DEJ Productions was an American film studio founded in 1998 by Dean Wilson, Ed Stead and John Antioco. The studio distributed 225 films in just eight years, including the Academy Award-winning Monster starring Charlize Theron and the multiple Academy Award-winning Crash which won Best Picture of the Year. DEJ was a film acquisition company which began in 1998, shortly after the introduction of the medium of DVD; the home video industry was undergoing a major economic change and DEJ was established to pick-up low-budget films to get exclusive DVD releases for its parent company, Blockbuster Video. DEJ was named after the first initials of three top Blockbuster executives at the time, its Executive Vice President Dean Wilson, its General Counsel and Executive Vice President of Business Development Ed Stead, its CEO John Antioco; the company released a few of its acquired films theatrically. A notable example was the U. S. rights to the Sylvester Stallone film D-Tox, which Universal Studios declined to distribute in the U.
S. DEJ picked up the film and released it under the title Eye See You, a name it used in the home video release. Based in Los Angeles, DEJ picked up around three dozen films annually, its first film acquired was the home video distribution of Still starring Brendan Fraser. It acquired the rights to the biopics of two mass murderers in Gacy. DEJ picked up films such as Party Monster and Grand Theft Parsons at festivals including the Sundance Film Festival. In the case of a theatrical release such as 2004's My Date With Drew, Blockbuster stores would promote the film both in its store and on its website; because DEJ was in the Blockbuster corporate umbrella during a period in which Viacom owned Blockbuster, DEJ could sell the rights to Viacom's cable networks including Starz or Showtime while obtaining video rights to first run titles airing on the cable channels such as Whoopi Goldberg's made-for-Showtime film, Good Fences. In the media industry, this was considered a synergistic business model.
One of the founding partners, Dean Wilson, explained DEJ's philosophy on convincing filmmakers of their business model in an interview in 2002. He said, "A lot of filmmakers have this belief that they're not a success unless they end up in a theater... They all want to be Spielberg and all want to make tons of money but I think that in a lot of these early projects, they put everything into it, I would love to see theatrical release, but I think they're now coming to terms with the fact theatrical release isn't available for everything. We offer up exposure to people, when it comes down to it, is what they want."Because of some success in the home video marketplace with a few of the picked up films, DEJ ended its exclusive deal with Blockbuster to gain wider release of some of its breakout titles. An example was when DEJ picked up the home video rights to The Boondock Saints which had failed at the box office but proceeded to make $12 million in home video and spawning a sequel. DEJ began co-financing higher profile films for theatrical release including and Crash.
DEJ’s first Oscar winner was Charlize Theron in Monster. The following year, the independent film Crash was the winner of several Academy Awards including Best Achievement in Film Editing, Best Writing of an Original Screenplay, Best Motion Picture of the Year, as well as 41 other awards from various organizations. DEJ’s increasing notoriety led to more involvement in the production side, a change in its business model; the first result was. The second was. "As a company that's looking to grow over time, the objective is to find projects that are bigger and better," said DEJ VP of acquisitions Andy Reimer. With the shift in business came both business practices and ownership change. First Look Studios combined sales forces with DEJ as First Look began to distribute some of DEJ’s home video product starting in 2001. Four years First Look Studios purchased DEJ from Blockbuster for $25 million in 2005, it received DEJ’s entire inventory of 225 films, as well, in exchange for home video revenue sharing with Blockbuster.
DEJ's Dean Wilson moved over to First Look as its Chief Operating Officer. By 2010, First Look Studios fortunes had eroded and the company was disbanded following bankruptcy. While the DEJ nameplate was discontinued by 2006 just after the First Look buyout, its logo can still be seen in video releases as Millennium Entertainment acquired much of the DEJ and First Look film library in 2010. In 2011, the filmmakers who made Animal for DEJ received a favorable decision concerning the profits made in the 2005 direct-to-video release. Still Breathing The Curve The Boondock Saints The Runner Lush Contaminated Man The Attic Expeditions The Circuit The Circuit 2 Crazy as Hell D-Tox Dahmer Hard Cash Home Room The Outsider Partners In Action Scorched Snake Island Wolves of Wall Street Aileen: Life and Death of a Serial Killer Evil Alien Conquerors Killer Buzz Gacy Gang of Roses Good Fences Grand Theft Parsons In Hell Lost Treasure Monster Party Monster Shark Zone Blast Blessed Crash Employee of the Month The Hollow Method My Date with Drew Nora's Hair Salon Post Impact Ring of Darkness Wake of Death Dirty Love Shooting Gallery Half Light Peaceful Warrior The Prince and Me 2: The Royal Weddi
Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England. It is its county town, it was important in Anglo-Saxon times. It is the seat of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester, with a 12th-century cathedral; the city is a hub of several main road routes, has a railway station, hospital and museums. The River Lavant runs through, beneath, the city; the area around Chichester is believed to have played significant part during the Roman Invasion of A. D. 43, as confirmed by evidence of military storage structures in the area of the nearby Fishbourne Roman Palace. The city centre stands on the foundations of the Romano-British city of Noviomagus Reginorum, capital of the Civitas Reginorum; the Roman road of Stane Street, connecting the city with London, started at the east gate, while the Chichester to Silchester road started from the north gate. The plan of the city is inherited from the Romans: the North, South and West shopping streets radiate from the central market cross dating from medieval times.
The original Roman city wall was over 6½ feet thick with a steep ditch. It survived for over one and a half thousand years but was replaced by a thinner Georgian wall; the city was home to some Roman baths, found down Tower Street when preparation for a new car park was under way. A museum, The Novium, preserving the baths was opened on 8 July 2012. An amphitheatre was built outside the city walls, close to the East Gate, in around 80 AD; the area is now a park, but the site of the amphitheatre is discernible as a gentle bank oval in shape. In January 2017, archaeologists using underground radar reported the discovery of the untouched ground floor of a Roman townhouse and outbuilding; the exceptional preservation is due to the fact the site, Priory Park, belonged to a monastery and has never been built upon since Roman times. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it was captured towards the close of the fifth century, by Ælle, renamed after his son, Cissa, it was the chief city of the Kingdom of Sussex.
The cathedral for the South Saxons was founded in 681 at Selsey. Chichester was one of the burhs established by Alfred the Great in 878-9, making use of the remaining Roman walls. According to the Burghal Hidage, a list written in the early 10th century, it was one of the biggest of Alfred's burhs, supported by 1500 hides, units of land required to supply one soldier each for the garrison in time of emergency; the system was supported by a communication network based on hilltop beacons to provide early warning. It has been suggested; when the Domesday Book was compiled, Cicestre consisted of 300 dwellings which held a population of 1,500 people. There was a mill named Kings Mill that would have been rented to local villeins. After the Battle of Hastings the township of Chichester was handed to Roger de Mongomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, for courageous efforts in the battle, but it was forfeited in 1104 by the 3rd Earl. Shortly after 1066 Chichester Castle was built by Roger de Mongomerie to consolidate Norman power.
In around 1143 the title Earl of Arundel became the dominant local landowner. In 1216, Chichester Castle, along with Reigate Castle, was captured by the French, but regained the following year, when the castle was ordered to be destroyed by the king. Between 1250 and 1262, the Rape of Chichester was created from the western half of Arundel rape, with the castle as its administrative centre. At Christmas 1642 during the First English Civil War the city was besieged and St Pancras church destroyed by gunfire. A military presence was established in the city in 1795 with the construction of a depot on land where the Hawkhurst Gang had been hanged, it was named the Roussillon Barracks in 1958. The military presence had ceased by 2014 and the site was being developed for housing. Chichester was a city and liberty, thereby self-governing. Although it has retained its city status, in 1888 it became a municipal borough, transferring some powers to West Sussex administrative county. In 1974 the municipal borough became part of the much larger Chichester District.
There is a city council but it only has the powers of a parish council. The City Council consists of twenty elected members serving four wards of the city – North, South and West. Chichester Council House on North Street dates from 1731. In addition to its own council offices, those of the Chichester District and the West Sussex County Council are located in the City; the current MP for the Chichester Constituency is Gillian Keegan. Chichester has an unusual franchise in its history. Chichester's residents had enjoyed political enfranchisement for 300 years before the 19th century Reform Bills expanded the right to vote for members of Parliament to include most ordinary citizens. However, when the mayor restricted the vote to Freemen in the election of 1660 for the Convention Parliament that organised the restoration of the monarchy, the House of Commons noted that "for One-and-twenty Parliaments, the Commonalty, as well as the Citizens, had had Voice in the electing of Members to serve in Parliament.
Bedtime Stories (film)
Bedtime Stories is a 2008 American fantasy comedy film directed by Adam Shankman and written by Matt Lopez and Tim Herlihy. It stars Adam Sandler in his first appearance in a family-oriented film alongside Keri Russell, Jonathan Morgan Heit, Laura Ann Kesling, Guy Pearce, Aisha Tyler, Russell Brand, Richard Griffiths, Teresa Palmer, Lucy Lawless and Courteney Cox. Sandler's production company Happy Madison and Andrew Gunn's company Gunn Films co-produced the film with Walt Disney Pictures; the film was theatrically released on December 2008 by Walt Disney Pictures. Despite receiving negative reviews from critics, it was a box office success after earning $212.9 million against an $80 million budget. Skeeter Bronson is a hotel maintenance man, promised as a child by his father Marty to be the manager of the family hotel, but it is bought by hotel chain Nottingham Hotels. 25 years the new manager Barry Nottingham plans to build a new hotel and appoints another man, the snotty Kendall Duncan to become the manager because he is dating his daughter, Violet.
Skeeter's sister Wendy asks him to watch her kids and Bobbi, because the school at which she is the principal is being closed and she is looking for a job in Arizona. The first night, Skeeter tells a bedtime story taking place in medieval times, with some additions from her kids; the next day, the entire story miraculously comes true. Nottingham gives Skeeter a shot at the manager position when he says his new hotel theme was taken by Hard Rock Hotel and on his way home, it rains gumballs on top of him, all from the story; the next night, at the hotel, he tells another story set in the Old West, when he waits for it to come true, a man dressed in Indian attire steals his wallet. He gets kicked by a dwarf, he spots a Ferrari car, thought he was being offered it for free but Violet drives away with it. The night after that, out on a campfire near the hotel, he tells them about a Greek chariot-riding stuntman, he ends up falling for his sister's friend and colleague Jill. On the last night with the kids, he tells them about a space fight in which he triumphs over Kendall.
After he wins the gig of manager, he makes the discovery from Kendall that the new Nottingham Hotel will be at the location of the closing school. After being fired by Nottingham, which turned out to be the connection to the ending of the space story, he gets the hotel moved to Santa Monica, with Jill is able to avert the demolition, saving the school and his nephew and niece, while getting his wallet and money back from the same man that stole it from him earlier. Sometime he marries Jill and establishes a motel named after his late father. Kendall and his accomplice Aspen are demoted to the motel's waiting staff. Violet marries Skeeter's best friend Mickey, giving him control of the Nottingham Empire, becoming the ninth richest man alive. In the meantime, Nottingham quits hotel management to become a school nurse and newlywed Skeeter and Jill have a baby, while Bugsy the guinea pig marries too, has a bunch of babies. Director Adam Shankman describes Adam Sandler's character as "a sort of'Cinderfella' character" and adds that "'He's like Han Solo...'"
It was filmed on various locations in California, including in Thousand Oaks where Mr. Nottingham's palace is set; the score to Bedtime Stories was composed by Rupert Gregson-Williams, who recorded his score with the Hollywood Studio Symphony at the Newman Scoring Stage at 20th Century Fox. The song "Don't Stop Believin'" is played during the film and during the end credits; the film was released in the United States on December 25, 2008, in Poland on January 23, 2009 and in Sweden on February 20, 2009. The film received negative reviews; as of September 28, 2011, Rotten Tomatoes reported that 25% of critics gave positive reviews based on 108 reviews, with an average rating of 4.4/10. The consensus states, "Though it may earn some chuckles from pre-teens, this kid-friendly Adam Sandler comedy is uneven, poorly paced, lacks the requisite whimsy to work." Metacritic gave the film a 33/100 approval rating based on 26 reviews. Slashfilm predicted that Bedtime Stories would open #1 during the December 25–28, 2008 Christmas weekend due to its family appeal and the box office draw of Adam Sandler, but it came at #3 grossing $38 million behind Marley & Me and The Curious Case of Benjamin Button.
However, during the standard 3-day weekend, it jumped ahead of The Curious Case of Benjamin Button ranking #2 behind Marley & Me with $27.5 million. As of February 2009, the film had grossed $110,101,975 in the United States and Canada and $102,772,467 in other countries, totaling $212,874,442 worldwide; the film was released on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on April 7, 2009. The DVD was released as a two-disc edition including behind-the-scenes featurette. Commercials advertising the discs feature background music recycled from the film Back to the Future Part III; as of November 1, 2009 the DVD has sold 2,835,662 copies generating $49,409,944 in sales revenue. Australian Film Institute 2009BMI Film & TV Awards 2009Kids' Choice Awards, Australia 2009Kids' Choice Awards, USA 2009Motion Picture Sound Editors, USA 2009Young Ar
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Hans Florian Zimmer is a German film score composer and record producer. Since the 1980s, he has composed music for over 150 films, his works include The Lion King, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Original Score in 1995, the Pirates of the Caribbean series, Gladiator, Inception and The Dark Knight Trilogy. Zimmer spent the early part of his career in the United Kingdom before moving to the United States, he is the head of the film music division at DreamWorks studios and works with other composers through the company that he founded, Remote Control Productions known as Media Ventures. His studio in Santa Monica, California has an extensive range of computer equipment and keyboards, allowing demo versions of film scores to be created quickly. Zimmer's works are notable for integrating electronic music sounds with traditional orchestral arrangements, he has received four Grammy Awards, three Classical BRIT Awards, two Golden Globes, an Academy Award. He was named on the list of Top 100 Living Geniuses, published by The Daily Telegraph.
Zimmer has collaborated on multiple projects with directors including Ridley and Tony Scott, Penny Marshall, Ron Howard, John Woo, Michael Bay, Gore Verbinski, Antoine Fuqua, Steve McQueen, Zack Snyder, Denis Villeneuve, Christopher Nolan. Zimmer was born in West Germany; as a young child, he lived in Königstein-Falkenstein, where he played the piano at home but had piano lessons only as he disliked the discipline of formal lessons. In one of his Reddit AMAs, he said "My formal training was 2 week of piano lessons. I was thrown out of 8 schools, but I joined a band. I am self-taught, but I've always heard music in my head. And I'm a child of the 20th century, he moved to London as a teenager. During his childhood, he was influenced by the film scores of Ennio Morricone and has cited Once Upon a Time in the West as the score that inspired him to become a film composer. In a speech at the 1999 Berlin Film Festival, Zimmer stated that he is Jewish, talked about his mother surviving World War II thanks to her escape from Germany to England in 1939.
In an interview with Mashable in February 2013, he said of his parents "My mother was musical a musician and my father was an engineer and an inventor. So, I grew up modifying the piano, shall we say, which made my mother gasp in horror, my father would think it was fantastic when I would attach chainsaws and stuff like that to the piano because he thought it was an evolution in technology." In an interview with the German television station ZDF in 2006, he commented: "My father died when I was just a child, I escaped somehow into the music and music has been my best friend." Zimmer began his career playing keyboards and synthesizers with the band Krakatoa. He worked with the Buggles, a new wave band formed in London in 1977 with Trevor Horn, Geoff Downes, Bruce Woolley. Zimmer can be seen in the Buggles' music video for the 1979 song "Video Killed the Radio Star". After working with the Buggles, he started to work for the Italian group Krisma, a new wave band formed in 1976 with Maurizio Arcieri and Christina Moser.
He was a featured synthesist for Cathode Mamma. He has worked with the band Helden. Both Zimmer and Cann, were invited to be part of the Spanish group Mecano for a live performance in Segovia in 1984. Two songs from this concert were included in the "Mecano: En Concierto" album released in 1985 only in Spain. In 1985, he contributed to the Shriekback album Gold. In 1980, Zimmer co-produced a single, "History of the World, Part 1," with, for, UK punk band The Damned, included on their 1980 LP release, The Black Album, carried the description of his efforts as "Over-Produced by Hans Zimmer." While living in London, Zimmer wrote advertising jingles for Air-Edel Associates. In the 1980s, Zimmer partnered with Stanley Myers, a prolific film composer who wrote the scores for over sixty films. Zimmer and Myers co–founded the London–based Lillie Yard recording studio. Together and Zimmer worked on fusing the traditional orchestral sound with electronic instruments; some of the films on which Zimmer and Myers worked are Moonlighting, Success is the Best Revenge, My Beautiful Laundrette.
Zimmer's first solo score was Terminal Exposure for director Nico Mastorakis in 1987, for which he wrote the songs. Zimmer acted as score producer for the 1987 film The Last Emperor, which won the Academy Award for Best Original Score. One of Zimmer's most durable works from his time in the United Kingdom was the theme song for the television game show Going for Gold, which he composed with Sandy McClelland in 1987. In an interview with the BBC, Zimmer said: "Going. It's the sort of stuff. God, I just felt so lucky because this thing paid my rent for the longest time." A turning point in Zimmer's career occurred with the 1988 film Rain Man. Hollywood director Barry Levinson was looking for someone to score Rain Man, his wife heard the soundtrack CD of the anti-apartheid drama A World Apart, for which Zimmer had composed the music. Levinson hired him to score Rain Man. In the score, Zimmer uses synthesizers mixed with steel drums. Zimmer explained that "It was a road movie, road movies have jangly guitars or a bunch of strings.
I kept. Try to keep it contained; the Raymond character do
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model