Hamiota is an unincorporated urban community in the Hamiota Municipality within the Canadian province of Manitoba that held town status prior to January 1, 2015. It is located on Provincial Trunk Highway 21 midway between the Trans-Canada Highway and the Yellowhead Highway, it is located in Western Manitoba, 84 kilometers northwest of Brandon. The trading area radius of 20 kilometres has 10,000 people; the current reeve of Hamiota and its surrounding area is Larry Oakden. Hamiota is known for its local sports teams and culture community, quality health care. Hamiota was the home of Dr. John E. Hudson, a member of the Order of Canada and recipient of the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Anniversary Medal. Dr. Hudson led Hamiota District Health Center to become the model rural health care facility in Manitoba. A memorial statue of Dr. Hudson was erected near the hospital in 2004. MP Inky Mark was a good friend of Dr. Hudson, was the main force behind the statue project. With local support from the former town and the former Rural Municipality of Hamiota, the project was completed.
Hamiota is the birthplace of former Scottish rugby player Grahame Budge and hockey player Dallas Smith who played with the Boston Bruins. It was the birthplace of John Marks who played with the Chicago Blackhawks and coached in the ECHL league where he has been inducted into the Hall of Fame; the agriculture and education sectors are the major employers within the area. Within the last four years, the region has seen growth in the agriculture sector. Over 100 new jobs have been created in Hamiota and area in the last three to four years with many of these in the expanding livestock sector; this growth can be attributed to Kim McConnell, the founder and former CEO of AdFarm, named a member of the Order of Canada. Hamiota District Health Care Centre embraced the "community health care concept in the early 1970s; the community offers arts/cultural opportunities through the new Heritage Arts Center. The educational system in Hamiota has remained above provincial averages in provincial exams; the Pope National Wildlife Reserve was used as a water storage area for the railway during the age of steam locomotives, these parcels of land were returned to the federal government with the advent of the diesel engine.
The area was designated as a national wildlife reserve in 1972. It is one of the few federally owned parcels of land remaining in Manitoba, is an important water source for the wetlands and marshes located downstream. Hamiota has one of the few known nesting sites for the Western Plains garter snake a species once thought to be extinct. A hibernaculum was built for the snakes 6.5 kilometres west of the community. Mid-West Arts Council — formally known as the Royal Bank Building, the Heritage Arts Center was constructed as the Union Bank in 1905. Now occupied by the Mid-West Arts Council, the building provides a space for exhibiting of art, serving as the only exhibition space within the district. Hamiota Pioneer Club Museum features artifacts relating to the settlement and development of the district, including a taxidermy display, the former McConnell railway station and their most recent addition — Oakner Church; the Pitlockery Trail takes walkers east of Hamiota to view the marsh life and enjoy the sounds of the bird population.
Spring brings warblers and ducks. Chickadees keep watch over the frozen marsh during winter; the trail is located along the former railway line. Chumah Trail allows outdoor enthusiasts west of Hamiota to enjoy the prairie grasslands and native vegetation. A viewing platform for birds has been constructed at the end of the trail branching off to the north. With more tree and bush cover, this trail is better situated for cross country skiing in the winter and is groomed regularly; the trail is located along the former railway line. Hamiota Municipal Park was established in 1967 as part of Canada's centennial celebrations, it is home to seven ball diamonds, an outdoor equestrian arena and cattle barns, soccer pitch, beach volleyball, children's playground, 28 site serviced campground, Hamiota Municipal Museum and the Hamiota Aquatic Centre. Located next to the Hamiota & District Sports Complex and the Hamiota Golf Course, the park is the host for sports. Hamiota Golf Club is a public nine-hole grass green facility.
The licensed clubhouse has a food concession, lounge area, an outdoor patio area. Hamiota Aquatic Center has change showers. Hamiota on the web Dr. Hudson War memorial Panoramio pictures of Hamiota Pope National Wildlife Reserve Map of Hamiota at Statcan
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Rapid City, Manitoba
Rapid City is an unincorporated community recognized as a local urban district that once held town status in southwest Manitoba, Canada within the Rural Municipality of Oakview. It is located about 30 km north of Brandon. Rapid City is a farming community, developed on the banks of the Little Saskatchewan River; the dam and reservoir in Rapid City were built by the province in 1961, the reservoir stores 200 acre feet and provides a water supply and recreational facility for the community. In the 1870s as the railroad expanded, settlers were drawn to the area to build their homes and set up their businesses; the community was called Rolston's Colony. Around 1877 it was decided to rename the community Rapid City. Since the community was on the banks of the Little Saskatchewan River and it was a "rapid stream" they chose "rapid" and "city" reflecting the optimism of those early settlers. During the 1880s many awaited the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway lines Canadian transcontinental railway that would bring with it a certain building boom.
While people assumed that the projected northerly route away from Portage la Prairie, Manitoba would take it through Rapid City and its narrow river crossing, the route changed to a more westerly route. This brought it through the location of present-day Brandon, resulting in the boom and growth of that city. Rapid City Elementary School provides K-8 education for children in the community, is part of the Rolling River School Division. Rapid City had a population of 417 people in the 2011 census, up from 416 in the 2006 census; the size of Rapid City in land area is 5.38 km2, therefore the population density is 77.5 people per km2. The community has 176 which are occupied by usual residents; the average dwelling is home to 2.3 people. The median value of a household in Rapid City is $100,317 three times lower than the national median at $280,552; the median income an individual makes is $27,088, the median income in Rapid City is $43,199, lower than the national median at $54,089. Every person in Rapid City reported their mother tongue as English.
The 2011 National Household Survey reported that everyone in the community was White, however 13.3% of the population claim to have some Aboriginal ancestry. 56.0% of the residents are of a Christian faith, 42.9% say they have no religious beliefs. Manitoba Community Profiles - Town of Rapid City Map of Rapid City at Statcan
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Neepawa is a town in Manitoba, Canada located on the Yellowhead Highway at the intersection with Highway 5. As of 2016 its population was 4,609. Neepawa was incorporated as a town in 1883, it is located in the Rural Municipality of Langford and bordered to the north by the Rural Municipality of Rosedale. Neepawa is the self-proclaimed Lily capital of the world in part because of its Lily Festival; the town has been named "Manitoba's Most Beautiful Town", more than any other community in the province. In the many years before European settlement, the lands around Neepawa were used by the Cree and the Assiniboine. Native peoples in the area followed a regular cycle by following the Plains Bison to take shelter in the areas north of Neepawa in the winter, heading south again across the plains and beyond Neepawa in the summer; the town name of Neepawa comes from the Cree word for "Land of Plenty", the name was first used around 1873. Prior to settlement, the only Europeans in the area were fur traders, many people made their way through the area on the North Fort Ellice Trail which went from the Red River to Edmonton.
It was on this trail that a group of settlers from Listowel, Ontario decided to settle in 1877, where the Stony and Boggy creeks meet. The Neepawa area was in what was known as "The Northwest Territories", just to the west of the 1870 boundary of Manitoba. During the next 30 years, many settlers came to live in the area; the first settlers were from the British Isles. Eastern European settlers came from countries such as Poland and Hungary and built the Hun Valley Settlement near Neepawa. Neepawa only joined Manitoba when the western edge of the "postage stamp province" was expanded to its present western borders in 1881. John A. Davidson and Jonathon J. Hamilton arrived in the town in 1880, they were the first real business men of the town buying land and surveying them into lots. In 1881 John Hamilton and John Davidson built a store and a grist mill near the junction of Boggy and Stoney Creeks. Like many western Manitoba towns at the time, Neepawa eagerly await the arrival of the railway in the 1880s.
Sometime after the railway reached Gladstone, Manitoba in 1882, Davidson and Hamilton offered the Manitoba and Northwestern Railway a land grant and a financial bonus of $16,000 to construct their line within the town limits and the railway agreed to build their station within Neepawa. Soon a village grew and on the 23 of September, 1883 the town of Neepawa was incorporated. Dr. David Harrison who owned a private bank in Neepawa was elected Premier of Manitoba in 1887. Neepawa's first hospital had the capacity for 20 patients; the hospital included a nursing school. Neepawa's first school opened in 1881, it was a three-story building completed in 1898 and used until 1928. The Neepawa Salt Company mined salt here from 1932 until 1970. Author Margaret Laurence wrote several books through the 1960s and 1970s, depicting the town under the name of Manawaka. On May 12, 2010 Neepawa was the host of Manitoba's 140th birthday party; the town was chosen as the site of the festivities as a result of winning a contest within the province.
Neepawa lies on the Manitoba Escarpment, the rolling hills around Neepawa are typical of the escarpment. Neepawa lies within the Canadian Prairies, the region around Neepawa is defined. Although Neepawa is part of the prairies the area to the north is forested parkland. Riding Mountain National Park and Duck Mountain Provincial Park lie to the north, are part of this parkland, are an extension of the escarpment; the boreal forest which extends all the way across Canada, is found to the north of Neepawa. Spruce Woods Provincial Park is located about 60 km south of the town. Neepawa lies at the source of the Whitemud River, it is about 40 km east of the Little Saskatchewan River, a tributary of the Assiniboine River, 60 km south of the town; the town is about 60 km west of Lake Manitoba, one of the largest lakes in Manitoba. The economy of Neepawa and the region is dependent on agriculture; the rolling fields in the area support many types of crops and livestock operations. Neepawa serves as a major agricultural service centre for many of the producers in the region.
More prominently, growers in Neepawa produce some of the finest and most diverse lilies in the world. As of 2009 over 2,000 kinds of Lily were grown locally; these flowers are shipped directly from Neepawa to many of the major international floral markets. Neepawa proclaims itself the "Lily capital of the world" because of this. Neepawa attracts a number of tourists throughout the year in part because of the lilies. An estimated 12,000 people visit Neepawa each July; as well as being an agricultural centre, Neepawa's businesses serve as a shopping and retail centre for much of the area's residents. Hazel M. Kellington Elementary School has about 350 students and the Neepawa Area Collegiate Institute has about 500 students. Neepawa Nursery School teaches 3- and 4-year-old children. Neepawa is part of the Beautiful Plains School Division. Assiniboine Community College offers various post-secondary courses; the Town of Neepawa is located along Highway 5, the Parks Route. The community is located 45 minutes northeast of Brandon, the region's largest centre, 2 hours northwest of Winnipeg, the provincial capital.
Neepawa is located 1 hour from Riding Mountain National Park. Neepawa Airport features a 3,500 foot runway, able to service air ambulance and small jets. Trucking services are provide by Gardewine North; the Margaret Laurence Home is a designated P
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t