Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Brandon is the second-largest city in the province of Manitoba, Canada. It is located in the southwestern corner of the province on the banks of the Assiniboine River 214 km west of the provincial capital, 120 km east of the Saskatchewan border. Brandon covers an area of 77.41 km2 and has a population of 48,859, while its census metropolitan area has a population of 58,003. It is the primary hub of trade and commerce for the Westman region as well as parts of southeastern Saskatchewan and northern North Dakota, an area with a combined population of over 180,000 people; the City of Brandon was incorporated in 1882, having a history rooted in the Assiniboine River fur trade as well as its role as a major junction on the Canadian Pacific Railway. Known as The Wheat City, Brandon's economy is predominantly associated with agriculture. Brandon is an important part of the higher education network in Manitoba, with several notable facilities located in the city including Brandon University, Assiniboine Community College, the Manitoba Emergency Services College.
Canadian Forces Base Shilo maintains close ties with the city. Brandon's Keystone Centre, one of the largest consolidated entertainment, recreation and agriculture complexes in Canada, is the home of the Brandon Wheat Kings and the Royal Manitoba Winter Fair. Prior to the influx of people from Eastern Canada, the area around Brandon was used by the Sioux people, the Bungays, the Yellow Quills, the Bird Tails. In the 1870s and early 1880s, the Plains Bison were nearly wiped out by over-hunting. With the destruction of their staff of life, the buffalo, the nomadic Sioux people began to agree to settle in reservations such as the Sioux Valley Dakota Nation, or left the area entirely. French Canadians passed through the area on river boats on their way to the Hudson Bay Post, Fort Ellice located near present-day St. Lazare, Manitoba; the city of Brandon gets its name from the Blue Hills south of the city, which got their name from a Hudson's Bay trading post known as Brandon House, which got its name from a hill on an island in James Bay where Captain James had anchored his ship in 1631.
During the 1870s it was believed by most that the transcontinental railway would take a northwesterly direction from Portage la Prairie. Many thought that the route would most go through either Minnedosa or Rapid City, Manitoba because they were both located at natural river crossings. Rapid City was the front runner for the site of the new railway and had prepared for the impending building boom accordingly, but in 1881, the builders of the railway decided to take a more westerly route from Winnipeg, towards Grand Valley. Grand Valley was located on the northern side of the Assiniboine, opposite the side of the river where present-day Brandon sits. Grand Valley was settled by two brothers John and Dougal McVicar, their families. With the expectation of the new railroad and prospectors now rushed to an area they had avoided. Around 1879 a few settlers led by Reverend George Roddick had begun to build their new homes about 10 miles south of Grand Valley, at the foot of the Brandon Hills. Meanwhile, in Grand Valley with the promise of the railway, the town began to boom.
Regular voyages were made by steam sternwheelers to the city, each bringing more settlers. In the spring of 1881, General Thomas L. Rosser, Chief Engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway arrived in Grand Valley, it was Rosser's job to choose the townsites for the railway. Rosser approached Dougald McVicar of Grand Valley and offered him $25,000 for the railway in Grand Valley. McVicar countered with $50,000 to which Rosser replied that "I'll be damned if a town of any kind is built here". So instead Rosser crossed the Assiniboine river and built the site of the railway on the high sandy south of the River, two miles west of Grand Valley. So the site was moved to a site just west of today's current First Street bridge in Brandon. A shanty had been built there by a man named J. D. Adamson, it was on this quarter section Adamson claimed that Rosser chose as the townsite for the CPR Railway and named Brandon. After the location of the railway was once again changed, there was still hope that Grand Valley could become a rival neighbour to Brandon.
But late in June 1881 it became clear. A flood hit in late June, as the city was built on a low-lying part of the river and dramatically; because Grand Valley was built on a low flood plain, Brandon was built on the heights on the other side, it became apparent that Brandon was the best place for a city in the area. Rosser had chosen Brandon as the townsite in May 1881, within a year settlers had flocked to Brandon in such numbers that it was incorporated as a city. Brandon never has only existed as a city. An Internment camp was set up at the Exhibition Building in Brandon from September 1914 to July 1916. Post World War II, Brandon experience a minor disaster when an explosion at the Manitoba Power Commission's steam plant caused the 40 metre brick chimney to collapse, killing two workers in the process. In contemporary times, Brandon City Council elected its first female mayor when Shari Decter Hirst defeated incumbent Dave Burgess in the 2010 municipal election. Brandon is located on the banks of the Assiniboine river.
It resides in the aspen parkland ecoregion of the prairies. The terrain is flat and rolling surrounding Brand
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Hartney is an unincorporated urban community in the Municipality of Grassland within the Canadian province of Manitoba that held town status prior to January 1, 2015. It is located along the Souris River. Established in 1882, the community is named after Wheaton Hartney King; the Hollywood film The Lookout featuring Jeff Daniels and Joseph Gordon-Levitt, the film The Stone Angel featuring Ellen Burstyn, were filmed in Hartney in 2006. Hartney's local Member of Legislative Assembly is Doyle Piwniuk and the Member of Parliament for the area is Brandon—Souris MP Larry Maguire. Area: 2.45 km² Location: Southwest Manitoba Latitude: 49° 29 Longitude: −100° 31' Area Code: +1-204 Postal Code: R0M 0X0 Lew Morrison – NHL hockey player Corey Peloquin – professional wrestler best known as Chi Chi Cruz Reg Atkinson – former mayor of Hartney and Brandon Former Town of Hartney website Hartney & Area: Our Heritage Community Profile Map of Hartney at Statcan
Manitoba municipal amalgamations, 2015
In 1997, the Government of Manitoba established a minimum population threshold of 1,000 to incorporate a municipality. As of the 2011 census, 93 of Manitoba's 197 municipalities had populations less than 1,000; the Government of Manitoba announced in 2012 that municipalities would be required to amalgamate in order for them to meet the minimum population threshold and make them more sustainable communities moving forward. The Municipal Amalgamations Act was subsequently enacted in 2013, requiring that municipalities with a population less than 1,000 amalgamate with one or more neighbouring municipalities by 2015. Two municipalities with populations less than 1,000, the Rural Municipality of Victoria Beach and the Village of Dunnattor, were subsequently exempted from the requirement to amalgamate due to their uniqueness as resort municipalities. In 2013 and 2014, the Government of Manitoba passed legislation to amalgamate 107 municipalities into 47 effective January 1, 2015; these amalgamations therefore reduced the total number of municipalities in the province from 197 to 137.
2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec 2002–2006 municipal reorganization of Montreal Amalgamation of the Halifax Regional Municipality Amalgamation of Toronto Amalgamation of Winnipeg Edmonton annexations List of municipalities in Manitoba Manitoba’s Municipal History: Municipal Amalgamations
Melita is a town located in the southwestern corner of the Canadian province of Manitoba. It occupies a bend of the Souris River; the population at the 2016 census was 1,042. It sits at the junction of Highways 83, approx. 320 km southwest of Winnipeg. Melita is known as the "Grasslands Bird Capital of Manitoba" and is located in Manitoba's banana belt. Evidence of First Nations habitation in the area includes the Linear Mounds Archaeological Site and the Brockinton Archaeological Site, which have provided artifacts dating back to 800 A. D; the site has been designated a National Historic Site of Canada. Charles West was the first recorded European settler, in 1879; the early inhabitants chose the name "Melita" for the town after hearing a Bible reading about St. Paul's shipwreck on the island of Malta. Betty Fox, cancer research activist and mother of Terry Fox, was raised in Melita. Melita Airport Official Web site of the town of Melita Melita, Manitoba: Our Heritage Map of Melita at Statcan Statistics Canada - Community Profile - Melita
Ninette is an unincorporated community recognized as a local urban district located in Manitoba, Canada at the north end of Pelican Lake. It is located in the Rural Municipality of Prairie Lakes. Ninette has many small businesses, is known locally for its wide range of sports facilities. In the summer, activities such as boating and hunting are offered, while snowmobiling and ice fishing are offered during the wintertime. Ninette's original post office was established in 1883 on a site near Overend Lake, it was moved, following the construction of the Northern Pacific and Manitoba Railway in the area, to its current site near Pelican Lake, closer to the railway. In June 1926, Ninette became an unincorporated village. There are multiple theories as to the name of the community, including being named informally for a French actress or waitress, the deceased daughter of a local resident, or a character in a novel, being read by a postal inspector in the area, the name being short for Antoinette.
The Manitoba Sanatorium, a sanatorium for tuberculosis patients in the province, opened in May 1910 nearby on Pelican Lake's north shore, causing a growth in Ninette's population from the sanatorium's staff and patients' families as its capacity quadrupled in its first 13 years. The sanatorium closed in 1972 after the development and prevalence of tuberculosis drugs and other treatments obsoleted the facility; as of the 2016 Canadian census, the population of Ninette was 221, a 1.3% decrease from its population of 224 in the 2011 census. The median age was 53.7 years old, 12.7 years older than the national average of 41.0. There were 110 private dwellings. English-speakers comprise the vast majority of Ninette's population. In terms of Canada's official languages, 95.3% of the population speaks English, while the remaining 4.7% speaks both English and French. No other languages are known in the community. Of those in Ninette aged 15 or older, 48.7% are married, 15.4% are living with a common-law partner, 23% have never been married, 2.6% are separated, 5.1% are divorced, 7.7% are widowed.
Of the census families in Ninette, 71.4% consist of two persons, 21.4% consist of three persons, the remaining 7.1% consist of five or more persons. The average size of a census family is 2.4 persons. Out of all of Ninette's couple census families, 66.7% are without children, while 25% have one child, 8.3% have three or more children. Ninette is located along the intersection of Manitoba Highways 18 and 23, which connects it to several other communities in the region, as well as the North Dakota border and the Pembina Valley region of the province. Martha Brooks, writer