Melita is a town located in the southwestern corner of the Canadian province of Manitoba. It occupies a bend of the Souris River; the population at the 2016 census was 1,042. It sits at the junction of Highways 83, approx. 320 km southwest of Winnipeg. Melita is known as the "Grasslands Bird Capital of Manitoba" and is located in Manitoba's banana belt. Evidence of First Nations habitation in the area includes the Linear Mounds Archaeological Site and the Brockinton Archaeological Site, which have provided artifacts dating back to 800 A. D; the site has been designated a National Historic Site of Canada. Charles West was the first recorded European settler, in 1879; the early inhabitants chose the name "Melita" for the town after hearing a Bible reading about St. Paul's shipwreck on the island of Malta. Betty Fox, cancer research activist and mother of Terry Fox, was raised in Melita. Melita Airport Official Web site of the town of Melita Melita, Manitoba: Our Heritage Map of Melita at Statcan Statistics Canada - Community Profile - Melita
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
The Pas is a town in Manitoba, located at the confluence of the Pasquia River and the Saskatchewan River within Division No. 21 in the Northern Region. It is 630 km northwest of the provincial capital, 40 km from the border of Saskatchewan, it is sometimes still called Paskoyac by locals after the first trading post, called Fort Paskoya and constructed during French colonial rule. The Pasquia River begins in the Pasquia Hills in east central Saskatchewan; the French in 1795 knew the river as Basquiau. Known as "The Gateway to the North", The Pas is a multi-industry northern Manitoba town serving the surrounding region; the main components of the region's economy are agriculture, commercial fishing, tourism and services. The main employer is a lumber mill operated by Canadian Kraft Papers; the Pas contains one of the two main campuses of the University College of the North. The Pas is bordered by the Rural Municipality of Kelsey, as well as part of the Opaskwayak Cree Nation; the area's original inhabitants were the Cree.
Their ancestors are thought to have migrated from the southeastern prairies over 9000 years ago. The first European recorded to encounter the Cree was Henry Kelsey, an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, he travelled through the area between 1692 on his way to the Canadian prairies. During the years of New France, La Vérendrye, the first western military commander, directed the construction of Fort Paskoya near here, it was named after the people of the Pasquia River. For years the settlement was called Pascoyac, sometimes shortened to Le Pas; the Pas Indian Band surrendered their reserve lands around the site of the Hudson Bay trading post and the Anglican Church Mission in the first decade of the 20th century to make way for the Hudson Bay Railway and development of the Town of The Pas, incorporated in 1912. The Pas Indian Band was relocated to the north side of the Saskatchewan River and changed its name to Opaskwayak Cree Nation; the area today is composed of three distinct communities: the Town of The Pas, the Opaskwayak Cree Nation, the Rural Municipality of Kelsey.
The history of the city and the region may be seen at the Sam Waller Museum, located in the old courthouse in downtown The Pas. The population of The Pas in 2011 was 5,513, while its population density was 115.3 per km². According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the composition of its population was Aboriginals: First Nations and Metis; the visible minority population was 2.1%. The religious make up of The Pas is. Most of the residents are Canadian citizens. About 10.3% of the population can speak a language, not recognized as an official language of Canada. Aboriginal languages are the most common spoken non-official language; the median age in The Pas is 34.1 years old. Age groups are: 9 and younger, 10 to 19, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50 to 64, 65+; the unemployment rate in The Pas was 7.3%. Educational attainment: No certificate 30.2%. The marital status of all those aged over 15 is: living with common-law partner. There are 2,324 private dwellings in most of them being occupied; the average number of people per household is 2.5.
The Pas was made famous for many young Canadians when author Farley Mowat published Lost in the Barrens in 1956. This was the first of two children/young adults books, set in the vicinity and which mentions the town prominently; the story begins at a remote trapping lodge, moves into the Canadian "barren lands" further north. The Pas is the main trading centre to which the book's protagonists travel to stock up on provisions and supplies to take back to their homes in the bush. In Canada and elsewhere, the book is used as part of school reading; the book's sequel, Curse of the Viking Grave, makes mention of The Pas. The Pas is the site of the Northern Manitoba Trappers' Festival, Manitoba's oldest festival and one of Canada’s oldest winter festival, it has been held every year continuously since 1948 and features a wide variety of winter activities including ice fishing, muskrat skinning, an annual sled dog race, part of the International Federation of Sleddog Sports. The 1991 CBC movie, Conspiracy of Silence, about the murder of Helen Betty Osborne, took place in The Pas.
The Pas experiences a humid continental climate with short warm summers. The seasonal temperature range is between −19.1 °C and 18.1 °C, resulting in an amplitude of 37.2 °C. The highest temperature recorded in The Pas was 100 °F on 19 July 1941; the coldest temperature recorded was −57 °F on 18 February 1966. The OCN Blizzard, hockey team, competes in the Manitoba Junior Hockey League; the Pas is home to the OCN Storm of the Keystone Junior Hockey League, the Huskies minor hockey league, the MBCI Spartans who compete in Zone 11 of the MHSAA. The Intermediate'A' version of The Pas Huskies won the 1968-69 Manitoba championship; the son of former Husky star defenceman Jack Giles, Curt Giles, had a career in the NHL with New York Rangers, St. Louis, Minnesota; the Pas native Murray Anderson was the first known locally born player to make the NHL, with Washington Capitals in the 1970s. Wa
Morris is a small town in the Pembina Valley region of Manitoba, located 51 km south of Winnipeg and 42 km north of Emerson. Morris is home to 1,885 people. Named after Alexander Morris, the second Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba. Highway 75 which turns into Interstate 29 is the major highway. Morris is the only town; the town of Morris is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Morris, except for a small eastern border with the northwest corner of the Rural Municipality of Montcalm, across the Red River of the North. Morris is host to the annual Manitoba Stampede & Exhibition; the town has a long history involving floods and fur trade companies. Fur traders started to settle in the Morris area in the late 18th century because of its strategic location along the Red River. By 1801, there were two fur-trading stations at the settlement, the North West Company and the XY Company. Barges came up and down the Red River, the Red River ox carts that travelled between Fort Garry and the Pembina Settlement went right through Morris, offered many opportunities for trade.
By 1874, the ox carts began to carry settlers to the areas around the Scratching River and the population began to grow. The town of Morris was named after Alexander Morris, the second Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba and was incorporated in 1883. Morris is one of 18 communities in the Red River Valley of Manitoba surrounded by a ring dike; the first ring dike was built to protect the town from the 1966 Red River Flood by the Canadian Army Engineers, the Mennonite Disaster Service and local volunteers. A permanent dike protected Morris during the 1997 Red River Flood; the town of Morris lies in the middle of the Red River Valley. The shallow valley spreads for many kilometers to the east and west, but only rises a few meters at most; the land is remarkably flat. Repeated flooding in the past has left the valley floor covered in rich river silt; the fine black soils are some of the best producing agricultural soils in the world. The Red River Valley is part of the remnants of the prehistoric "Lake Agassiz", once much larger than Lake Superior, the biggest of the five Great Lakes.
Morris had a population of 1,885 in 2016 living in 807 private dwellings on a land area of 6.10 square km with a population density of 309.1 per square kilometer. The median age was 38.8 higher than the provincial average of 38.2. The economy of Morris is based on agriculture; the town of Morris is a major service provider to the surrounding agricultural community. Businesses and manufacturers in Morris produce and supply a variety of goods to both national and international markets; the town of Morris holds a variety of annual events, which brings many visitors to the community each year. Each July, the Valley Agricultural Society hosts the Manitoba Stampede and Exhibition, known as the Big "M". For four days, thousands of spectators and participants from across North America come to watch the competition; the Fair and Exhibition offers something for everyone. One of the largest dairy shows in the province and heavy horse shows, school work and home-craft competitions and craft displays, Loule's famous petting zoo, midway rides, free family entertainment, indoor cabaret Friday and Saturday evening featuring top country bands, community Church service and the popular kids pedal tractorpull on Sunday.
The Manitoba Stampede and Exhibition is the largest professional rodeo east of Alberta. The Valley Agricultural Society, formed in 1895 was established as agriculture fair; this fair was combined with a professional rodeo in 1964 to become an annual event anticipated by many. Morris is the home of the Pembina Valley Twisters of the MMJHL having joined in 2001 Morris is located along PTH 75, the main route for Manitobans to get into the United States. Morris is served by PTH 23, running east and west, providing access to much of southern Manitoba. Morris is served by two railroad companies; the first is the Canadian National Railway whose line runs north/south from Winnipeg to the Canadian/U. S. Border; the second is the Canadian Pacific that has a branch which ends in Altona. The Southern Manitoba Railway which ran west from Morris for 80 miles was torn up in 2008, due to non-use. Town of Morris Website Pembina Valley Twisters and Pembina Valley Twister’s Videos Manitoba Stampede & Exhibition Map of Morris at Statcan
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Flin Flon is a mining city in Canada. It is located on a correction line in the boundary of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, with the majority of the city located within Manitoba. Residents thus travel south into Saskatchewan, north into Manitoba. Flin Flon was founded in 1927 by Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting to exploit the large copper and zinc ore resources in the region. In the 1920s, HBM&S invested in a railway, smelter, a hydroelectric power plant at Island Falls, Saskatchewan. By 1928 the rail line reached the mine; the town grew during the 1930s as farmers, who were impoverished by the Great Depression, abandoned their farms and came to work at the mines. The municipality was incorporated on January 1, 1933, in 1970, the community reached city status; the city has continued to be a mining centre with the development of several mines adding to its industrial base, although its population has been in decline. With a scenic setting and a number of nearby lakes, Flin Flon has become a moderately popular tourist destination.
The town's name is taken from the lead character in a paperback novel, The Sunless City by J. E. Preston Muddock. Josiah Flintabbatey Flonatin piloted a submarine through a bottomless lake where he passed into a strange underground world through a hole lined with gold. A copy of the book was found and read by prospector Tom Creighton; when Tom Creighton discovered a high-grade exposure of copper, he thought of the book and called it Flin Flon's mine, the town that developed around the mine adopted the name. Flin Flon shares with Tarzana, the distinction of being named after a character in an adventure novel; the character of "Flinty", as he is locally known, is of such importance to the identity of the city that the local Chamber of Commerce commissioned the minting of a $3.00 coin, considered legal tender amongst locally participating retailers during the year following its issue. A statue representing Flinty was designed by cartoonist Al Capp and is one of the points of interest of the city.
In 1978, the National Film Board of Canada produced the short documentary Canada Vignettes: Flin Flon about the origin of the city's name. Flin Flon straddles the provincial boundary of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, with the majority of the city being located in Manitoba; the 2011 census reported 5,363 residents in the Manitoba portion and only 229 in the Saskatchewan section. Due to the zig-zagging nature of the Saskatchewan-Manitoba boundary, the Saskatchewan section of town lies south of the Manitoba section, not west; the city's Main Street crosses the provincial boundary just south of its intersection with Church Street. For Canada Post purposes, residents in the Saskatchewan portion of the city retain the mailing address of Flin Flon, MB and postal codes in Manitoba's R range. For telephone service, they are located in Saskatchewan's area code 306, as part of the Creighton telephone exchange, rather than Manitoba's area code 204. For example, a resident in the Saskatchewan section of the city who calls 911 in an emergency will have services dispatched from Creighton rather than Flin Flon, must instead call a regular phone number to receive immediate city-based service.
However, residents in Saskatchewan may use either Saskatchewan's SaskTel or Manitoba's Bell MTS systems for cellular and internet services. Electrical service is received from Manitoba Hydro. Nearby lakes include Kipahigan Lake; the majority of Flin Flon's surface topology is exposed Canadian Shield bedrock, hence the nickname "the city built on rock". Due to this and climatic factors, agriculture is not possible, although grain farming is found 130 kilometres southeast in The Pas, Manitoba. Flin Flon experiences a humid continental climate. There is a wide range in with warm summers and bitterly cold winters. Temperatures in January have an average low of −22.9 °C and an average high of −14.7 °C. Temperatures in July have an average high of 24.1 °C and an average low of 13.6 °C. The highest temperature recorded in Flin Flon was 101 °F on 19 July 1941; the coldest temperature recorded was −51 °F on 15 January 1930. Flin Flon is accessed by Manitoba Provincial Trunk Highway 10, Saskatchewan Highway 106 and Saskatchewan Highway 167.
The city has Grey Goose bus service. The city runs a small public bus system; the city operates Flin Flon Airport, located southeast of the city. The airport has a single asphalt runway, has regular flights to and from Winnipeg through Calm Air. There is an Airport in nearby Channing from which bush planes depart to fly to isolated communities; the Hudson Bay Railway operates railway freight service on its railway line between The Pas and Flin Flon. The rail line to Churchill was washed out in June 2017 and remained out of service for over a year when then-owner Omnitrax refused to repair it; the City of Flin Flon purchased shares in One North, one of the partners of purchasing consortium Arctic Gateway Group Limited Partnership. The rail line was subsequently repaired by Paradox Access Solutions; the economy of Flin Flon is base