Tsing Yi Rural Committee
Tsing Yi Rural Committee is a rural committee dealing with matters of the village of Tsing Yi Island in Hong Kong. List of villages in Hong Kong
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Politics of Hong Kong
The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, the Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the Special Administrative Region and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. On 1 July 1997, sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to China, ending over one and a half centuries of British rule. Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of the PRC with a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign affairs and defence, which are responsibilities of the PRC government. According to the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law, Hong Kong will retain its political and judicial systems and unique way of life and continue to participate in international agreements and organisations as a dependent territory for at least 50 years after retrocession. For instance, the International Olympic Committee recognises Hong Kong as a participating dependency under the name, "Hong Kong, China", separate from the delegation from the People's Republic of China.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Hong Kong as "flawed democracy" in 2016. In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong has Special Administrative Region status which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of "one country, two systems"; the Basic Law, Hong Kong's constitutional document, was approved in March 1990 by National People's Congress of China, entered into force upon the transfer of sovereignty on 1 July 1997. The Hong Kong government is economically liberal, but universal suffrage is only granted in District Council elections, in elections for half of the Legislative Council; the head of the government is elected through an electoral college with the majority of its members elected by a limited number of voters within business and professional sectors. The Chief Executive is the head of the special administrative region, is the highest-ranking official in the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is the head of the executive branch.
The Chief Executive is elected by a 1200-member Election Committee drawn from the voters in the functional constituencies but from religious organisations and municipal and central government bodies. The Executive Council, the top policy organ of the executive government that advises on policy matters, is appointed by the Chief Executive. In accordance with Article 26 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, permanent residents of Hong Kong are eligible to vote in direct elections for the 35 seats representing geographical constituencies and 35 seats from a functional constituency in the 70-seat, unicameral Legislative Council; the franchise for the other 30 seats is limited to about 230,000 voters in the other functional constituencies. The Judiciary consists of a series of courts, of which the court of final adjudication is the Court of Final Appeal. While Hong Kong retains the common law system, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China has the power of final interpretation of national laws affecting Hong Kong, including the Basic Law, its opinions are therefore binding on Hong Kong courts on a prospective basis.
On 29 January 1999, the Court of Final Appeal, the highest judicial authority in Hong Kong interpreted several Articles of the Basic Law, in such a way that the Government estimated would allow 1.6 million Mainland China immigrants to enter Hong Kong within ten years. This caused widespread concerns among the public on the economic consequences. While some in the legal sector advocated that the National People's Congress should be asked to amend the part of the Basic Law to redress the problem, the HKSAR Government decided to seek an interpretation to, rather than an amendment of, the relevant Basic Law provisions from the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress; the NPCSC issued an interpretation in favour of the Hong Kong Government in June 1999, thereby overturning parts of the court decision. While the full powers of NPCSC to interpret the Basic Law is provided for in the Basic Law itself, some critics argue this undermines judicial independence; the Hong Kong 1 July March is an annual protest rally led by the Civil Human Rights Front since the 1997 handover on the HKSAR establishment day.
However, it was only in 2003 when it drew large public attention by opposing the bill of the Article 23. It has become the annual platform for demanding universal suffrage, calling for observance and preservation civil liberties such as free speech, venting dissatisfaction with the Hong Kong Government or the Chief Executive, rallying against actions of the Pro-Beijing camp. In 2003, the HKSAR Government proposed to implement Article 23 of the Basic Law by enacting national security bill against acts such as treason, subversion and sedition. However, there were concerns that the legislation would infringe human rights by introducing the mainland's concept of "national security" into the HKSAR. Together with the general dissatisfaction with the Tung administration, about 500,000 people participated in this protest. Article 23 enactment was "temporarily suspended". Towards the end of 2003, the focus of political controversy shifted to the dispute of how subsequent Chief Executives get elected.
The Basic Law's Article 45 stipulates. Under the Basic Law, electoral law could be amended to allow for this as soon as 2007 (Hong Kong Basic Law
Home Affairs Department
The Home Affairs Department is an executive agency in the government of Hong Kong responsible for internal affairs of the territory. It reports to the Home Affairs Bureau, headed by the Secretary for Home Affairs; the Department is responsible for the District Administration Scheme, community building and community involvement activities, minor environmental improvement projects and minor local public works, the licensing of hotels and guesthouses, bedspace apartments and clubs. It promotes the concept of effective building management and works with other government departments to improve the standard of building management in Hong Kong, it monitors the provision of new arrival services and identifies measures to meet the needs of new arrivals. It disseminates information relating to and, where necessary, promotes the public's understanding of major government policies and development plans; these responsibilities are discharged through the 18 district offices covering the whole of Hong Kong.
For a long time the department was the only channel of communication between the people and the government. It used to be headed by the Registrar General, called the'Protector of the Chinese'. Fung-Chi Au, the teacher of Chinese literature for Sun Yat-sen, was the Secretary of the Department of Chinese Affairs. In 1913 the department was called the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. After the 1967 riots, the colonial government introduced the City District Officer Scheme "as the first sign of reaching out to the ordinary people" in Hong Kong society, it was renamed the Home Affairs Department in 1971 because,according to the government, the department dealt not only with matters relating to the Chinese. The first Secretary for Home Affairs was Donald Luddington. Area committees were formed in districts in 1972 to promote public participation in the Keep Hong Kong Clean Campaign and Fight Violent Crime Campaign. Nowadays, the functions of area committees are to encourage public participation in district affairs, to advise and assist in the organisation of community involvement activities and the implementation of government-sponsored initiatives, advise on issues of a localised nature affecting the area.
Throughout the years, area committees have played an important role in the districts and in providing a link between the local community and the district office. Area committee members are appointed by the Director of Home Affairs and are drawn from a wide spectrum of the community including district council members of the area concerned. At present, there are 70 area committees throughout Hong Kong. In general, each area committee serves an area with a population, including residents and mobile population, of about 80,000 to 100,000. A mutual aid committee is a voluntary body formed by the residents of a building. Mutual aid committees were promoted in private multi-storey buildings, extended to public housing estates, industrial buildings, temporary housing and squatter areas; as at March 31, 2004, there were 3,103 mutual aid committees throughout Hong Kong Island and the New Territories. The primary aims of a mutual aid committee are to promote a sense of friendliness, mutual help and responsibility among members, to promote better security, a better environment and more effective management within the building.
These committees provide a channel of two-way communication between the Government and the residents on matters affecting the well-being of the individual and the community and provide opportunities for residents to participate in community activities. An Owners' Corporation is a legal entity formed under the Building Management Ordinance by the owners of a private building. Owners' corporations are statutory bodies vested with certain legal powers to facilitate the management of a building. At the end of March 2004, there were 7,294 owners' corporations throughout Hong Kong, among which 5,537 were formed with the assistance of the district offices. Government departments and agencies in Hong Kong District Council of Hong Kong Official website
Tai Po District
Tai Po District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It covers the areas of Tai Po New Town, Lam Tsuen Valley and other surrounding area, its exclave in the northern part of the Sai Kung Peninsula; the Tai Po proper and North Sai Kung, was divided by the Tolo Tolo Harbour. The District is located in the Eastern New Territories; the de facto administrative centre of the district is Tai Po New Town Like Yuen Long, the area of Tai Po used to be a traditional market town. Tai Po New Town, developed around the area of Tai Po and on reclaimed land on the estuaries of Lam Tsuen and Tai Po rivers, it had a population of 310,879 in 2001. The district has the third lowest population density in Hong Kong; the district was named after Tai Po. Lam Tsuen River Tai Po is located in the north of Hong Kong, northeast of Sha Tin. Though the Tai Po Industrial Estate is located in the district, it is still one of the most unpolluted districts in Hong Kong. Tai Po's population density is lower than Kowloon's, having many old, small villages in the mountains.
In addition to the mainland part of the district, the following islands of Hong Kong are under the jurisdiction of Tai Po District: A Chau Breaker Reef - Tai Po Bun Sha Pai Cham Pai Chau Tsai Kok Che Lei Pai Chek Chau Flat Island Hau Tsz Kok Pai Hin Pai Kung Chau Ma Shi Chau Ma Yan Pai Mo Chau Ping Chau Sam Pui Chau Sha Pai Shek Ngau Chau Tang Chau Tap Mun Chau Tit Shue Pai Wai Chau Pai Wu Chau Yeung Chau Because Hong Kong is in a densely populated region, Tai Po Town has copied the many urban areas of Hong Kong by building high-rise apartments. 320,000 people have residences in the town, making high-rise apartments mandatory. These high-rise apartments are located inside estates, such as Fu Heng Estates; these high-rise apartments have floors ranging from the low apartments in Tai Po Old Town to the new estates in northern Tai Po ranging from 20 to 34 levels. The area is serviced by the Tai Po Hui Market, Built in 2004; the Tai Po area has many "village houses", resulting from a 1972 Hong Kong legislation which gave any male heir over the age of 18 who could prove he was descended from one of Hong Kong's original villages in 1898 the right to build a small house on a plot of land, either owned by the village itself or on leased government land.
These houses are restricted by law to be no more than three stories and 27 feet in height, no more than 2,100 square feet in total floor space. There are a few private housing development in the Tai Po area with "detached" and "semi-detached" houses which include communal recreational areas such as swimming pools, tennis courts and children's playgrounds, entertainment facilities such as private cinemas, health spas and karaoke rooms; these developments are excluded from the "village house" law, therefore units are much larger than 2,100 square feet. Owned residential housing in Tai Po included Tai Po Centre, Plover Cove Garden, Uptown Plaza, The Beverly Hills and many other residential estates. Transportation in Tai Po Town is much like any other places of Hong Kong. Due to the high population, Hong Kong has double-decker buses. There are some buses that lead to the rest of Hong Kong such as the bus route 271 that goes from Fu Heng Estate in Tai Po Town to Canton Road in Tsim Sha Tsui and bus route 307 which goes from Central Tai Po Town towards the Central Ferry Piers via Central and Wan Chai of Victoria.
There are buses that lead directly to the airport such as A47X from Tai Po to Hong Kong Airport and E41 from Tai Po Centre to Hong Kong International Airport within 90 minutes. Two railway stations along the East Rail Line serve Tai Po, namely: Tai Po Market Station and Tai Wo Station. Trains originate at the Hong Kong-Chinese border, at either Lo Wu or Lok Ma Chau stations, travel south to Hung Hom Station in Kowloon, passing through Tai Po on the way; the railway known as the KCR British Section, opened in 1910. The old Tai Po Market Station opened on that date and was closed in 1983, when the modern station of the same name opened as part of an upgrading of the line by the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation. Tai Wo Station opened in 1989. In 2007 the line was leased for 50 years to the MTR Corporation. Tai Po Kau Station served the Tai Po Kau area between 1910 and 1983, it has since been demolished. Tai Po District are divided by two primary school districts; the 84 school district for Tai Po New Town and surrounding villages, while Sai Kung North belongs to the 95 school district.
As of 2018, there were 19 secondary schools in the whole Tai Po District, all located in the Tai Po New Town. The secondary school district of Tai Po District, was designated "NET NT6". Several international schools are located in the Tai Po District, they did not belonged to any school district. The Tai Po campus of Hong Kong Japanese School's International Section was opened in 1997. American School Hong Kong was scheduled to open in Tai Po in 2016. Norwegian International School occupied a building former known as The Tai Po Bungalow as campus. Li Po Chun United World College, located in Ma On Shan of the Sha Tin district, is near to the border of Sai Kung North exclave of the Tai Po district; the campus of the Education University of Hong Kong the
Yuen Long romanised as Un Long, is an area and town on the Yuen Long Plain located in the western New Territories, Hong Kong. To its west lie Hung Shui Kiu, Tin Shui Wai, Lau Fau Shan and Ha Tsuen, to the south Shap Pat Heung and Tai Tong, to the east Au Tau and Kam Tin, to the north Nam Sang Wai; the Cantonese name Yuen Long may, depending on context, refer to the limits of the original market town, Yuen Long New Town, Yuen Long Plain or Yuen Long District. The central part of Yuen Long was traditionally a market town in the area now known as Yuen Long San Hui, in Yuen Long District in the New Territories West in Hong Kong; the site of the market town was situated centrally with regard to surrounding villages, allowing villagers a convenient location to sell their crops and fish. The market is a place to allow people from villages in northwest New Territories to trade. Like many market towns in Hong Kong, the market operates only on certain days each week. Now, the central part of Yuen Long does not have that kind of market anymore.
On the contrary, Modern shopping malls and various types of restaurants are established. Two new towns have been developed in Yuen Long since the 1970s: Yuen Long New Town was developed by the market town in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Tin Shui Wai New Town was established in the 1990s to the west of Yuen Long New Town, as separate from Yuen Long New Town, it is residential. There are Light Rail Transit and several bus routes serving between the two towns. Private residential estate Fairview Park is located in the northeast part of Yuen Long; the original Yuen Long Town was not located in the busiest place of present-day Yuen Long, namely Yuen Long Main Road, part of Castle Peak Road. The earliest market in Yuen Long was situated south of the main road near Tai Kei Leng. In 1669 the market was moved north to the area near; this was done for political reasons. This area is now known as Yuen Long Kau Hui; this market is sited south of a small hill. While it is far from the coast today, it was beside the seashore.
Cheung Shing Street, which separates Nam Pin Wai and Sai Pin Wai, divides the centre of the market. Temples were built to judge disputes. After the British leased the New Territories in 1898, they built Castle Peak Road to connect major areas of the New Territories and Kowloon; the villagers moved the market town to the main road. After the Second World War, Yuen Long Town increased in size, going from a small village into a large town known for its numerous cultural and sporting events. Due to their proximity to the Shenzhen border in China's Guangdong province, towns in the northern parts of Hong Kong, notably Sheung Shui and Yuen Long, have become hubs for parallel traders who have been buying up large quantities of goods, forcing up local prices and disrupting the daily lives of local citizens. Since 2012, there has been a vertiginous increase in Chinese parallel traders arriving in the North District of Hong Kong to re-export infant formula and household products – goods popular with the Chinese – across the border to Shenzhen.
Trafficking caused chronic local shortages of milk powder in Hong Kong, which led the government to impose restrictions on the amount of milk powder exports from Hong Kong. The first anti-parallel trading protest was started at Sheung Shui in September 2012; as government efforts to limit the adverse impact of Chinese trafficking were seen as inadequate, there have been further subsequent protests in towns in the North District including Sheung Shui. A campaign called Liberate Yuen Long was mounted on 1 March 2015 by localist groups to protest smuggling and parallel trading; the following information show transportation in Yuen Long. KMB routes 53, 54, 64K, 68A, 68E, 68F, 68M, 68X, 76K, 77K, 264R, 268B, 268C, 268P, 268X, 269D, 276, 276P, 869, 968, 968X, B1, N269, N368 Route B1 to Lok Ma Chau Station Control Point, a customs checkpoint between Hong Kong and China MTR Bus routes K65, K66, K68, K73, K74 Long Win Bus routes A36, E34B, E34P, N30, N30S, NA34 New Lantao Bus route B2 Route B2 to Shenzhen Bay Port, a customs checkpoint between Hong Kong and China MTR West Rail Line Light Rail routes 610, 614, 615 and 761P KMB routes 51, 64S, 69C, 69M, 69P, 69X, 251A, 251B, 251M, 265B, 265M, 265S, 269A, 269B, 269C, 269M, 269P, 276A, 276B MTR Bus routes K75, K75A, K75P Long Win Bus routes A37, E34A, E34X New Lantao Bus routes B2P, B2X Routes B2P and B2X to Shenzhen Bay Port, a customs checkpoint between Hong Kong and China Citybus routes 967, 967X, 969, 969A, 969B, 969C, 969P, 969X, N969 MTR West Rail Line Light Rail routes 705, 706 and 751 Yuen Long residents are local ethnic Han with a sizable Hoa immigrants, Vietnamese Chinese from the 1970s to 1990s.
Yuen Long Public Secondary School N. T. Heung Yee Kuk Yuen Long District Secondary School Yuen Long Catholic Secondary School ELCHK Yuen Long Lutheran Secondary School CCC Kei Yuen College
The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory, contains around half of the population of Hong Kong. It is the region described in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that treaty, the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as over 200 outlying islands, including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong. After New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon; the New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km2. New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.
The New Territories were leased from Qing China to the United Kingdom in 1898 for 99 years in the Second Convention of Peking. Upon the expiry of the lease, sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997, together with the Qing-ceded territories of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. In 2011, the population of the New Territories was recorded at 3,691,093. With a population density of 3,801 per square kilometer. Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain in 1842 and Kowloon south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island in 1860; the colony of Hong Kong attracted a large number of Chinese and Westerners to seek their fortune in the city. Its population increased and the city became overcrowded; the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1894 became a concern to the Hong Kong Government. There was a need to expand the colony to accommodate its growing population; the Qing Dynasty's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War had shown that it was incapable of defending itself. Victoria City and Victoria Harbour were vulnerable to any hostile forces launching attacks from the hills of Kowloon.
Alarmed by the encroachment of other European powers in China, Britain feared for the security of Hong Kong. Using the most favoured nation clause that it had negotiated with Peking, the United Kingdom demanded the extension of Kowloon to counter the influence of France in southern China in June 1898. In July, it secured Weihaiwei in Shandong in the north as a base for operations against the Germans in Qingdao and the Russians in Port Arthur. Chinese officials stayed in the walled cities of Kowloon Weihaiwei; the extension of Kowloon was called the New Territories. The additional land was estimated to be 365 square miles or 12 times the size of the existing Colonial Hong Kong at the time. Although the Convention was signed on the 9 June 1898 and became effective on 1 July, the British did not take over the New Territories immediately. During this period, there was no Hong Kong Wilsone Black acted as administrator. James Stewart Lockhart, the Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong, was sent back from England to make a survey of New Territories before formal transfer.
The survey found that the new frontier at Sham Chun River suggested by Wilsone Black was far from ideal. It excluded the town of Shenzhen, the boundary would divide the town. There was no mountain range as a natural border. Lockhard suggested moving the frontier to the line of hills north of Shenzhen; this suggestion was not received favourably and the Chinese official suggested the frontier be moved to the hill much further south of the Sham Chun River. It was settled in March 1899; the new Hong Kong Governor Henry Blake arrived in November 1898. The date for the takeover of the New Territories was fixed as 17 April 1899 and Tai Po was chosen as the administrative centre; however the transfer was not peaceful. Before the handover in early April, Captain Superintendent of Police, Francis Henry May and some policemen erected a flagstaff and temporary headquarters at Tai Po and posted the Governor's proclamation of the takeover date. Fearing for their traditional land rights, in the Six-Day War of 1899, a number of clans attempted to resist the British, mobilising clan militias, organised and armed to protect against longshore raids by pirates.
The militia men attempted a frontal attack against the temporary police station in Tai Po, the main British base but were beaten back by superior force of arms. An attempt by the clansmen at guerilla warfare was put down by the British near Lam Tsuen with over 500 Chinese men killed, collapsed when British artillery was brought to bear on the walled villages of the clansmen. Most prominent of the villages in the resistance Kat Hing Wai, of the Tang clan, was symbolically disarmed, by having its main gates dismounted and removed. However, in order to prevent future resistance the British made concessions to the indigenous inhabitants with regards to land use, land inheritance and marriage laws; some of the concessions with regard to land use and inheritance remain in place in Hong Kong to this day and is a source of friction between indigenous inhabitants and other Hong Kong residents. Lord Lugard was Governor from 1907 to 1912, he proposed the return of Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the leased New