantics of an individual program, because it maintains a global invariant that holds over all executions; this systematic behavior implements the execution model of the language, as opposed to implementing semantics of the particular program text, directly translated into code that computes results.

One way to observe this separation between the semantics of a particular program and the runtime environment is to compile a program into an object file containing all the functions versus compiling an entire program to an executable binary. The object file will only contain assembly code relevant to those functions, while the executable binary will contain additional code used to implement the runtime environment; the object file, on one hand, may be missing information from the runtime environment that will be resolved by linking. On the other hand, the code in the object file still depends on assumptions in the runtime system. Another example is the case of using an application programming interface to interact with a runtime system; the calls to that API look the same as calls to a regular software library, however at some poin

Rudolf of Fulda

Rudolf of Fulda was a Benedictine monk during the Carolingian period in the 9th century. Rudolf was active at Fulda Abbey in the present-day German state of Hesse. Many of his works have been lost. However, his Annals of Fulda and Life of St. Leoba survive, it is uncertain. There exists no surviving record of his early ecclesiastical life. Furthermore, there exists no record of his family lineage. Only the date of his death is known from a reference made to "the late monk of Fulda" in a passage from the Annals of Fulda dated 865, he was a monk of the Benedictine monastery at Fulda. By the year 821, Rudolf was made subdeacon of the monastery. Rudolf was a devoted theologian, poet and "...a most notable practitioner of all the arts". Rudolf of Fulda was a pupil of Rhabanus Maurus and together they oversaw a collection of two thousand manuscripts, including a copy of TacitusGermania, which indicated the monastery's importance as not only a place of worship, but a important library. Fulda Abbey owned such works as the Res Gestae by the fourth-century Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus and the Codex Fuldensis, as well as works by Cicero, Servius and Supicius Severus.

Rudolf is considered to be one of the most important writers of his time and wrote several works: Annales Fuldenses were started by Einhard and continued by Rudolf. Most notable of Rudolf's work are the Annals of Fulda, composed between 838 and 901. First contributed by Einhard, Rudolf of Fulda continued the work from 838 to 863; the Annals of Fulda are considered to be one of the most fundamental primary sources of the 9th-century Carolingian period with works dating from 838 to 901. Within this work, Rudolf of Fulda makes direct reference to Tacitus’ Germania. Vita Leobae Abbatissae Biscofesheimensis', a biography of Saint Leoba of Tauberbischofsheim. Written and composed in the year 836, the "Life of St. Leoba" represents the first known biography of a Saxon woman and is one of Rudolf's most debated works. Scholarly critique surrounding this work has focused on the gender roles; the hagiography of St. Leoba is seen as a tool of reinforcing gendered roles, as Rudolf of Fulda alters St. Leoba's accomplishments and actions to reinforce the Benedictine reforms which occurred after her death.

Miracula sanctorum in Fuldenses ecclesias translatorum: This record is said to have been composed between 842 and completed before 847. In the introduction to the text, Rudolf of Fulda states that, “he wanted to write about the virtues and miracles, which God considered worthy to happen through his saints in the present day, of whom the holy relics were brought to our region, are brought out today for the faithful for their well being”. With the help of this text and historians have been able to retrace the movement and arrival of relics which were brought to the monastery of Fulda. Rudolf of Fulda is diligent in recording the names of the individuals transporting the relics, the dates, as well as the routes travelled. With this information in hand, historians have at their disposal a well-written, first-hand account of relics acquired by the monastery of Fulda. Translatio sancti Alexandri Wildeshusam anno 851 covers the conversion of the Saxons to Christianity and was begun in 863 at the request of Waltbraht, a grandson of Widukin.

When Rudolf died in 865, the work was completed by Meginhart. Begun in 863, this text covers the conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, at the request of Walkbraht, the grandson of Widukin. Taken on in his final years of life, Rudolf of Fulda would not oversee the completion of his text. After his death, the work was continued and completed by Meginhart; the Translatio Sancti Alexandri Wildeshusam anno text of 851 conveys the conversion of the Saxon peoples to Christianity in Germany. Rudolf of Fulda once more makes reference to the works of Tacitus’ De Germania’ in the Annals of 852. A commentary on the gospel of John, presumed to have been lost; the study of Rudolf of Fulda's surviving work provides modern day scholars an insight into his personal beliefs and opinions. Through careful textual analysis, such as Margaret Cotter-Lynch, have provided a deeper rooted insight into his work. Textual analysis begins with two of his most prominent works: The Life of Leoba, the Annals of Fulda. Under the orders of Rhabanus Maurus, Rudolf of Fulda was given the task of composing the hagiography of St. Leoba, a Saxon nun whom achieved sainthood.

This textual record represents a step in a new direction during the Carolingian period in which led to hagiography. This textual source provides us with a glimpse into the mindset of Rudolf of Fulda. Scholars such as Margaret Cotter-Lynch, author of Reading Leoba, or Hagiography as a Compromise and Valerie L. Garver, author of Women and Aristocratic Culture in the Carolingian World have pointed to the agenda interwoven within Rudolf of Fulda's Life of Leoba; the Life of St. Leoba was completed by Rudolf of Fulda at the request of Hrabanus. Most apparent in this text are the gender stereotypes of the ninth-century. In the Life of Leoba, Rudolf of Fulda addresses what he believes to be the appropriate role of women in the ninth century; as Margaret Cotter-Lynch, author of Reading Leoba, or Hagiography as Compromise, states, “Rudolf’s ideals concerning religious women’s behavior seem to align with the official positions of the ninth-century Carolingian church after the Benedictine reforms: religious women are to be cloistered, focused on internal piety and

Andrei Rădulescu

Andrei Rădulescu was a Romanian jurist. He served as President of the High Court of Cassation and Justice from 1938 to 1940, as president of the Romanian Academy from 1946 to 1948, he was born in Prahova County. His parents belonged to the moșnean class of landowning peasants, he had one sister. He attended primary school in his village between 1887 and 1893, enrolling in the Peter and Paul High School in Ploiești in 1894, he graduated from the University of Bucharest's law faculty in 1905, completing courses at its literature and philosophy faculty the following year, earning both degrees magna cum laude. He began teaching international public law at the School of State Sciences in September 1913, remaining on its faculty until his resignation in autumn 1940, he was a teaching assistant at the law faculty from 1916 to 1920, focusing on the history of Romanian private law. At the Academy of High Commercial and Industrial Studies, where he taught from 1918 to 1947, when he was obliged to retire, he taught civil, international and constitutional law.

He taught international public law at a school for soldiers and one for officers. He wrote over 200 publications in the social sciences in the legal field. In June 1919, Rădulescu was elected a corresponding member of the Romanian Academy and included in its history section. A year upon the proposal of Vasile Pârvan, he was elevated to titular member, occupying the seat held by A. D. Xenopol, his opening speech, delivered in June 1922, was called "Romanian culture in the last century". Becoming secretary of the history section in 1923, he was elected vice president ten times between 1926 and 1945, he was president of the Academy from May 1946 to June 10, 1948. He lost his leadership position when the new Communist regime revamped the Academy, although he was allowed to remain a member. Starting in 1944, he helped lay the groundwork for the Academy's legal research institute, which opened in 1954 and carries his name since 2006. During his academic career, Rădulescu rose in rank in the court system, beginning as a substitute judge at the Argeș County tribunal in April 1907.

In 1908, he became a full judge and transferred to the Bucharest-headquartered Ilfov County court in 1910. Declared exempt from service in World War I, he remained as a judge in the capital, occupied by the Central Powers, taking a hard line against abuses committed by the temporary authorities. In 1920 he was promoted to the Bucharest Court of Appeal, rising to the High Court of Cassation and Justice in 1925. Presiding over one of its panels, he became president of the entire court in June 1938, under the National Renaissance Front regime. While in this position, in which he acquired a reputation for erudition, he contributed to the 1939 law establishing a fourth court panel and consequent increase in the number of judges, relaunched an updated court publication, obtained pay raises for judges and pushed for a new headquarters, considering the Palace of Justice to be insufficient. On September 6, 1940, the day King Carol II abdicated, a decree removed Rădulescu from the court presidency. Din viața și activitatea lui Andronache Donici Privire asupra organizării judecătorești din Dobrogea veche de la anexare până azi Pravilistul Flechtenmacher Studii de drept civil Cultura juridică românească în ultimul secol Viaţa juridică și administrativă a satelor Izvoarele Codului Calimachi Influența belgiană asupra dreptului românesc Originalitatea dreptului românesc Romanitatea dreptului nostru Dreptul românesc în Basarabia In November 1918, Rădulescu married Constanța Grajdănescu, a member of an old boyar family whose father had been a Senator during the Romanian War of Independence.

Their first son died just after being born. Upon his death in 1959, he was buried alongside his wife at Bellu cemetery in his red judge's robe. By that time, he was the earliest member of the Academy, his colleagues held a memorial session in his honor, he received the Order of the Crown, the Order of the Star of Romania and the Order of Labor, First Class. Academician Andrei Rădulescu at the Academician Andrei Rădulescu Institute for Juridical Studies site Andrei Rădulescu at the Bucharest Court of Appeals site

Sonata for Solo Cello (Kodály)

The Hungarian composer Zoltán Kodály wrote his Sonata in B minor for solo cello, Op. 8, in 1915. It was first performed in 1918 and published in 1921, it is among the most significant works for solo cello written since Johann Sebastian Bach's Cello Suites. It contains influences of Debussy and Bartók, as well as the inflections and nuances of Hungarian folk music; the sonata was written in 1915 but its premiere was delayed due to World War I. It was premiered by Jenő Kerpely in Budapest on 7 May 1918. Kerpely was the cellist of the Waldbauer-Kerpely Quartet, which had premiered the first four string quartets by Bartók, it was published by Universal Edition in Vienna in 1921. Kodály himself predicted that "in 25 years no cellist will be accepted who has not played it". Indeed, less than 40 years in 1956, the sonata was a set piece for the Casals Competition in Mexico City, but in the meantime it had to earn its recognition. George Neikrug's playing of it at his debut at the New York Town Hall in 1947 was the first American performance of the work for many years.

The solo sonata is in three movements: I. Allegro maestoso ma appassionato II. Adagio con gran espressione III. Allegro molto vivace; the Sonata for solo cello has been recorded many times, by cellists such as Erling Blöndal Bengtsson, Natalie Clein, Rohan de Saram, Antony Cooke, Gisela Depkat, Pierre Fournier, Alban Gerhardt, Matt Haimovitz, Frans Helmerson, Yo-Yo Ma, André Navarra, George Neikrug, Zara Nelsova, Truls Mørk, David Pereira, János Starker, Yuli Turovsky, Alisa Weilerstein, Colin Carr, Pieter Wispelwey. János Starker first played it for Kodály at the age of 15, in 1939 again in 1967 shortly before the composer's death. Kodály told Starker: "If you correct the ritard in the third movement, it will be the Bible performance". Starker recorded it the 1948 78-rpm recording winning a Grand Prix du Disque; the piece is mentioned in Samuel R. Delany's The Einstein Intersection. Lobey learns of his ability to hear the music that runs through others' minds when he plays the melodies that he hears out of the dragon herder Spider's head: "You got it out of my head?...

You couldn't have heard it. And I can't hum a crescendo of triple stops"


ProBoards is a free, remotely hosted message board service that facilitates online discussions by allowing people to create their own online communities. ProBoards is owned by Patrick Clinger, who wrote the ProBoards software; the service hosts over 3,000,000 internet forums, which in turn have 22,800,000 users worldwide. All ProBoards forums combined receive a total of over 600 million pageviews per month, making ProBoards one of the largest websites on the Internet. However, according to writer Anthony Ha, those numbers have dropped. In an interview, founder/owner Patrick Clinger stated "ProBoards has been used to create 3.5 million forums", but about 1.2 million of them are still active. Proboards is coded in a popular programming language with web developers. Due to the remotely hosted nature of the service, users cannot modify the software directly as with some forum systems, but some customisation is possible through the use of CSS or JavaScript codes. With the release of v.5, ProBoards gives Administrators and certain other members access to the HTML and CSS of the webpage, for easier coding purposes.

The first day of business for ProBoards was January 1, 2000. At first, ProBoards used software created by the owner, Patrick Clinger. In late 2001, ProBoards switched to the YaBB system. At the same time, other changes to the service made it the first remotely hosted service to offer a subdomain with each forum On June 11, 2002, ProBoards Version 2 was launched; this was coded by Clinger and was a rewrite of the entire software rather than improvements to the existing YaBB based setup. The main goals of this rewrite were to improve the overall speed of the software and add new features to keep the product competitive. In February 2003, version 3 of the ProBoards software was released, again making improvements on the overall speed of the software and including over 30 new features. ProBoards upgraded to version 4 of its software on April 30, 2005; this time, the upgrade added over 100 new enhancements to the service. Despite this, bugs of varying levels of severity still existed; the current version of the software is v5.

ProBoards' servers - physical machines running the ProBoards software - are hosted by SoftLayer. Previous to November 2010, ProBoards was hosted by, previous to 2006, EV1 Servers. The servers are hosted in multiple SoftLayer datacenters in Texas. In 2005, Patrick Clinger was invited by EV1 Servers to take part in a commercial for their business; the commercial opened with a voiceover introducing Clinger as the owner of, he gave a testimonial about how EV1's hosting benefited ProBoards. The commercial was shown at the 2005 Houston Bowl. Since 2007, EV1 no longer exists as a webhost; as of March 2009, the server numbers no longer need to be used due to a recent change that allows every ProBoards forum to be accessed without a server number in the URL. Due to the advent of Facebook, ProBoards transitioned into a social network and forum service hybrid with the introduction of version 5. Although a number of subscription style features are optionally available, there is no obligation for any user to purchase anything from ProBoards.

Forums are hosted for free, with no bandwidth or webspace cap, provided users allow advertisements to be displayed on their forum. Until September 2003, ProBoards was supported by popunders, but these were discontinued in favor of less intrusive methods of advertising. A typical forum will contain a Google AdSense banner ad and some small text links on every page. ProBoards sells advertising directly to users through a selfserve system. ProBoards has an agreement with a third party chatroom provider, addonInteractive, to provide Java-based chatrooms to users; each forum admin can activate a free version of the chat on their forum, with paid upgrades available for busy forums. The chats integrate with forum accounts. ProBoards users are bound by a number of Terms of Service, restricting the type of content which may appear on a ProBoards forum. ProBoards prohibits illegal or adult content. Only English forums were allowed, but in May 2010 this policy was changed, allowing boards to be created in any language.

In addition to content policies, Proboards terms seemingly prohibit the use of "ad-blocking" technology when accessing its services. User privacy is protected by a Privacy Policy outlining the use of logged information, as well as cookie policy, forum monitoring, publicly available information; the US COPPA law is enforced by requiring all users to enter their date of birth on registration. Users aged under 13 are not permitted to register at any ProBoards forum. According to the Terms of Service, any user under the age of 18 requires parental permission to register, but this is taken as implied when they accept the registration agreement and not verified. ProBoards allows users to apply affiliate marketing practices to monetize their communities via a partnership with VigLink announced January 2014; this partnership allows any ProBoards forum managers or creators to generate revenue from traffic with VigLink Insert. ProBoards official website ProBoards Blog

Abia (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Abia was the nursemaid of Hyllus, son of Heracles and Deianira, who settled there after the failed attempt of Heracles' son Hyllus to return to the Peloponnesus. Abia was honored by the Heraclid Cresphontes for having built a temple to Heracles in Ira, by changing of the name of the town of Ira to Abia. Abia was one of the seven cities promised by Agamemnon to Achilles in his attempt to convince him to rejoin the Trojan War. At a time, Abia would join the Achaean League. In Pausanias' Description of Greece the origin of the city's name and the stories surrounding it is explained: "There is in our time a city Abia in Messenia on the coast, some twenty stades distant from the Choerius valley, they say that this was called Ire and was one of the seven cities which Homer says that Agamemnon promised to Achilles. When Hyllus and the Dorians were defeated by the Achaeans, it is said that Abia, nurse of Glenus the son of Heracles, withdrew to Ire, settling there built a temple to Heracles, that afterwards for this reason Cresphontes, amongst other honors assigned to her, renamed the city after Abia.

There was a notable temple of Heracles here, of Asclepius." Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W. H. S. Jones, Litt. D. and H. A. Ormerod, M. A. in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Leonhard Schmitz, Leonhard. "Abia". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. P. 2