In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Boissevain is an unincorporated urban community in Manitoba near the North Dakota border that held town status prior to 2015. It is located within the Municipality of Boissevain – Morton. Boissevain is a community of just under 1,500 people and it is between Killarney and Deloraine on the east and west with Brandon in the north; the population of the surrounding area, within a 50 kilometre radius of the community, is about 15,000. It is notable for its proximity to the International Peace Garden, a short drive south on Highway 10; the community displays a number of wall murals as a tourist attraction. The community was named after Adolphe Boissevain. Boissevain, not far from Turtle Mountain and Turtle Mountain Provincial Park formerly hosted the "International Turtle Derby", a turtle race, each summer. "Tommy the Turtle" is a 28-foot-tall, 10,000-lb western painted turtle that serves as an icon for both the Turtle Derby and the community as a whole. Work began along the anticipated route of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1874, surveyors were impressed with the Turtle Mountain region and noted it would become a chief point of settlement in the coming years.
The site of the town of Boissevain was decided by the CPR in 1885. By 1886 there was a post office and two grain warehouses; the new settlement was named in honour of a Dutch financier, Adolf Boissevain, who introduced CPR shares for sale in Europe. As pioneer life transitioned to the comforts of a growing town, many new buildings and churches were built. One of the prominent buildings constructed was the St. Matthew's Anglican Church, built with granite walls found in the local fields. Sandstone was discovered nearby by the earlier surveyors; the sandstone was used to construct another place of worship and local landmark, the St. Paul's United Church, completed in 1893. Like many towns in the west, Boissevain's prosperity came with the railway, in this case the CPR line was the first to arrive in 1885. Three other additional railways in the area, including the Great Northern Railway through the railway's subsidiary organized under the name of the "Brandon and Hudson Bay Railway", which meant that farmers could now ship their goods to the United States in the south while having a link with Brandon to the north.
The railways began to decline with it the fortunes of Boissevain. The Great Northern line ended service in 1936. Boissevain School was nominated one of Canada's 30 best schools by Maclean's Magazine. CJRB broadcasts an easy listening format from Boissevain; the station is owned by Golden West Broadcasting. Boissevain community website Stats Canada - Census Profile Map of Boissevain at Statcan
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Manitoba municipal amalgamations, 2015
In 1997, the Government of Manitoba established a minimum population threshold of 1,000 to incorporate a municipality. As of the 2011 census, 93 of Manitoba's 197 municipalities had populations less than 1,000; the Government of Manitoba announced in 2012 that municipalities would be required to amalgamate in order for them to meet the minimum population threshold and make them more sustainable communities moving forward. The Municipal Amalgamations Act was subsequently enacted in 2013, requiring that municipalities with a population less than 1,000 amalgamate with one or more neighbouring municipalities by 2015. Two municipalities with populations less than 1,000, the Rural Municipality of Victoria Beach and the Village of Dunnattor, were subsequently exempted from the requirement to amalgamate due to their uniqueness as resort municipalities. In 2013 and 2014, the Government of Manitoba passed legislation to amalgamate 107 municipalities into 47 effective January 1, 2015; these amalgamations therefore reduced the total number of municipalities in the province from 197 to 137.
2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec 2002–2006 municipal reorganization of Montreal Amalgamation of the Halifax Regional Municipality Amalgamation of Toronto Amalgamation of Winnipeg Edmonton annexations List of municipalities in Manitoba Manitoba’s Municipal History: Municipal Amalgamations
Melita is a town located in the southwestern corner of the Canadian province of Manitoba. It occupies a bend of the Souris River; the population at the 2016 census was 1,042. It sits at the junction of Highways 83, approx. 320 km southwest of Winnipeg. Melita is known as the "Grasslands Bird Capital of Manitoba" and is located in Manitoba's banana belt. Evidence of First Nations habitation in the area includes the Linear Mounds Archaeological Site and the Brockinton Archaeological Site, which have provided artifacts dating back to 800 A. D; the site has been designated a National Historic Site of Canada. Charles West was the first recorded European settler, in 1879; the early inhabitants chose the name "Melita" for the town after hearing a Bible reading about St. Paul's shipwreck on the island of Malta. Betty Fox, cancer research activist and mother of Terry Fox, was raised in Melita. Melita Airport Official Web site of the town of Melita Melita, Manitoba: Our Heritage Map of Melita at Statcan Statistics Canada - Community Profile - Melita
Hartney is an unincorporated urban community in the Municipality of Grassland within the Canadian province of Manitoba that held town status prior to January 1, 2015. It is located along the Souris River. Established in 1882, the community is named after Wheaton Hartney King; the Hollywood film The Lookout featuring Jeff Daniels and Joseph Gordon-Levitt, the film The Stone Angel featuring Ellen Burstyn, were filmed in Hartney in 2006. Hartney's local Member of Legislative Assembly is Doyle Piwniuk and the Member of Parliament for the area is Brandon—Souris MP Larry Maguire. Area: 2.45 km² Location: Southwest Manitoba Latitude: 49° 29 Longitude: −100° 31' Area Code: +1-204 Postal Code: R0M 0X0 Lew Morrison – NHL hockey player Corey Peloquin – professional wrestler best known as Chi Chi Cruz Reg Atkinson – former mayor of Hartney and Brandon Former Town of Hartney website Hartney & Area: Our Heritage Community Profile Map of Hartney at Statcan
Ninette is an unincorporated community recognized as a local urban district located in Manitoba, Canada at the north end of Pelican Lake. It is located in the Rural Municipality of Prairie Lakes. Ninette has many small businesses, is known locally for its wide range of sports facilities. In the summer, activities such as boating and hunting are offered, while snowmobiling and ice fishing are offered during the wintertime. Ninette's original post office was established in 1883 on a site near Overend Lake, it was moved, following the construction of the Northern Pacific and Manitoba Railway in the area, to its current site near Pelican Lake, closer to the railway. In June 1926, Ninette became an unincorporated village. There are multiple theories as to the name of the community, including being named informally for a French actress or waitress, the deceased daughter of a local resident, or a character in a novel, being read by a postal inspector in the area, the name being short for Antoinette.
The Manitoba Sanatorium, a sanatorium for tuberculosis patients in the province, opened in May 1910 nearby on Pelican Lake's north shore, causing a growth in Ninette's population from the sanatorium's staff and patients' families as its capacity quadrupled in its first 13 years. The sanatorium closed in 1972 after the development and prevalence of tuberculosis drugs and other treatments obsoleted the facility; as of the 2016 Canadian census, the population of Ninette was 221, a 1.3% decrease from its population of 224 in the 2011 census. The median age was 53.7 years old, 12.7 years older than the national average of 41.0. There were 110 private dwellings. English-speakers comprise the vast majority of Ninette's population. In terms of Canada's official languages, 95.3% of the population speaks English, while the remaining 4.7% speaks both English and French. No other languages are known in the community. Of those in Ninette aged 15 or older, 48.7% are married, 15.4% are living with a common-law partner, 23% have never been married, 2.6% are separated, 5.1% are divorced, 7.7% are widowed.
Of the census families in Ninette, 71.4% consist of two persons, 21.4% consist of three persons, the remaining 7.1% consist of five or more persons. The average size of a census family is 2.4 persons. Out of all of Ninette's couple census families, 66.7% are without children, while 25% have one child, 8.3% have three or more children. Ninette is located along the intersection of Manitoba Highways 18 and 23, which connects it to several other communities in the region, as well as the North Dakota border and the Pembina Valley region of the province. Martha Brooks, writer